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Date d'inscription : 17/05/2007

MessageSujet: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 17:45

Why Night Owls Are More Intelligent Than Morning Larks
More intelligent people wake up late and stay up late
Published on May 9, 2010 by Satoshi Kanazawa in The Scientific Fundamentalist
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Some people are night owls, and others are morning larks. What makes the difference may be their levels of general intelligence.
Virtually all species in nature, from single-cell organisms to mammals, including humans, exhibit a daily cycle of activity called circadian rhythm. The circadian rhythm in mammals is regulated by two clusters of nerve cells called the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the anterior hypothalamus. Geneticists have by now identified a set of genes that regulate the SCN and thus the circadian rhythm among mammals.

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However, humans, unlike other mammalian species, have the unique ability, consciously and cognitively, to override their internal biological clock and its rhythmic outputs. In other words, at least for humans, circadian rhythm is not entirely a matter of genetics. Within broad genetic constraints, humans can choose what time to go to bed and get up. Humans can choose to be night owls or morning larks.

While there are some individual differences in the circadian rhythm, where some individuals are more nocturnal than others, humans are basically a diurnal (day-living) species. Humans rely very heavily on vision for navigation but, unlike genuinely nocturnal species, cannot see in the dark or under little lighting, and our ancestors did not have artificial lighting during the night until the domestication of fire. Any human in the ancestral environment up and about during the night would have been at risk of predation by nocturnal predators.

In the 10-volume compendium The Encyclopedia of World Cultures, which extensively catalogs all human cultures known to anthropology, there is no mention of nocturnal activities in any of the traditional cultures. There are no entries in the index for “nocturnal,” “night,” “evening,” “dark(ness),” and “all-night.” The few references to the “moon” are all religious in character, as in “moon deity,” “Mother Moon (deity),” and “moon worship.” The only exception is the “night courting,” which is a socially approved custom of premarital sex observed among the Danes and the Finns, which are entirely western cultures far outside of the ancestral environment.
Extensive ethnographies corroborate these observations and suggest that people in traditional societies usually rise shortly before dawn and go to sleep shortly after dusk, to take full advantage of the natural light provided by the sun. “Daily activities begin early in a Yanomamö village,” and “despite the inevitable last-minute visiting, things are usually quiet in the village by the time it is dark.” Among the Maasai in Kenya, “the day begins about 6 a.m., when the sun is about to rise,” and “most evenings are spent quietly chatting with family members indoors. If the moon is full then it is possible to see almost as well as during the day, and people take advantage of the light by staying up late and socializing a great deal.” Among the Ache in Paraguay, “after cooking and consuming food, evening is often the time of singing and joking. Eventually band members drift off to sleep, with one or two nuclear families around each fire.”

There is thus no indication in any of the ethnographic evidence that any sustained nocturnal activities occur in traditional societies, other than occasional conversations and singing, in these tribes. It is therefore reasonable to infer that our ancestors must also have limited their daily activities to daylight, and sustained nocturnal activities are largely evolutionarily novel. The Hypothesis would therefore predict that more intelligent individuals are more likely to be nocturnal than less intelligent individuals.

Weekday night

Weekend night

Weekday morning

Weekend morning

An analysis of a large representative sample of young Americans confirms this prediction. Net of a large number of social and demographic factors, more intelligent children grow up to be more nocturnal as adults than less intelligent children. Compared to their less intelligent counterparts, more intelligent individuals go to bed later on weeknights (when they have to get up at a certain time the next day) and on weekends (when they don’t), and they wake up later on weekdays (but not on weekends, for which the positive effect of childhood intelligence on adult nocturnality is not statistically significant). For example, those with a childhood IQ of less than 75 ("very dull") go to bed around 23:41 on weeknights in early adulthood, whereas those with a childhood IQ of over 125 ("very bright") go to bed around 00:29.

There’s an electricity in the moon. A pulse, a magic, an energy. A bewitching entrancement unlike that of the sun.

The moon is for things unseen, things done in the shadows and beneath the fog. Under bridges and beneath bed sheets — it’s for wild hearts and unconcerned minds. It’s where plans are made in dark alleyways and secrets revealed under the soft haze of light coming through the cracks of closed shutters.

It’s when fugitives escape and kids run away. It’s when girls lose their virginities on torn leather seats and boys get into trouble. It’s when the suffering take their lives and the lonely seek comfort.

It’s when we fall in love — that passionate, all-consuming, purposeful love that always looks a little different in the light of day.

It’s by night that we see our true desires. We reflect on our moments of unhappiness and those yearnings that are momentarily blinded by the sun. It’s when we become poets and philosophers, martyrs and murderers.

It’s when we form regrets of days past and that profound hatred for those who hurt us. It’s when we choke on our tears through deep sobs that can only pour onto dark pillowcases.

The night is for passion. It’s for fanaticism, romance and trouble. It’s when your most tender, authentic and suppressed sides come out to play under the nonjudgmental eyes of the stars.

It’s for all those things you could never dream of doing by day, under the watchful eyes of the sun.

It’s no wonder night owls are more intelligent than those who hit the hay early. It makes sense that those who absorb the energy of the moon are more creative and open-minded than those who like to catch the early worm.

It’s only natural that those who go to bed earlier never experience the psychological and emotional changes that occur under the blanket of darkness.

According to “Psychology Today,” intelligent people are more likely to be nocturnal than people with lower IQ scores. In a study run on young Americans, results showed that intelligent individuals went to bed later on weeknights and weekends than their less intelligent counterparts.

In “Study Magazine,” Satoshi Kanazawa, a psychologist at the London School Of Economics And Political Science, reported that IQ average and sleeping patterns are most definitely related, proving that those who play under the moon are, indeed, more intelligent human beings.

His analysis goes back to ancient times, asserting the idea that even in primitive years, people have been known to rise and fall with the sun.

Average brains were conditioned to follow this sleep pattern, while the more inquisitive, intellectual ones want to defy that pattern and create their own.

It’s an unconscious defiance that comes from refusal to acquiesce to the idea of mass appeal.

These findings are reported by “Study Magazine” as such:

Bedtimes and wake-up times for Americans in their 20s by IQ.

Very Dull (IQ < 75)
Weekday: 11:41 pm -7:20 am
Weekend: 12:35 am -10:09 pm

Normal (90 < IQ < 110)
Weekday: 12:10 am -7:32 am
Weekend: 1:13 am -10:14 am

Very Bright (IQ > 125)
Weekday: 12:29 am -7:52 am
Weekend: 1:44 am -11:07 am

Those with IQs less than 75 went to bed by 11:30 pm on weeknights in early adulthood, whereas those with IQs over 125 went to bed around after 12:30 am. This is no coincidence.

The data supports the notion that all night owls feel: the only real time for living is after everyone’s gone to bed.

Only after dark can we learn, absorb and study the effects of the day. It’s a necessary self reflection that few humans take the time to make.

There’s something to be said about those who fight the urge to sleep and explore that block of uncharted time that so many who always have their eyes closed will never see.

They Get Time To Daydream

All those dreams you can’t have during the day, when you’re snapped out of them by friends, family and work, are finally given time to run around.

Free to play in the open spaces of your mind, you can swim in all those thoughts you hid under your desk or behind mounds of paper work. It’s the most creative time of day, along with the most liberating.

It’s by the nightfall that your most uninhibited and passionate sides are explored. It’s the time to unleash your innermost desires and allow yourself the freedom that’s masked behind the taunting exposure of sunlight.

The night is for testing your limits and challenging yourself. It’s for discovering those passions you suppress all day and breaking down all those rules your parents made to protect you.

It’s the time to dig into those hidden corners of your mind and unknown trails of your subconscious. It’s a time of self-expression that can only be unlocked at night and evaluated by day.

They Are Anti-Establishment

Staying up late has been, and always will be, an act of rebellion. A defiance of the nine-to-five, the very habit of staying up late is revolutionary. Since ancient times, there is evidence that society condoned the night owls.

In the academic paper, “Why The Night Owl Is More Intelligent,” published in the journal “Psychology And Individual Differences,” it’s widely assumed that for several millennia, humans were largely conditioned to work during the day and to sleep at night.

While those who defy the trend, are more likely to “acquire and espouse evolutionarily novel values and preferences than less intelligent individuals.”

These “novel values” become the building blocks of leaders. They are the makings of revolutionaries, inventors and explorers. They are the ones who makes sacrifices and defy the societal pressure to follow the masses.

It’s no surprise that those willing to stay up late, to explore the uncharted territory of night, are more inquisitive.

They are more apt to make discoveries and challenge authority. They want to expand their mind, not shut it off just because people tell them it’s time for bed.

They Are More Open-Minded

Things that happen at night are things you can’t get away with during the day. It’s the time of utter licentiousness, of underhanded transactions and unseemly occupations.

It’s when the bars are opened and the poets write. It’s when musicians pore over instruments, geniuses have their breakthroughs and artists come alive. According to “Esquire,” it’s also when you have the most sex.

Healthy sex lives and late curfews are indeed, positively correlated. Those reported to have later bedtimes were buying more sex toys and having more sex than their sleepier counterparts.

One sex shop worker believes that intelligence is correlated with open-mindedness, which in turns correlates with a more open sex life.

Those who are willing to stay awake, who yearn for the mysteries of nightfall, are exposed to an array of discoveries that those who stay asleep will never know. It’s those who are willing to test their limits and explore in the dark who will bring more light to the day.

They Are Proactive

The early bird may get the worm, but the night owl gets the whole jar. While the early risers may get up to see the first worm crawl its way to the wet surface, the night owl gets to them before they burrow under.

Getting up early is most definitely proactive, but staying up late is just as fruitful. Those who stay up get hours ahead, rather than the one or two an early riser gains.

There are things to be explored at night that early risers will never experience. There are ideas formulated and tasks completed that early risers never get to finish.

Because at night, there is dawn and a new day in front of you. But by morning, there’s just the bleakness of night and the daunting end of another day.

Types of Nonverbal Communication
8 Major Nonverbal Beahviors
By Kendra Cherry

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Different types of nonverbal communication include facial expressions, gestures and posture.
Photo by John Evans


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According to experts, a substantial portion of our communication is nonverbal. Every day, we respond to thousands on nonverbal cues and behaviors including postures, facial expression, eye gaze, gestures, and tone of voice. From our handshakes to our hairstyles, nonverbal details reveal who we are and impact how we relate to other people.
Scientific research on nonverbal communication and behavior began with the 1872 publication of Charles Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Since that time, there has been an abundance of research on the types, effects and expressions of unspoken communication and behavior. While these signals are often so subtle that we are not consciously aware of them, research has identified several different types of nonverbal communication.
In many cases, we communicate information in nonverbal ways using groups of behaviors. For example, we might combine a frown with crossed arms and unblinking eye gaze to indicate disapproval.

1. Facial Expression
Facial expressions are responsible for a huge proportion of nonverbal communication. Consider how much information can be conveyed with a smile or a frown. While nonverbal communication and behavior can vary dramatically between cultures, the facial expressions for happiness, sadness, anger and fear are similar throughout the world.
2. Gestures
Deliberate movements and signals are an important way to communicate meaning without words. Common gestures include waving, pointing, and using fingers to indicate numeric amounts. Other gestures are arbitrary and related to culture.
3. Paralinguistics
Paralinguistics refers to vocal communication that is separate from actual language. This includes factors such as tone of voice, loudness, inflection and pitch. Consider the powerful effect that tone of voice can have on the meaning of a sentence. When said in a strong tone of voice, listeners might interpret approval and enthusiasm. The same words said in a hesitant tone of voice might convey disapproval and a lack of interest.
4. Body Language and Posture
Posture and movement can also convey a great deal on information. Research on body language has grown significantly since the 1970's, but popular media have focused on the over-interpretation of defensive postures, arm-crossing, and leg-crossing, especially after the publication of Julius Fast's book Body Language. While these nonverbal behaviors can indicate feelings andattitudes, research suggests that body language is far more subtle and less definitive that previously believed.
5. Proxemics
People often refer to their need for "personal space," which is also an important type of nonverbal communication. The amount of distance we need and the amount of space we perceive as belonging to us is influenced by a number of factors including social norms, situational factors, personality characteristics and level of familiarity. For example, the amount of personal space needed when having a casual conversation with another person usually varies between 18 inches to four feet. On the other hand, the personal distance needed when speaking to a crowd of people is around 10 to 12 feet.
6. Eye Gaze
Looking, staring and blinking can also be important nonverbal behaviors. When people encounter people or things that they like, the rate of blinking increases and pupils dilate. Looking at another person can indicate a range of emotions, including hostility, interest and attraction.
7. Haptics
Communicating through touch is another important nonverbal behavior. There has been a substantial amount of research on the importance of touch in infancy and early childhood.Harry Harlow's classic monkey study demonstrated how the deprivation of touch and contact impedes development. Baby monkeys raised by wire mothers experienced permanent deficits in behavior and social interaction. Touch can be used to communicate affection, familiarity, sympathy and other emotions.
8. Appearance
Our choice of color, clothing, hairstyles and other factors affecting appearance are also considered a means of nonverbal communication. Research on color psychology has demonstrated that different colors can evoke different moods. Appearance can also alter physiological reactions, judgments and interpretations. Just think of all the subtle judgements you quickly make about someone based on his or her appearance. These first impressions are important, which is why experts suggest that job seekers dress appropriately for interviews with potential employers.


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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 17:45

10 Ways Psychology Can Improve Your Life
Practical Ways to Apply Psychology in Everyday Life
By Kendra Cherry

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Do you think that psychology is just for students, academics and therapists? Then think again. Because psychology is both an applied and a theoretical subject, it can be utilized in a number of ways. While research studies aren't exactly light reading material for the average person, the results of these experiments and studies can have important applications in daily life. The following are some of the top 10 practical uses for psychology in everyday life.
1. Get Motivated
[size][color][font][font]Photo courtesy Sanja Gjenero
Whether your goal is to quit smoking, lose weight or learn a new language, some lessons from psychology offer tips for getting motivated. In order to increase your motivational levels when approaching a task, utilize some of the following tips derived from research in cognitive and educational psychology:
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  • Introduce new or novel elements to keep your interest high.
  • Vary the sequence to help stave off boredom.
  • Learn new things that build on your existing knowledge.
  • Set clear goals that are directly related to the task.
  • Reward yourself for a job well done.

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2. Improve Your Leadership Skills
[/font][/font][/color][/size]
[size][color][font][font]Photo courtesy Sanja Gjenero
It doesn’t matter if you’re an office manager or a volunteer at a local youth group, having good leadership skills will probably be essential at some point in your life. Not everyone is a born leader, but a few simple tips gleaned from psychological research can help your improve your leadership skills. One of the most famous studies on this topic looked at three distinct leadership styles. Based on the findings of this study and subsequent research, practice some of the following when you are in a leadership position:
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  • Offer clear guidance, but allow group members to voice opinions.
  • Talk about possible solutions to probelms with members of the group.
  • Focus on stimulating ideas and be willing to reward creativity.

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3. Become a Better Communicator
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[size][color][font][font]Photo courtesy John Evans
Communication involves much more than how you speak or write. Research suggests that nonverbal signals make up a huge portion of our interpersonal communications. In order to communicate your message effectively, you need to learn how to express yourself nonverbally and to read the nonverbal cues of those around you. A few key strategies include the following:
[/font][/font][/color][/size]

  • Use good eye contact.
  • Start noticing nonverbal signals in others.
  • Learn to use your tone of voice to reinforce your message.

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Learn more about how to utilize and interpret these signals in these top 10 nonverbal communication tips.
4. Learn to Better Understand Others
Much like nonverbal communication, your ability to understand your emotions and the emotions of those around you plays an important role in your relationships and professional life. The term emotional intelligence refers to your ability to understand both your own emotions as well as those of other people. Your emotional intelligence quotient is a measure of this ability. According to psychologist Daniel Goleman, your EQ may actually be more important than your IQ (1995). 

What can you do to become more emotionally intelligent? Consider some of the following strategies:
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  • Carefully assess your own emotional reactions.
  • Record your experience and emotions in a journal.
  • Try to see situations from the perspective of another person.

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5. Make More Accurate Decisions
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[size][color][font][font]Rodin's "The Thinker" courtesy of Karora
Research in cognitive psychology has provided a wealth of information about decision making. By applying these strategies to your own life, you can learn to make wiser choices. The next time you need to make a big decision, try using some of the following techniques:
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  • Try using the “six thinking hats” approach by looking at the situation from multiple points of view, including rational, emotional, intuitive, creative, positive and negative perspectives.
  • Consider the potential costs and benefits of a decision.
  • Employ a grid analysis technique that gives a score for how a particular decision will satisfy specific requirements you may have.

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6. Improve Your Memory
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[size][color][font][font]Photo courtesy Courtney Icenhour
Have you ever wondered why you can remember exact details from childhood events yet forget the name of the new client you met yesterday? Research on how we form new memories as well as how and why we forget has led to a number of findings that can be applied directly in your daily life. What are some ways you can increase your memory power?
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  • Focus on the information.
  • Rehearse what you have learned.
  • Eliminate distractions.

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Learn some more strategies in these top 10 tips for improving your memory.
7. Make Wiser Financial Decisions
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[size][color][font][font]Photo courtesy Otaviano Chignolli
Nobel Prize winning psychologists Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky conducted a series of studies that looked at how people manage uncertainty and risk when making decisions. Subsequent research in this area known as behavior economics has yielded some key findings that you can use to make wiser money management choices. One study (2004) found that workers could more than triple their savings by utilizing some of the following strategies:
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  • Don’t procrastinate! Start investing in savings now.
  • Commit in advance to devote portions of your future earnings to your retirement savings.
  • Try to be aware of personal biases that may lead to poor money choices.

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8. Get Better Grades
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[size][color][font][font]Image courtesy Kendra Van Wagner
The next time you're tempted to complain about pop quizzes, midterms or final exams, consider this - research has demonstrated that taking tests actually helps you better remember what you've learned, even if it wasn't covered on the test (Chan et al., 2006).

Another study found that repeated test-taking may be a better memory aid than studying (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006). Students who were tested repeatedly were able to recall 61 percent of the material while those in the study group recalled only 40 percent. How can you apply these findings to your own life? When trying to learn new information, self-test frequently in order to cement what you have learned into your memory.
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9. Become More Productive
Sometimes it seems like there are thousands of books, blogs and magazine articles telling us how to get more done in a day, but how much of this advice is founded on actual research? For example, think about the number of times have you heard that multitasking can help you become more productive. In reality, research has found that trying to perform more than one task at the same time seriously impairs speed, accuracy and productivity. So what lessons from psychology can you use to increase your productivity? Consider some of the following:
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  • Avoid multitasking when working on complex or dangerous tasks.
  • Focus on the task at hand.
  • Eliminate distractions.

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10. Be Healthier
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[size][color][font][font]Photo courtesy Cheryl Empey
Psychology can also be a useful tool for improving your overall health. From ways to encourage exercise and better nutrition to new treatments for depression, the field of health psychology offers a wealth of beneficial strategies that can help you to be healthier and happier. Some examples that you can apply directly to your own life:
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  • Studies have shown that both sunlight and artificial light can reduce the symptoms of seasonal affective disorder.
  • Research has demonstrated that exercise can be an effective treatment for depression as well as other mental disorders.
  • Studies have found that helping people understand the risks of unhealthy behaviors can lead to healthier choices.

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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 17:46

Understanding Body Language
By Kendra Cherry

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Understanding Body Language

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Body language refers to the nonverbal signals that we use to communicate. According to experts, these nonverbal signals make up a huge part of daily communication. From our facial expressions to our body movements, the things we don't say can still convey volumes of information.
According to various researchers, body language is thought to account for between 50 to 70 percent of all communication. Understanding body language is important, but it is also essential to remember to note other cues such as context and to look at signals as a group rather than focusing on a single action. Learn more about some of the things to look for when you are trying to interpret body language.

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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 17:47

What Is a Genius IQ Score?
By Kendra Cherry

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Normal Distribution of IQ Test Scores, a.k.a. "The Bell Curve"
Image courtesy Alessio Damato


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Question: What Is a Genius IQ Score?
Answer:
When people talk about intelligence tests, they often discuss "genius scores." What exactly constitutes a genius score on a measure of intelligence? In order to understand the score, it is important to first learn a little bit more about IQ testing in general.
Today's intelligence tests are based largely on the original test devised in the early 1900's by French psychologist Alfred Binet. In order to identify students in need of extra assistance in school, the French government asked Binet to devise a test that could be used to discover which students most needed academic help.
Based on his research, Binet developed the concept of mental age. Certain questions he posed were easily answered by children of certain age groups. Some children were able to answer questions that were typically answered by children of an older age - these children had a higher mental age than their actual chronological age. Binet's measure of intelligence was based on the average abilities of children of a particular age group.
Understanding IQ Scores
IQ scores generally follow what is known as the Bell Curve. In order to understand what thescore on an IQ test means, there are a few key terms that you should know:
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  • Bell Curve: When IQ scores are plotted on a graph, they typically follow a bell-shaped curve. The peak of the "bell" occurs where the majority of the scores lie. The bell then slopes downward to each side - one side representing scores that are lower than the average, the other side representing scores that are above the average. An example of a bell curve can be seen in the image above.
  • Mean: The average score. The average is calculated by adding all of the scores together, then dividing by the total number of scores.
  • Standard Deviation: A measure of variability in a population. A low standard deviation means that most of the data points are very close to the same value. A high standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be very spread out from the average. In IQ testing, the standard deviation is plus or minus 15.

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A Breakdown of IQ Scores
Now that you understand these key terms, we can talk a bit more about how we interpret IQ scores. The average score on an IQ test is 100. Sixty-eight percent of IQ scores fall within one standard deviation of the mean. So that means that the majority of people have an IQ score between 85 and 115.
[/font][/font][/color][/size]

  • 1 to 24 - Profound mental disability
  • 25 to 39 - Severe mental disability
  • 40 to 54 - Moderate mental disability
  • 55 to 69 - Mild mental disability
  • 70 to 84 - Borderline mental disability
  • 85 to 114 - Average intelligence
  • 115 to 129 - Above average; bright
  • 130 to 144 - Moderately gifted
  • 145 to 159 - Highly gifted
  • 160 to 179 - Exceptionally gifted
  • 180 and up - Profoundly gifted

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Genius IQ Scores
So what is considered a genius IQ score? Generally, any score over 140 is counted as a high IQ. A score over 160 is considered by many to be a genius IQ score. Scores that are 200 and over are often referred to as "unmeasurable genius."[/font][/font][/color][/size]
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 17:47

What Is Considered a Low IQ?
By Kendra Cherry

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A low IQ score is anything 70 or below on a standardized IQ test.
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IQ, or intelligence quotient, is a score derived from a standardized test designed to measure intelligence. IQ tests formally emerged in the early 1900s with the introduction of the Binet-Simon test, which was later revised and became known as the Stanford-Binet.
IQ tests have proven to be very popular both within psychology and with the general public, but there remains a great deal of controversy about exactly what IQ tests measure and how accurate they are. While we often hear a lot of talk about high and low IQ scores, many people aren't quite sure what these designations really mean.
What exactly is considered a low IQ score?
An IQ score of 70 or below is considered a low score. Remember, on most standardized tests of intelligence, the average score is set at 100. Anything over 140 is considered high or genius-level. Sixty-eight percent of all scores fall within plus or minus 15 points of the mean (so between 85 and 115).
So what does it mean to have a score 70 or below? In the past, an IQ score below 70 was considered a benchmark for mental retardation, an intellectual disability characterized by significant cognitive impairments. Today, however, IQ scores alone are not used to diagnose intellectual disability. Instead, the criteria for a diagnosis includes an IQ below 70, evidence that these cognitive limitations existed prior to the age of 18, and limitations in two or more adaptive areas such as communication and self-help skills.
Approximately 2.2 percent of all people have an IQ score below 70.
Learn more about intelligence and the meaning of IQ scores:
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  • What Do IQ Scores Mean?
  • What Is Considered a Genius IQ Score?
  • What Is the Average IQ Score?
  • The History of Intelligence Testing

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References
Boeree, C. G. (2003). Intelligence and IQ. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/intelligence.html
Suggested Reading
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  • The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
  • Psychological Testing
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 17:48

IQ or EQ: Which One Is More Important?
Traditional Intelligence versus Emotional Intelligence
By Kendra Cherry

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Which is more important for success in life: IQ or EQ?
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In his 1996 book Emotional Intelligence, author Daniel Goleman suggested that EQ (or emotional intelligence quotient) might actually be more important than IQ. Why? Some psychologists believe that standard measures of intelligence (i.e. IQ scores) are too narrow and do not encompass the full range of human intelligence. Instead, they suggest, the ability to understand and express emotions can play an equal if not even more important role in how people fare in life.
What's the Difference Between IQ and EQ?
Let's start by defining the two terms in order to understand what they mean and how they differ. IQ, or intelligence quotient, is a number derived from a standardized intelligence test. On the original IQ tests, scores were calculated by dividing the individual's mental age by his or her chronological age and then multiplying that number by 100. So a child with a mental age of 15 and a chronological age of 10 would have an IQ of 150. Today, scores on most IQ tests are calculated by comparing the test taker's score to the scores of other people in the same age group.
EQ, on the other hand, is a measure of a person's level of emotional intelligence. This refers to a person's ability to perceive, control, evaluate, and express emotions. Researchers such as John Mayer and Peter Salovey as well as writers like Daniel Goleman have helped shine a light on emotional intelligence, making it a hot topic in areas ranging from business management to education.
Since the 1990s, emotional intelligence has made the journey from a semi-obscure concept found in academic journals to a popularly recognized term. Today, you can buy toys that claim to help boost a child's emotional intelligence or enroll your kids in social and emotional learning (SEL) programs designed to teach emotional intelligence skills. In some schools in the United States, social and emotional learning is even a curriculum requirement.
So Which One Is More Important?
At one point in time, IQ was viewed as the primary determinant of success. People with high IQs were assumed to be destined for a life of accomplishment and achievement and researchers debated whether intelligence was the product of genes or the environment (the old nature versus nurture debate). However, some critics began to realize that not only was high intelligence no guarantee for success in life, it was also perhaps too narrow a concept to fully encompass the wide range of human abilities and knowledge.
IQ is still recognized as an important element of success, particularly when it comes to academic achievement. People with high IQs typically to do well in school, often earn more money, and tend to be healthier in general. But today experts recognize it is not the only determinate of life success. Instead, it is part of a complex array of influences that includes emotional intelligence among other things.
The concept of emotional intelligence has had a strong impact in a number of areas, including the business world. Many companies now mandate emotional intelligence training and utilize EQ tests as part of the hiring process. Research has found that individuals with strong leadership potential also tend to be more emotionally intelligent, suggesting that a high EQ is an important quality for business leaders and managers to have.
So you might be wondering, if emotional intelligence is so important, can it be taught or strengthened? According to one meta-analysis that looked at the results of social and emotional learning programs, the answer to that question is an unequivocal yes. The study found that approximately 50 percent of kids enrolled in SEL programs had better achievement scores and almost 40 percent showed improved grade-point-averages. These programs were also linked to lowered suspension rates, increased school attendance, and reduced disciplinary problems.
Observations
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  • "…a national insurance company found that sales agents who were weak in emotional competencies such as self-confidence, initiative, and empathy sold policies with an average premium of $54,000. Not bad, right? Well, compared to agents who scored high in a majority of emotional competencies, they sold policies worth an average of $114,000."
    (Cooper, 2013)
  • "Research carried out by the Carnegie Institute of Technology shows that 85 percent of your financial success is due to skills in “human engineering,” your personality and ability to communicate, negotiate, and lead. Shockingly, only 15 percent is due to technical knowledge. Additionally, Nobel Prize winning Israeli-American psychologist, Daniel Kahneman, found that people would rather do business with a person they like and trust rather than someone they don’t, even if the likeable person is offering a lower quality product or service at a higher price."
    (Jensen, 2012)
  • "IQ alone is not enough; EQ also matters. In fact, psychologists generally agree that among the ingredients for success, IQ counts for roughly 10% (at best 25%); the rest depends on everything else—including EQ."
    (Bressert, 2007)
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 17:49

5 Myths About Psychology
Common Misconceptions
By Kendra Cherry

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For many people, their first experience with the field of psychology happens when they take an introductory course in the topic to fulfill a university general education requirement. No wonder that there are so many different misconceptions about exactly what psychology is and isn't! Here are just a few of the most common misunderstandings.
Myth 1: Psychology Is Easy
This misconception is perhaps the first one dispelled for many students as they struggle through their general psychology courses. Why do some people mistakenly believe that psychology is simple and easy? The reason might be because many tend to assume that since they have so much personal experience with human behavior, that they will just naturally be experts on the subject.
Obviously, no one would suggest that an English class would be an easy A just because you speak English. Just like English can be a challenging subject for any native speaker, psychology classes can be just as tough, particularly for students who have little experience with the subject or who have a limited background in subjects such as science and math.
Fortunately, just because psychology is challenging does not mean that it isn't accessible to anyone who might take an interest in it. While there might be a learning curve, you can definitely succeed in your psychology classes with effort and determination.
Myth 2: Psychology Is Just Common Sense
Often after hearing about the latest psychological research, people tend to have an "Of Course!" type of response. "Of course that's true! Why do people even waste their time researching stuff that's just common sense?" people sometimes exclaim.
But is it really? Pick up any book outlining some of the most famous experiments in the history of psychology and what you'll quickly realize is that much of this research refutes what was believed to be common sense at the time. Would you deliver potentially fatal electrical shocks to a stranger just because an authority figure told you to? Common sense might have you emphatically saying no, but psychologist Stanley Milgram famously demonstrated in anobedience experiment that the vast majority of people would do such a thing.
That's the thing about common sense – just because something seems like it should be true does not necessarily mean that it is. Researchers are able to take some of these questions and presumptions about human behavior and test them scientifically, assessing the truth or falsehood in some of our commonly held beliefs about ourselves. By using scientific methods, experimenters can investigate human issues objectively and fairly.
Myth 3: You Can Become a Therapist with a Bachelor's Degree
In order to become a practicing therapist, you will need at least a master's degree in a field such as psychology, counseling, social work, or advanced psychiatric nursing. There are many opportunities to work in the field of mental health at the bachelor's level, but these positions tend to be considered entry-level. You cannot open your own private therapy practice with just a bachelor's degree.
It is also important to be aware that the professional title "Psychologist" is a regulated term. In order to call yourself a psychologist, you need to earn a doctorate degree in psychology, complete a supervised internship, and pass state licensing exams.
Myth 4: Psychologists Get Paid Lots of Money to Listen to People Talk
Certainly some psychologists are very well compensated for their work. But the notion that they are just passively sitting back, doodling on a yellow notepad while their clients ramble on could not be further from the truth. The traditional talk therapy is only one technique that a therapist might use, and it's certainly not a passive process. Throughout these sessions, therapists are actively engaged in listening to the client, asking questions, providing advice, and helping clients develop solutions to put into daily practice.
Psychologists actually work in a wide number of professions and perform an enormous range of different duties. Salaries can vary just as dramatically. Some of the lowest paying psychology jobs start out in the $20,000 - $30,000 range, while the highest paying jobs can reach up in the $100,000 to $250,000 range. Factors such as specialty area, educational background, and years of experience are what determine salary.
Myth 5: Psychology Isn't a Real Science
Another common myth about psychology is that it isn't a real science. First, let's examine exactly what science is and is not.
Some key characteristics of a science:
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  • Uses empirical methods
  • Researchers control and manipulate variables
  • Objectivity
  • Allows for hypothesis testing
  • Results can be replicated
  • Finding allow researchers to predict future occurrences

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As you can see, psychology relies on all of these methods in order to investigate human and animal behavior. Researchers utilize the scientific method to conduct research, which means that variables are controlled and operationally defined. Experimenters are able to test different hypotheses and use statistical analysis to determine the likelihood that such results are due merely to chance. Psychologists also present their findings in a way that makes it possible for other researchers to replicate their experiments and methods in the future.
Psychology might be a relatively young science in the grand scheme of things, but is indeed a real science. However, it is important to note that scientific psychology does have some limitations. Human behavior can vary and change over time, so what is true in one particular time and place might not necessarily apply in different situations, settings, cultures, or societies.[/font][/font][/color][/size]
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 17:50

7 Myths About the Brain
Separating Fact From Fiction
By Kendra Cherry

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The human brain is amazing and sometimes mysterious. While researchers are still uncovering the secrets of how the brain works, they have discovered plenty of information about what goes on inside your noggin. Unfortunately, there are still a lot of brain myths out there.
The following are just a few of the many myths about the brain.
Myth 1: You only use 10 percent of your brain.
You've probably heard this oft-cited bit of information several times, but constant repetition does not make it any more accurate. People often use this popular urban legend to imply that the mind is capable of much greater things, such as dramatically increased intelligence, psychic abilities, or even telekinesis. After all, if we can do all the things we do using only 10 percent of our brains, just imagine what we could accomplish if we used the remaining 90 percent.
Reality check: Research suggests that all areas of the brain perform some type of function. If the 10 percent myth were true, brain damage would be far less likely – after all, we would really only have to worry about that tiny 10 percent of our brains being injured. The fact is that damage to even a small area of the brain can result in profound consequences to both cognition and functioning. Brain imaging technologies have also demonstrated that the entire brain shows levels of activity, even during sleep.
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Citation :
"It turns out though, that we use virtually every part of the brain, and that [most of] the brain is active almost all the time. Let's put it this way: the brain represents three percent of the body's weight and uses 20 percent of the body's energy." - Neurologist Barry Gordon of Johns Hopkins School of Medicine,Scientific American
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Myth 2: Brain damage is permanent.
The brain is fragile and can be damaged by things such as injury, stroke, or disease. This damage can result in a range of consequences, from mild disruptions in cognitive abilities to complete impairment. Brain damage can be devastating, but is it always permanent?
Reality check: While we often tend to think of brain injuries as lasting, a person's ability to recover from such damage depends upon the severity and the location of the injury. For example, a blow to the head during a football game might lead to a concussion. While this can be quite serious, most people are able to recover when given time to heal. A severe stroke, on the other hand, can result in dire consequences to the brain that can very well be permanent.
However, it is important to remember that the human brain has an impressive amount ofplasticity. Even following a serious brain event, such as a stroke, the brain can often heal itself over time and form new connections.
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Citation :
"Even after more serious brain injury, such as stroke, research indicates that — especially with the help of therapy — the brain may be capable of developing new connections and “reroute” function through healthy areas." – BrainFacts.org
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Myth 3: People are either "right-brained" or "left-brained."
Have you ever heard someone describe themselves as either left-brained or right-brained? This stems from the popular notion that people are either dominated by their right or left brain hemispheres. According to this idea, people who are "right-brained" tend to be more creative and expressive, while those who are "left-brained" tend to be more analytical and logical.
Reality Check: While experts do recognize that there is lateralization of brain function (that is, certain types of tasks and thinking tend to be more associated with a particular region of the brain), no one is fully right-brained or left-brained. In fact, we tend to do better at tasks when the entire brain is utilized, even for things that are typically associated with a certain area of the brain.
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Citation :
"No matter how lateralized the brain can get, though, the two sides still work together. The pop psychology notion of a left brain and a right brain doesn’t capture their intimate working relationship. The left hemisphere specializes in picking out the sounds that form words and working out the syntax of the words, for example, but it does not have a monopoly on language processing. The right hemisphere is actually more sensitive to the emotional features of language, tuning in to the slow rhythms of speech that carry intonation and stress." – Carl Zimmer, Discover
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Myth 4: Humans have the biggest brains.
The human brain is quite large in proportion to body size, but another common misconception is that humans have the largest brains of any organism. How big is the human brain? How does it compare to other species?
Reality Check: The average adult has a brain weighing in at about three pounds and measuring up to about 15 centimeters in length. The largest animal brain belongs to that of a sperm whale, weighing in at a whopping 18 pounds! Another large-brained animal is the elephant, with an average brain size of around 11 pounds.
But what about relative brain size in proportion to body size? Humans must certainly have the largest brains in comparison to their body size, right? Once again, this notion is also a myth. Surprisingly, one animal that holds the largest body-size to brain ratios is the shrew, with a brain making up about 10 percent of its body mass.
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Citation :
"Our primate lineage had a head start in evolving large brains, however, because most primates have brains that are larger than expected for their body size. The Encephalization Quotient is a measure of brain size relative to body size. The cat has an EQ of about 1, which is what is expected for its body size, while chimps have an EQ of 2.5 and humans nearly 7.5. Dolphins, no slouches when it comes to cognitive powers and complex social groups, have an EQ of more than 5, but rats and rabbits are way down on the scale at below 0.4." – Michael Balter, Slate.com
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Myth 5: We are born with all the brain cells we ever have, and once they die, these cells are gone forever.
Traditional wisdom has long suggested that adults only have so many brain cells and that we never form new ones. Once these cells are lost, are they really gone for good?
Reality Check: In recent years, experts have discovered evidence that the human adult brain does indeed form new cells throughout life, even during old age. The process of forming new brain cells is known as neurogenesis and researchers have found that it happens in at least one important region of the brain called the hippocampus.
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Citation :
"Above-ground nuclear bomb tests carried out more than 50 years ago resulted in elevated atmospheric levels of the radioactive carbon-14 isotope (14C), which steadily declined over time. In a study published yesterday (June 7) in Cell, researchers used measurements of 14C concentration in the DNA of brain cells from deceased patients to determine the neurons’ age, and demonstrated that there is substantial adult neurogenesis in the human hippocampus." – Dan Cossins, The Scientist
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Myth 6: Drinking alcohol kills brain cells.
Partly related to the myth that we never grow new neurons is the idea that drinking alcohol can lead to cell death in the brain. Drink too much or too often, some people might warn, and you'll lose precious brain cells that you can never get back. We've already learned that adults do indeed get new brain cells throughout life, but could drinking alcohol really kill brain cells?
Reality Check: While excessive or chronic alcohol abuse can certainly have dire health consequences, experts do not believe that drinking causes neurons to die. In fact, research has shown that even binge drinking doesn't actually kill neurons.
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Citation :
"Scientific medical research has actually demonstrated that the moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with better cognitive (thinking and reasoning) skills and memory than is abstaining from alcohol. Moderate drinking doesn’t kill brain cells but helps the brain function better into old age. Studies around the world involving many thousands of people report this finding." – PsychCentral.com
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Myth 7: There are 100 billion neurons in the human brain.
If you've ever thumbed through a psychology or neuroscience textbook, you have probably read that the human brain contains approximately 100 billion neurons. How accurate is this oft-repeated figure? Just how many neurons are in the brain?
Reality Check: The estimate of 100 billion neurons has been repeated so often and so long that no one is completely sure where it originated. In 2009, however, one researcher decided to actually count neurons in adult brains and found that the number was just a bit off the mark. Based upon this research, it appears that the human brain contains closer to 85 billion neurons. So while the often-cited number is a few billion too high, 85 billion is still nothing to sneeze at.
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Citation :
"We found that on average the human brain has 86bn neurons. And not one [of the brains] that we looked at so far has the 100bn. Even though it may sound like a small difference the 14bn neurons amount to pretty much the number of neurons that a baboon brain has or almost half the number of neurons in the gorilla brain. So that's a pretty large difference actually." – Dr. Suzana Herculano-Houzel
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 17:52

Benefits of Positive Thinking
Top Five Positive Thinking Benefits
By Kendra Cherry

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Positive thinking can be good for your mind and body.
Image by Ariel da Silva Parreira


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You have probably had someone tell you to "look on the bright side" or to "see the cup as half full." Chances are good that the people who make these comments are positive thinkers. Researchers are finding more and more evidence pointing to the many benefits of optimism and positive thinking.
Such findings suggest that not only are positive thinkers healthier and less stressed, they also have greater overall well-being. According to positive psychology researcher Suzanne Segerstrom, "Setbacks are inherent to almost every worthwhile human activity, and a number of studies show that optimists are in general both psychologically and physiologically healthier."
Even if positive thinking does not come naturally to you, there are plenty of great reasons to start cultivating affirmative thoughts and minimizing negative self-talk.
Positive Thinkers Cope Better With Stress
When faced with stressful situations, positive thinkers cope more effectively than pessimists. In one study, researchers found that when optimistsencounter a disappointment (such as not getting a job or promotion) they are more likely to focus on things they can do to resolve the situation. Rather than dwelling on their frustrations or things that they cannot change, they will devise a plan of action and ask others for assistance and advice. Pessimists, on the other hand, simply assume that the situation is out of their control and there is nothing they can do to change it.

Optimism Can Improve Your Immunity
In recent years, researchers have found that your mind can have a powerful effect on your body. Immunity is one area where your thoughts and attitudes can have a particularly powerful influence. In one study, researchers found that activation in brain areas associated with negative emotions led to a weaker immune response to a flu vaccine. Researchers Segerstrom and Sephton found that people who were optimistic about a specific and important part of their lives, such as how well they were doing in school, exhibited a stronger immune response than those who had a more negative view of the situation.
Positive Thinking Is Good for Your Health
Not only can positive thinking impact your ability to cope with stress and your immunity, it also has an impact on your overall well-being. The Mayo Clinic reports a number of health benefits associated with optimism, including a reduced risk of death from cardiovascular problems, less depression, and an increased lifespan. While researchers are not entirely clear on why positive thinking benefits health, some suggest that positive people might lead healthier lifestyles. By coping better with stress and avoiding unhealthy behaviors, they are able to improve their health and well-being.
It Can Make You More Resilient
Resilience refers to our ability to cope with problems. Resilient people are able to face a crisis or trauma with strength and resolve. Rather than falling apart in the face of such stress, they have the ability to carry on and eventually overcome such adversity. It may come as no surprise to learn that positive thinking can play a major role in resilience. When dealing with a challenge, optimists typically look at what they can do to fix the problem. Instead of giving up hope, they marshal their resources and are willing to ask others for help.
Researchers have also found that in the wake of a crisis, such as a terrorist attack or natural disaster, positive thoughts and emotions encourage thriving and provide a sort of buffer against depression among resilient people. Fortunately experts also believe that such positivism and resilience can be cultivated. By nurturing positive emotions, even in the face of terrible events, people can reap both short-term and long-term rewards, including managing stress levels, lessening depression, and building coping skills that will serve them well in the future.
Final Thoughts
Before you put on those rose-colored glasses, it is important to note that positive thinking is not about taking a "Pollyanna" approach to life. In fact, researchers have found that in some instances, optimism might not serve you well. For example, people who are excessively optimistic might overestimate their own abilities and take on more than they can handle, ultimately leading to more stress and anxiety.
Instead of ignoring reality in favor of the silver lining, psychologists suggest that positive thinking centers on such things as a belief in your abilities, a positive approach to challenges, and trying to make the most of bad situations. Bad things will happen. Sometimes you will be disappointed or hurt by the actions of others. This does not mean that the world is out to get you or that all people will let you down. Instead, positive thinkers will look at the situation realistically, search for ways that they can improve the situation, and try to learn from their experiences.[/font][/font][/color][/size]
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 17:53

Dr Debbie Joffe Ellis Interview
Dr. Debbie Joffe Ellis Talks About Her Husband, Dr. Albert Ellis
By Kendra Cherry

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Dr. Debbie Joffe Ellis and her husband Dr. Albert Ellis
Image: By permission of Dr. Debbie Joffe Ellis, http://www.debbiejoffeellis.com


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Albert Ellis was often described as one of the most important thinkers of the past century. He was one of the founders of cognitive behavioral therapy and he developed a groundbreaking approach to psychotherapy known as Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, or REBT. His wife, Dr. Debbie Joffe Ellis, continues the work that Dr. Ellis left after his passing in 2007. We had the opportunity to ask her some questions about Dr. Ellis, REBT, and her continued work in this area. In part one of our interview, she talks about her husband and paints a vivid portrait of a man who was passionate about helping others and living life to the fullest.
Exclusive Interview With Dr. Debbie Joffe Ellis
How did you and Albert first meet?
"We first met in person when he visited my home city of Melbourne, Australia.
I was studying psychology at Melbourne University at the time, and heard that he would be visiting the University to present lectures and workshops. I attended each one of his presentations.
I had heard of him years prior however.
My Aunt was a psychologist. I would frequently visit her home throughout my childhood and teen years, and would greatly enjoy looking at some of her books. I loved reading, and my interest in psychology was strong. She greatly liked the work of Albert Ellis, and had a number of his books. I distinctly remember looking through one of his books in her library, I can visualize the cover clearly now, titled “Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy”. I was only about 12 years of age at the time and did not read the book cover to cover! - but some of the words I did read in that book deeply impressed me.
When years later I attended University and studied psychology it was his Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) approach, (called RET at that time – the “B” was added in 1993), which most appealed to me.
I loved its holistic and humanistic nature, its thoroughness and vigor, the compassion it emphasized through encouraging the practice of unconditional acceptance in our lives, its practicality, methods and techniques. It was compatible with my values and preferences, and I knew early on that it would be a primary focus in my work.
Little did I know at the age of 12, or when I was studying the approach some years later, that I would adore and marry the founder and creator of REBT!
Al and I met again about 15 years later at the American Psychological Association’s annual convention which was being held in San Francisco. Our remarkably close friendship began at that time, we would be in regular contact through mail, and phone calls, and I would visit him in New York each year. Our love relationship began a few years after that."
What was your first impression of Dr. Ellis?
"That he was warm, authentic, trustworthy, no-nonsense, brilliant, magnificently witty, kind, and genuinely caring.
He had a reputation in the perception of some people for being loud, for using colorful language at times, for appearing abrasive, curmudgeonly, and provocative. I felt that some of those modes of expression were simply chosen by him to help get his points across in a definite and memorable way, and were not representative of his tendencies and character.
As I got to know him, my first impression proved to be most accurate, and I increasingly experienced his qualities of gentleness, loving, caring and sensitivity."
Dr. Ellis maintained a rigorous and demanding schedule late into his life and in the face of some serious health problems. What do you think gave him such a strong passion and drive to help others?
"His work was his mission, his passion, and it brought great meaning to his life. He cherished life, and he wanted to live a life of intensity and absorption in activities that would enhance his experience and that of others. He genuinely cared about others, and was more mindful than most about how quickly life passes by, and how important it is to live life to the full with maximum enjoyment and minimal suffering. Through finding ways to successfully cope with his own suffering experienced from childhood onwards, and translating it into a theory and methods for lessening emotional disturbance, his approach literally helped millions of people live better lives. He would remind us that life inevitably contains suffering, but by thinking in healthy ways and by changing adversities which could be changed and accepting those which could not be changed – we would not create unnecessary suffering, and could maximize joy throughout our lives.
There was an urgency about him at times, to continue to reach as many more people as he could through continuing to present lectures and workshops, and by writing more books which taught the REBT approach. Al immensely disliked any wasting of time. He believed that with increasing numbers of individuals using their time and energy to create enjoyable lives – despite and including any challenges - and through their helping others to do so, that over the years societies would become healthier. He wanted REBT principles to be taught in schools so that young people would learn of and apply its principles. He was a visionary and idealist, and a realist. He felt great satisfaction and gladness when he helped others and saw them learning to help themselves.
Up till his final weeks of life he continued to help people who would visit him in the hospital, including groups of students who would visit, and Al also showed compassion and gave help to various medical staff in the hospital (where he was a patient fighting hard to recover from his medical conditions) when he heard of any difficult circumstances they were going through. He not only helped people through his words to them, but also by modelling his principles. I often say – he practiced what he preached and preached what he practiced."
Do you have a favorite memory of your husband that you could share?
"It is difficult for me to select only one to share with you here! There are many favorite memories. A few of them are:
His warmth and affection.
Another is of his magnificent smile.
The image of Al absorbed in listening to fine classical music.
Another is of his gracious surrender to my enthusiasm about good nutrition and my encouragement to him to change his diet and eat healthier food (prior to my doing so - his food at lunchtime was mostly often meat zapped in the microwave along with frozen vegetables!). I loved his willingness to be flexible, to think about my recommendations no matter how different they were from his long-time eating habits, and to try doing what I suggested.
Another favorite memory is that of him singing songs to me.
Another is of him working on the writing of a book or article, immersed in concentration as he thought – his eyes would look upwards, at times dreamily and at other times with a particularly focused expression, and then the speedy vigorous way he would transcribe those thoughts into written words."
Continue reading part two of our exclusive interview with Dr. Debbie Joffe Ellis!
About Dr. Debbie Joffe Ellis
Dr. Debbie Joffe Ellis was born and raised in Melbourne, Australia. For many years she worked with her husband, the renowned psychologist Dr. Albert Ellis, giving presentations and providing training on Ellis's therapeutic approach known as Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). Today, she continues to practice, present, and write about Ellis's groundbreaking approach to therapy.
In 2010, she helped complete her husband's autobiography entitled All Out: An Autobiography!Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, the book she co-authored with her husband, was published in 2011. She is currently working on completing a book that she had worked on with her husband prior to his death in 2007 focused on REBT and Buddhism. She also continues to work in private practice in New York City as well as give seminars, workshops, and lectures all over the world.
You can find more information on her website http://www.debbiejoffeellis.com and athttp://ellisrebt.co.uk/
For More Information:
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: The acclaimed book: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy by Albert Ellis and Debbie Joffe Ellis, Published by APA (American Psychological Association)
All Out! - An Autobiography, by Albert Ellis, with final chapter by Debbie Joffe Ellis. Available at bookstores and online at www.prometheusbooks.com and other online retailers
DVD: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (Release of DVD on March 17th, 2014): Part of the Systems of Psychotherapy Video Series by the American Psychological Association. In this DVD, Debbie Joffe Ellis demonstrates the influential and impactful REBT approach in a session with a client, followed by discussion with professors and students about the REBT therapeutic approach and the session. This video is intended solely for educational purposes for mental health professionals. For information about the DVD and about purchasing go to the APA website: www.apa.org/pubs/videos[/font][/font][/color][/size]
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 17:53

How to Become a Positive Thinker By Kendra Cherry Ads: Being Positive Positive Self Esteem Positive Thoughts Positive Psychology Positive Thinking Stories Positive Thinker Learn how you can be a more positive thinker. Image by Dani Toth Ads Why Men Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Méditation Très Profonde www.meditation3g.com Vous voulez Méditer Profondément ? Guide complet de Méditation Gratuit Brain Training Games www.lumosity.com Challenge memory and attention with scientific brain games. See More About positive thinking behavior change self-esteem Ads Why Men Pull Away catchhimandkeephim.com 10 Ugly Mistakes Women Make That Ruins Any Chances Of A Relationship Psychologie Positive www.ifai-appreciativeinquiry.com Psychologie Positive au Travail Formation Psychologie Positive During a busy day, it can become all too easy to focus on the negative. You might feel tired, overworked, and stressed out by all of the conflicting demands on your time. As a result, negative thoughts can creep into your mind. While you know that thinking positively is better for your state of mind, you might be surprised to learn that it can also be good for your health. Research has demonstrated that positive thinking can have a wide variety of benefits, from improving your self-confidence and psychological well-being to actually boosting your physical health. So what can you do to eliminate negative thoughts and replace them with a more positive outlook? Even if you are not a natural-born optimist, there are things you can do to develop your positive thinking skills and reap some of the benefits of positive thinking. Focus On Your Thoughts In order to be a positive thinker, you need to learn how to really analyze your thoughts. The stream-of-conscious flow of thought can be difficult to focus on, especially if introspection is not your strong suit. When you encounter a challenging situation, try to notice how you think about what is happening. Do you engage in negative self-talk? Do you mentally criticize yourself or others? This negative thinking presents a major obstacle, but identifying such thoughts is the first step in overcoming them. Some of the most common types of negative thinking involve focusing on only the undesirable aspects of a situation. For example, let's imagine that you have just spent a busy day at work. You gave a presentation and completed several tasks ahead of schedule, but you forgot to return an important phone call. Despite the successes of the day, that evening you find yourself ruminating on that one slip-up and worry how it will affect your success at work. Instead of reflecting on the positive and acknowledging the negative, you are ignoring the good and magnifying the bad. Self-blame is another common type of negative thinking. When your department does not reach its sales quota for the month, you blame yourself rather than acknowledging that the slow economy has led to fewer sales overall. This type of negative thinking can be particularly damaging to your psychological well-being. By taking the blame for things that are not your fault or are not in your control, your self-esteem and self-confidence take a serious hit. How to Become a Positive Thinker Changing the negative thought cycle can be a challenge and it is a process that takes time. It is important to note that repeating the platitudes that are often recommended by self-help books ("I'm good enough! I'm smart enough! People like me!") can actually have a negative impact on your self-image. Positive thinking is not about putting on a pair of rose-colored glasses and ignoring all the negative things you will encounter in life. That approach can be just as devastating as ignoring the positive and only focusing on the negative. Balance, with a healthy dose of realism, is the key. So what can you do when you find yourself overwhelmed with negative thoughts? Start with small steps. After all, you are essentially trying to cultivate a new habit here, and as anyone who has ever tried to change a behavior or keep a resolution can tell you, these things take time. Start by identifying one area of your life that is most affected by negative thinking. Perhaps you tend to think negatively about your personal appearance or your performance in school. By starting with a single and relatively specific area of your life, the changes will be more likely to stick over the long-run. So, let's imagine that you have chosen to focus on your negative thinking with regards to school. The next step is to spend a little bit of time each day evaluating your own thoughts. When you find yourself thinking critical thoughts about yourself, take a moment to pause and reflect. While you might be upset about getting a bad grade on an exam, is berating yourself really the best approach? Is there any way to put a positive spin on the situation? While you might not have done well on this exam, at least you have a better indication of how to structure your study time for the next big test. Watch carefully for negative self-talk. When your inner monologue starts suggesting that you will never get your assignments done on time or that the work is too hard, find a way to take a more positive view of the situation. For example, if you are struggling to finish a research paper on time, look for ways that you can rearrange your schedule to make more time for the project rather than giving into hopelessness. When a homework assignment seems too difficult to complete, see if taking a different approach to the problem or seeking out assistance from a classmate might help. Being a positive thinker is not about ignoring reality in favor of aspirational thoughts. It is more about taking a proactive approach to your life. Instead of feeling hopeless or overwhelmed, positive thinking allows you to tackle life's challenges by looking for effective ways to resolve conflict and come up with creative solutions to problems. It might not be easy, but the positive impact it will have on your mental, emotional, and physical health will be well-worth it. It takes practice; lots of practice. This is not a step-by-step process that you can complete and be done with. Instead, it involves a lifelong commitment to looking inside yourself and being willing to challenge negative thoughts and make positive changes.
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 17:54

What Is Conformity? By Kendra Cherry Ads: Educational Psychology Study Psychology Online Marketing Psychology Couple Psychology Behavioral Psychology Ads Formation Coach Sud Ouest www.alliance-coachs.com/ Ecole Coach & Team. Formations à Bordeaux & Toulouse Make Him Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Les Pulls Femme laredoute.fr/pulls-femme Grand choix de Pulls Femme Sur La Redoute, Livraison en 24! See More About conformity obedience compliance Ads Rebirth Analytique www.rebirth-analytique.com Stage rebirth - Souffle et parole Séminaire résidentiel en groupe Tennis www.lardesports.com Spécialiste des Sports de Raquettes Matériel de TENNIS à prix de folie Question: What Is Conformity? Answer: Conformity involves changing your behaviors in order to "fit in" or "go along" with the people around you. In some cases, this social influence might involve agreeing with or acting like the majority of people in a specific group, or it might involve behaving in a particular way in order to be perceived as "normal" by the group. Definitions of Conformity "Conformity is the most general concept and refers to any change in behavior caused by another person or group; the individual acted in some way because of influence from others. Note that conformity is limited to changes in behavior caused by other people; it does not refer to effects of other people on internal concepts like attitudes or beliefs... Conformity encompasses compliance and obedience, because it refers to any behavior that occurs as a result of others' influence - no matter what the nature of the influence." (Breckler, Olson, & Wiggins, Social Psychology Alive, 2006) "Conformity can be defined as yielding to group pressures, something which nearly all of us do some of the time. Suppose, for example, you go with friends to see a film. You didn't think the film was very good, but all your friends thought that it was absolutely brilliant. You might be tempted to conform by pretending to agree with their verdict on the film rather than being the odd one out." (Eysenck, Psychology: An International Perspective, 2004) Why Do We Conform? Researchers have found that people conform for a number of different reasons. In many cases, looking to the rest of the group for clues for how we should behave can actually be helpful. Other people might have greater knowledge or experience than we do, so following their lead can actually be instructive. In other cases, we conform to the expectations of the group in order to avoid looking foolish. This tendency can become particularly strong in situations where we aren't quite sure how to act or where the expectations are ambiguous. Deautsch and Gerard (1955) identified two key reasons why people conform: informational influence and normative influence. Informational influence happens when people change their behavior in order to be correct. In situations where we are unsure of the correct response, we often look to others who are better informed and more knowledgeable and use their lead as a guide for our own behaviors. In a classroom setting, for example, this might involve agreeing with the judgments of another classmate who you perceive as being highly intelligent. Normative influence stems from a desire to avoid punishments (such as going along with the rules in class even though you don't agree with them) and gain rewards (such as behaving in a certain way in order to get people to like you). Types of Conformity As mentioned previously, normative and informational influences are two important types of conformity, but there are also a number of other reasons why we conform. The following are some of the major types of conformity. Normative conformity involves changing one's behavior in order to fit in with the group. Informational conformity happens when a person lacks knowledge and looks to the group for information and direction. Identification occurs when people conform to what is expected of them based upon their social roles. Zimbardo's famous Stanford Prison Experiment is a good example of people altering their behavior in order to fit into their expected roles. Compliance involves changing one's behavior while still internally disagreeing with the group. Internalization occurs when we change our behavior because we want to be like another person. Research and Experiments on Conformity Conformity is something that happens regularly in our social worlds. Sometimes we are aware of our behavior, but in many cases it happens without much thought or awareness on our parts. In some cases, we go along with things that we disagree with or behave in ways that we know we shouldn't. Some of the best-know experiments on the psychology of conformity deal with people going along with the group, even when they know the group is wrong. Jenness' 1932 Experiment: In one of the earliest experiments on conformity, Jenness asked participants to estimate the number of beans in a bottle. They first estimated the number individually and then later as a group. After they were asked as a group, they were then asked again individually and the experimenter found that their estimates shifted from their original guess to closer to what other members of the group had guessed. Sherif's Autokinetic Effect Experiments: In a series of experiments, Muzafer Sherif asked participants to estimate how far a dot of light in a dark room moved. In reality the dot was static, but it appeared to move due to something known as the autokinetic effect. Essentially, tiny movements of the eyes make it appear that a small spot of light is moving in a dark room. When asked individually, the participants' answers varied considerably. When asked as part of a group, however, Sherif found that the responses converged toward a central mean. Sherif's results demonstrated that in an ambiguous situation, people will conform to the group, an example of informational influence. Asch's Conformity Experiments: In this series of famous experiments, psychologist Solomon Asch asked participants to complete what they believed was a simple perceptual task. They were asked to choose a line that matched the length of one of three different lines. When asked individually, participants would choose the correct line. When asked in the presence of confederates who were in on the experiment and who intentionally selected the wrong line, around 75 percent of participants conformed to the group at least once. This experiment is a good example of normative influence; participants changed their answer and conformed to the group in order to fit in and avoid standing out. Factors That Influence Conformity The difficulty of the task: Difficult tasks can lead to both increased and decreased conformity. Not knowing how to perform a difficult task makes people more likely to conform, but increased difficulty can also make people more accepting of different responses, leading to less conformity. Individual differences: Personal characteristics such as motivation to achieve and strong leadership abilities are linked with a decreased tendency to conform. The size of the group: People are more likely to conform in situations that involve between three and five other people. Characteristics of the situation: People are more likely to conform in ambiguous situations where they are unclear about how they should respond. Cultural differences: Researchers have found that people from collectivist cultures are more likely to conform. Examples of Conformity A teenager dresses in a certain style because he wants to fit in with the rest of the guys in his social group. A 20-year-old college student drinks at a sorority party because all her friends are doing it and she does not want to be the odd one out. A woman reads a book for her book club and really enjoys it. When she attends her book club meeting, the other members all disliked the book. Rather than go against the group opinion, she simply agrees with the others that the book was terrible. A student is unsure about the answer to a particular question posed by the teacher. When another student in the class provides an answer, the confused student concurs with the answer believing that the other student is smarter and better informed.
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 17:54

Conformity Experiment How to Conduct Your Own Conformity Experiment By Kendra Cherry Ads: Educational Psychology Study Psychology Online Marketing Psychology Couple Psychology Behavioral Psychology Ads Why Men Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Why Men Pull Away catchhimandkeephim.com 10 Ugly Mistakes Women Make That Ruins Any Chances Of A Relationship Les Jupes sur La Redoute laredoute.fr/Jupes Jupes Courtes, Longues, Mini-Jupes Faites-votre choix avec La Redoute See More About psychology experiment ideas psychology research methods Imagine this scenario: You're in a math class, and the instructor asks a basic math question. What is 8 x 4? The teacher begins asking individual students in the room for the answer. You are surprised when the first student answers 27. Then the next student answers 27. And the next! When the teacher finally comes to you, do you trust your own math skills and say 32? Or do you go along with what the rest of the group seems to believe is the correct answer? During the 1950s, psychologist Solomon Asch conducted a series of experiments (known as the Asch conformity experiments) that demonstrated the impact of social pressure on individual behavior. You can conduct your own version of the conformity experiment. In Asch's classic experiment, participants were told that they were in an experiment on vision. With a group of other people, they were asked to look at three lines of different lengths and determine which one was the longest. Participants were then placed with a group that they thought included other subjects in the study. In reality, the other individuals were actually confederates in the experiment. After a few trials where everyone stated the correct answer, the confederates all began choosing an incorrect answer. So how did the participants respond when the other individuals in the group chose the wrong line as the correct response? When surrounded by other people citing the incorrect answer, 75% of the subjects gave an incorrect response to at least one of the line length questions. So how do you think that you or your peers would react in a similar situation? If you are looking for a psychology experiment you can do for a class consider creating your own variation of the Asch conformity experiment. Performing Your Own Conformity Experiment The following are just a few ideas for things you could try for your own psychology experiment: How does group size impact conformity? Try the experiment with different numbers of confederates to see how many other people must be present before a person starts conforming to the group. What effect does age have on conformity? Try the experiment with participants in different age groups to see if the results differ. What impact does gender have on conformity? Are women more likely to conform if the other participants are other women? Are men more likely to conform if the other participants are male? Try different variations to see what effect gender may have.
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 17:55

What Is Compliance? By Kendra Cherry Ads: Educational Psychology Study Psychology Online Marketing Psychology Couple Psychology Behavioral Psychology Ads Formation de Coach icicoach.com/devenir_coach_pro Devenez coach professionnel avec la Formation certifiante de référence Make Him Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Why Men Pull Away catchhimandkeephim.com 10 Ugly Mistakes Women Make That Ruins Any Chances Of A Relationship See More About compliance obedience stanley milgram philip zimbardo persuasion Ads Psychologie de l'Enfance koreva-formation.com/Psychologie Formez-Vous à Distance avec KOREVA, Documentation immédiate. Pantalons Femme laredoute.fr/Pantalon-Femme Plus de 1000 modèles de pantalons 15 j pour retourner vos articles Have you ever done something you didn't really want to do simply because someone else asked you to? Buying something after being persuaded by a pushy salesperson or trying a particular brand of soda after seeing a commercial endorsement featuring your favorite celebrity are two examples of what is known as compliance. What influence does it have on our social behavior? Are there any factors that impact compliance? In order to learn the answers to these questions, it is important to start by understanding exactly what compliance is and how it works. Continue reading to discover more about what researchers have learned about the psychology of compliance. What Is Compliance? In psychology, compliance refers to changing one's behavior due to the request or direction of another person. It is going along with the group or changing a behavior to fit in with the group, while still disagreeing with the group. Unlike obedience, in which the other individual is in a position of authority, compliance does not rely upon being in a position of power or authority over others. "Compliance refers to a change in behavior that is requested by another person or group; the individual acted in some way because others asked him or her to do so (but it was possible to refuse or decline.)" (Breckler, Olson, & Wiggins, 2006) "Situations calling for compliance take many forms. These include a friend's plea for help, sheepishly prefaced by the question "Can you do me a favor?" They also include the pop-up ads on the Internet designed to lure you into a commercial site and the salesperson's pitch for business prefaced by the dangerous words "Have I got a deal for you!" Sometimes the request is up front and direct; what you see is what you get. At other times, it is part of a subtle and more elaborate manipulation." (Kassin, Fein, & Markus, 2011) Techniques Used to Gain Compliance Compliance is a major topic of interest within the field of consumer psychology. This specialty area focuses on the psychology of consumer behavior, including how sellers can influence buyers and persuade them to purchase goods and services. Marketers often rely on a number of different strategies to obtain compliance from consumers. Some of these techniques include: The "Door-in-the-Face" Technique In this approach, marketers start by asking for a large commitment. When the other person refuses, they then make a smaller and more reasonable request. For example, imagine that a business owner asks you to make a large investment in a new business opportunity. After you decline the request, the business owner asks if you could at least make a small product purchase to help him out. After refusing the first offer, you might feel compelled to comply with his second appeal. The "Foot-in-the-Door" Technique In this approach, marketers start by asking for and obtaining a small commitment. Once you have already complied with the first request, you are more likely to also comply with a second, larger request. For example, your co-worker asks if you fill in for him for a day. After you say yes, he then asks if you could just continue to fill in for the rest of the week. The "That's-Not-All" Technique Have you ever found yourself watching a television infomercial? Once a product has been pitched, the seller then adds an additional offer before the potential purchaser has made a decision. "That's not all," the salesperson might suggest, "If you buy a set of widgets now, we'll throw in an extra widget for free!" The goal is to make the offer as appealing as possible. The "Lowball" Technique This strategy involves getting a person to make a commitment and then raising the terms or stakes of that commitment. For example, a salesperson might get you to agree to buy a particular cell phone plan at a low price before adding on a number of hidden fees that then make the plan much more costly. Ingratiation This approach involves gaining approval from the target in order to gain their compliance. Strategies such as flattering the target or presenting oneself in a way that appeals to the individual are often used in this approach. Reciprocity People are more likely to comply if they feel that the other person has already done something for them. We have been socialized to believe that if people extend a kindness to us, then we should return the favor. Researchers have found that the reciprocity effect is so strong that it can work even when the initial favor is uninvited or comes from someone we do not like. What Does the Research Say About Compliance? There are a number of well-known studies that have explored issues related to compliance, conformity, and obedience. Some of these include: The Asch Conformity Experiments Psychologist Solomon Asch conducted a series of experiments to demonstrate how people conform in groups. When shown three lines of different lengths, participants were asked to select the longest line. When the others in the group (who were confederates in the experiment) selected the wrong line, participants would conform to group pressure and also select the wrong line length. The Milgram Obedience Experiment Stanley Milgram's famous and controversial obedience experiments revealed the power of authority could be used to get people to conform. In these experiments, participants were directed by the experimenter to deliver electrical shocks to another person. Even though the shocks were not real, the participants genuinely believed that they were shocking the other person. Milgram found that 65 percent of people would deliver the maximum, possibly fatal electrical shocks on the orders of an authority figure. The Stanford Prison Experiment During the 1970s, psychologist Philip Zimbardo conducted an experiment in which participants played the roles of guards and prisoners in a mock-prison set up in the basement of the psychology department at Stanford University. Originally slated to last two weeks, the experiment had to be terminated after just six days after the guards began displaying abusive behavior and the prisoners became anxious and highly stressed. The experiment demonstrated how people will comply with the expectations that come from certain social roles. Factors That Influence Compliance People are more likely to comply when they believe that they share something in common with the person making the request. When group affiliation is important to people, they are more likely to comply with social pressure. For example, if a college student places a great deal of importance on belonging to a college fraternity, they are more likely to go along with the group's requests even if it goes against their own beliefs or wishes. The likelihood of compliance increases with the number of people present. If only one or two people are present, a person might buck the group opinion and refuse to comply. Being in the immediate presence of a group makes compliance more likely.
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 17:56

What Is Forensic Psychology?
By Kendra Cherry

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Question: What Is Forensic Psychology?
Answer:
Forensic psychology is a field that deals with both psychology and the law. The field has experienced dramatic growth in recent years as more and more students become interested in this applied branch of psychology. Popular movies, television programs and books have help popularize the field, often depicting brilliant heroes who solve vicious crimes or track down killers using psychology.
While depictions of forensic psychology in popular media are certainly dramatic and attention-grabbing, these portrayals are not necessarily accurate. Forensic psychologists definitely play an important role in the criminal justice system, however, and this can be an exciting career for students interested in applying psychological principles to the legal system.
What Is Forensic Psychology?
Typically, forensic psychology is defined as the intersection of psychology and the law, but forensic psychologists can perform many roles so this definition can vary. In many cases, people working within forensic psychology are not necessarily "forensic psychologists." These individuals might beclinical psychologists, school psychologists, neurologists or counselors who lend their psychological expertise to provide testimony, analysis or recommendations in legal or criminal cases.
For example, a clinical psychologist might provide mental health services such as assessment, diagnosis and treatment to individuals who have come into contact with the criminal justice system. Clinicians might be asked to determine if a suspected criminal suffers from a mental illness, or may be asked to provide treatment to individuals suffering from substance abuse and addiction issues.
Another example is that of a school psychologist. While people in this profession typically work with children in school settings, a school psychologist working in forensic psychology might evaluate children in suspected abuse cases, help prepare children to give testimony in court or offer testimony in child custody disputes.
Some of the functions typically performed within forensic psychology include:

  • Competency evaluations
  • Sentencing recommendations
  • Evaluations of the risk of reoffending
  • Testimony as an expert witness
  • Child custody evaluations

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How Does Forensic Psychology Differ From Other Areas?
So what exactly makes forensic psychology different from another specialty area such as clinical psychology? Typically, the duties of a forensic psychologist are fairly limited in terms of scope and duration. A forensic psychologist is asked to perform a very specific duty in each individual case, such as determining if a suspect is mentally competent to face charges.
Unlike the typical clinical setting where a client as voluntarily sought out assistance or evaluation, a forensic psychologist usually deals with clients who are not there of their own free will. This can make assessment, diagnosis and treatment much more difficult, since some clients willfully resist attempts at help.
Should You Become a Forensic Psychologist? - Take this brief quiz to learn if a career in forensic psychology is right for you.[/font][/font][/size]
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 17:58

http://psychology.about.com/library/quiz/bl-mi-quiz.htm?nl=1

Multiple Intelligences Quiz What Type of Intelligence Do You Have? clr gif Psychologist Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences suggests that there are many different kinds of intelligence. In which area do you perform the highest? Take this 10-question quiz to discover your which of the multiple intelligences is your greatest strength. 1: What was your favorite subject in school? Physical Education Art Math Psychology Reading Speech and Debate Zoology Music Next >> More About Intelligence Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 18:02

What Factors Determine Intelligence? By Kendra Cherry Ads: Intelligence Studies Intelligence Tests Emotional Intelligence Human Brain Intelligence Intelligence Testing Ads Make Him Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Brain Training Games www.lumosity.com Train memory and attention with scientific brain games. Robes Transparentes www.nextag.fr/Robes-Transparentes Jouez la transparence avec nos robes envoûtantes à prix canons ! Question: What Factors Determine Intelligence? Answer: In addition to disagreements about the basic nature of intelligence, psychologists have spent a great amount of time and energy debating the various influences on individual intelligence. The debate focuses on one of the major questions in psychology: Which is more important - nature or nurture? Today, nearly all psychologists recognize that both genetics and the environment play a role in determining intelligence. It now becomes matter of determining exactly how much of an influence each factor has. First, it is important to note that genetics and the environment interact to determine exactly how inherited genes are expressed. For example, if a person has tall parents, it is likely that the individual will also grow to be tall. However, the exact height the person reaches can be influenced by environmental factors such as nutrition and disease. Evidence of genetic influences: Twin studies suggest that identical twins IQ's are more similar than those of fraternal twins (Promin & Spinath, 2004). Siblings reared together in the same home have IQ's that are more similar than those of adopted children raised together in the same environment (McGue & others, 1993). Evidence of environmental influences: Identical twins reared apart have IQ's that are less similar than identical twins reared in the same environment (McGue & others, 1993). School attendance has an impact on IQ scores (Ceci, 2001). Children who are breastfed during the first three to five months of life score higher on IQ tests at age 6 than same-age children who were not breastfed (Reinberg, 2008).
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 18:02

What Are Multiple Intelligences? When you hear the word intelligence, the concept of IQ testing may immediately come to mind. Intelligence is often defined as our intellectual potential; something we are born with, something that can be measured and a capacity that is difficult to change. In recent years, however, other views of intelligence have emerged. One such conception is the theory of multiple intelligences proposed by Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner. This theory suggests that traditional psychometric views of intelligence are too limited. Gardner first outlined his theory in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, where he suggested that all people have different kinds of "intelligences."1 Gardner proposed that there are eight intelligences, and has suggested the possible addition of a ninth known as "existentialist intelligence"2. In order to capture the full range of abilities and talents that people possess, Gardner suggests that people do not have just a intellectual capacity, but have many different intelligences including musical, interpersonal, spatial-visual and linguistic intelligences3 While a person might be particularly strong in a specific area, such as musical intelligence, they most likely possess a range of abilities. For example, an individual might be strong in verbal, musical and naturalistic intelligence. Gardner’s theory has come under criticism from both psychologists and educators. These critics argue that Gardner’s definition of intelligence is too broad, and that his eight different "intelligences" simply represent talents, personality traits and abilities. Gardner’s theory also suffers from a lack of supporting empirical research4. Despite this, the theory of multiple intelligences enjoys considerable popularity with educators. Many teachers utilize multiple intelligences in their teaching philosophy and work to integrate Gardner’s theory into the classroom. Learn more about the multiple intelligences can help you better understand your own strengths. Continue reading to learn more about the major characteristics of each type of intelligence. You can also take the multiple intelligences quiz to discover the area in which you are strongest.
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 18:03

http://psychology.about.com/od/educationalpsychology/ss/multiple-intell_2.htm



Intelligence and IQ Testing A Look at the History, Questions and Issues in IQ Testing By Kendra Cherry Ads: Intelligence Testing IQ Test 2012 Intelligence Tests Educational Psychology Intelligence Studies Ads Test De QI www.test-de-qi-2012.fr 30 questions, 2 types de test. Lancer le test de QI maintenant! Brain Training Games www.lumosity.com Challenge memory and attention with scientific brain games. Test de logique et QI qi.atout-test.com/ Etes-vous intelligent ? Passez notre test de QI en ligne See More About intelligence iq testing Intelligence has been an important and controversial topic throughout psychology's history. In addition to questions of exactly how to define intelligence, the debate continues today about whether it can be accurately measured. While psychologists often disagree about the definition and causes of intelligence, research on intelligence plays an important role in many areas including policy decisions regarding how much funding should be given to educational programs, the use of testing to screen job applicants and the use of testing to identify children who need additional academic assistance. The term "intelligence quotient," or IQ, was first coined in the early twentieth century by a German psychologist named William Stern. Since that time, intelligence testing has emerged as a widely used tool that has led to the development of many other tests of skill and aptitude. However, it continues to spur debate and controversy over the use of intelligence tests, cultural biases, influences on intelligence and even the very way we define intelligence. In order to gain a deeper understanding of intelligence and the tests that have been developed in an attempt to measure this concept, it is important to understand the history of intelligence testing, the scientific research that has been conducted and the findings that have emerged. Major questions about intelligence and IQ testing: Is intelligence a single ability, or does it involve an assortment of multiple skills and abilities? Is intelligence inherited, or does the environment play a larger role? Are intelligence tests biased? What do intelligence scores predict, if anything? In order to explore these questions, psychologists have conducted a considerable amount of research on the nature, influences and effects of intelligence. Begin learning more about some of these questions and discoveries by exploring the following section on intelligence and intelligence testing.
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 18:03

Theories of Intelligence By Kendra Cherry Ads: Intelligence Studies Intelligence Testing Emotional Intelligence Human Brain Intelligence Intelligence Tests brain in hand Numerous theories have emerged to define, explain and predict human intelligence. © Julia Freeman-Woolpert/iStockPhoto Ads Make Him Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Sejour linguistique kaplaninternational.com Partez pour un séjour linguistique dans une de nos écoles accréditées. Psychologue Blois www.jv-psychologue.fr Julie VINCENT Adultes & seniors See More About intelligence cognitive psychology howard gardner multiple intelligences Ads Test De QI? www.test-my-iq.com Faites le dernier test de QI. Obtenez le certificat avec votre QI Coaching des managers qualipso.com/coaching-managers.php Animer,pacifier,convaincre,manager. Formation des décideurs exigeants While intelligence is one of the most talked about subjects within psychology, there is no standard definition of what exactly constitutes 'intelligence.' Some researchers have suggested that intelligence is a single, general ability, while other believe that intelligence encompasses a range of aptitudes, skills and talents. The following are some of the major theories of intelligence that have emerged during the last 100 years. Charles Spearman - General Intelligence: British psychologist Charles Spearman (1863-1945) described a concept he referred to as general intelligence, or the g factor. After using a technique known as factor analysis to to examine a number of mental aptitude tests, Spearman concluded that scores on these tests were remarkably similar. People who performed well on one cognitive test tended to perform well on other tests, while those who scored badly on one test tended to score badly on others. He concluded that intelligence is general cognitive ability that could be measured and numerically expressed. Louis L. Thurstone - Primary Mental Abilities: Psychologist Louis L. Thurstone (1887-1955) offered a differing theory of intelligence. Instead of viewing intelligence as a single, general ability, Thurstone's theory focused on seven different "primary mental abilities." The abilities that he described were: Verbal comprehension Reasoning Perceptual speed Numerical ability Word fluency Associative memory Spatial visualization Howard Gardner - Multiple Intelligences: One of the more recent ideas to emerge is Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Instead of focusing on the analysis of test scores, Gardner proposed that numerical expressions of human intelligence are not a full and accurate depiction of people's abilities. His theory describes eight distinct intelligences that are based on skills and abilities that are valued within different cultures. The eight intelligences Gardner described are: Visual-spatial Intelligence Verbal-linguistic Intelligence Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence Logical-mathematical Intelligence Interpersonal Intelligence Musical Intelligence Intra personal Intelligence Naturalistic Intelligence Robert Sternberg - Triarchic Theory of Intelligence: Psychologist Robert Sternberg defined intelligence as "mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one’s life." While he agreed with Gardner that intelligence is much broader than a single, general ability, he instead suggested some of Gardner's intelligences are better viewed as individual talents. Sternberg proposed what he refers to as 'successful intelligence,' which is comprised of three different factors: Analytical intelligence: This component refers to problem-solving abilities. Creative intelligence: This aspect of intelligence involves the ability to deal with new situations using past experiences and current skills. Practical intelligence: This element refers to the ability to adapt to a changing environment. Final Thoughts: While there has been considerable debate over the exact nature of intelligence, no definitive conceptualization has emerged. Today, psychologists often account for the many different theoretical viewpoints when discussing intelligence and acknowledge that this debate is ongoing.
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 18:04

Memory Retrieval Retrieving Information from Memory By Kendra Cherry Ads: Improving Memory Working Memory Training How Improve Memory Educational Psychology Memory Tests memory retrieval In order to utilize information, it needs to be retrieved from memory. Image courtesy Christine Balderas/iStockPhoto Ads Why Men Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Brain Training Games www.lumosity.com Challenge memory and attention with scientific brain games. Word Memory Test www.wordmemorytest.com The original WMT by Dr. Paul Green is now in MS WIndows See More About cognitive psychology memory forgetting Once information has been encoded and stored in memory, it must be retrieved in order to be used. Memory retrieval is important in virtually every aspect of daily life, from remembering where you parked your car to learning new skills. There are many factors that can influence how memories are retrieved from long-term memory. In order to fully understand this process, it is important to learn more about exactly what retrieval is as well as the many factors that can impact how memories are retrieved. Memory Retrieval Basics So what exactly is retrieval? Simply put, it is a process of accessing stored memories. When you are taking an exam, you need to be able to retrieve learned information from your memory in order to answer the test questions. There are four basic ways in which information can be pulled from long-term memory. The type of retrieval cues that are available can have an impact on how information is retrieved. A retrieval cue is a clue or prompt that is used to trigger the retrieval of long-term memory. Recall: This type of memory retrieval involves being able to access the information without being cued. Answering a question on a fill-in-the-blank test is a good example of recall. Recollection: This type of memory retrieval involves reconstructing memory, often utilizing logical structures, partial memories, narratives or clues. For example, writing an answer on an essay exam often involves remembering bits on information, and then restructuring the remaining information based on these partial memories. Recognition: This type of memory retrieval involves identifying information after experiencing it again. For example, taking a multiple-choice quiz requires that you recognize the correct answer out of a group of available answers. Relearning: This type of memory retrieval involves relearning information that has been previously learned. This often makes it easier to remember and retrieve information in the future and can improve the strength of memories. Problems with Retrieval Of course, the retrieval process doesn't always work perfectly. Have you ever felt like you knew the answer to a question, but couldn't quite remember the information? This phenomenon is known as a 'tip of the tongue' experience. You might feel certain that this information is stored somewhere in your memory, but you are unable to access and retrieve it. While it may be irritating or even troubling, research has shown that these experiences are extremely common, typically occurring at least once each week for most younger individuals and two to four times per week for elderly adults (Schacter, 2001). In many cases, people can even remember details such as the first letter that the word starts with. (Brown, 1991). Even though memory retrieval is not flawless, there are things that you can do to improve your ability to remember information. Check out some of these great ideas for how to improve your memory.
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 18:05

What Is Memory? An Overview of Memory and How it Works By Kendra Cherry Ads: Memory Improvement Improve Your Memory Memory Tests Working Memory Training Improving Memory Our memories play an important role in our personal identity. Memory involves encoding, storing and retrieving information. Photo by Kiyoshi Takahase Segundo/iStockPhoto Ads Why Men Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Word Memory Test www.wordmemorytest.com The original WMT by Dr. Paul Green is now in MS WIndows Brain Training Games www.lumosity.com Challenge memory and attention with scientific brain games. See More About memory clusters long-term memory short-term memory Ads Test De QI www.test-de-qi-2012.fr 30 questions, 2 types de test. Lancer le test de QI maintenant! Psychologie Positive www.ifai-appreciativeinquiry.com Psychologie Positive au Travail Formation Psychologie Positive Have you ever wondered how you manage to remember information for a test? The ability to create new memories, store them for periods of time and recall them when they are needed allows us to learn and interact with the world around us. The study of human memory has been a subject of science and philosophy for thousands of years and has become one of the major topics of interest within cognitive psychology. But what exactly is memory? How are memories formed? The following overview offers a brief look at what memory is, how it works and how it is organized. What is Memory? Memory refers to the processes that are used to acquire, store, retain and later retrieve information. There are three major processes involved in memory: encoding, storage, and retrieval. In order to form new memories, information must be changed into a usable form, which occurs through the process known as encoding. Once information has been successfully encoded, it must be stored in memory for later use. Much of this stored memory lies outside of our awareness most of the time, except when we actually need to use it. The retrieval process allows us to bring stored memories into conscious awareness. The Stage Model of Memory While several different models of memory have been proposed, the stage model of memory is often used to explain the basic structure and function of memory. Initially proposed in 1968 by Atkinson and Shiffrin, this theory outlines three separate stages of memory: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. Sensory Memory Sensory memory is the earliest stage of memory. During this stage, sensory information from the environment is stored for a very brief period of time, generally for no longer than a half-second for visual information and 3 or 4 seconds for auditory information. We attend to only certain aspects of this sensory memory, allowing some of this information to pass into the next stage - short-term memory. Short-Term Memory Short-term memory, also known as active memory, is the information we are currently aware of or thinking about. In Freudian psychology, this memory would be referred to as the conscious mind. Paying attention to sensory memories generates the information in short-term memory. Most of the information stored in active memory will be kept for approximately 20 to 30 seconds. While many of our short-term memories are quickly forgotten, attending to this information allows it to continue on the next stage - long-term memory. Long-Term Memory Long-term memory refers to the continuing storage of information. In Freudian psychology, long-term memory would be called the preconscious and unconscious. This information is largely outside of our awareness, but can be called into working memory to be used when needed. Some of this information is fairly easy to recall, while other memories are much more difficult to access. The Organization of Memory The ability to access and retrieve information from long-term memory allows us to actually use these memories to make decisions, interact with others and solve problems. But how is information organized in memory? The specific way information is organized in long-term memory is not well understood, but researchers do know that these memories are arranged in groups. Clustering is used to organize related information into groups. Information that is categorized becomes easier to remember and recall. For example, consider the following group of words: Desk, apple, bookshelf, red, plum, table, green, pineapple, purple, chair, peach, yellow Spend a few seconds reading them, then look away and try to recall and list these words. How did you group the words when you listed them? Most people will list using three different categories: color, furniture and fruit. One way of thinking about memory organization is known as the semantic network model. This model suggests that certain triggers activate associated memories. A memory of a specific place might activate memories about related things that have occurred in that location. For example, thinking about a particular campus building might trigger memories of attending classes, studying and socializing with peers.
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 18:05

Top 10 Memory Improvement Tips Improve Your Memory With These Great Tips By Kendra Cherry Ads: Memory Improvement Improve Your Memory Memory Tests Working Memory Training Improving Memory Do you find yourself forgetting where you left your keys or blanking out information on important tests? Fortunately, there are things that you can do to help improve your memory. Before your next big exam, be sure to check out some of these tried and tested techniques for improving memory. These strategies have been established within cognitive psychology literature to improve memory, enhance recall and increase retention of information. 1. Focus your attention on the materials you are studying. Memory improvement tips Image: ddpavumba / freedigitalphotos.net Attention is one of the major components of memory. In order for information to move from short-term memory into long-term memory, you need to actively attend to this information. Try to study in a place free of distractions such as television, music and other diversions. Ads Brain Training Games www.lumosity.com Challenge memory and attention with scientific brain games. Why Men Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Brain Exercises www.aplusgamer.com Tons of Word, Math, Logic Games to Sharpen Your Brain. Free Download! 2. Avoid cramming by establishing regular study sessions. According to Bjork (2001), studying materials over a number of session's gives you the time you need to adequately process the information. Research has shown that students who study regularly remember the material far better than those who do all of their studying in one marathon session. 3. Structure and organize the information you are studying. Woman placing post-its on a wall Compassionate Eye Foundation/Noel Hendrickson/Digital Vision/Getty Images Researchers have found that information is organized in memory in related clusters. You can take advantage of this by structuring and organizing the materials you are studying. Try grouping similar concepts and terms together, or make an outline of your notes and textbook readings to help group related concepts. 4. Utilize mnemonic devices to remember information. Mnemonic devices are a technique often used by students to aid in recall. A mnemonic is simply a way to remember information. For example, you might associate a term you need to remember with a common item that you are very familiar with. The best mnemonics are those that utilize positive imagery, humor or novelty. You might come up with a rhyme, song or joke to help remember a specific segment of information. 5. Elaborate and rehearse the information you are studying. In order to recall information, you need to encode what you are studying into long-term memory. One of the most effective encoding techniques is known as elaborative rehearsal. An example of this technique would be to read the definition of a key term, study the definition of that term and then read a more detailed description of what that term means. After repeating this process a few times, you'll probably notice that recalling the information is much easier. 6. Relate new information to things you already know. When you are studying unfamiliar material, take the time to think about how this information relates to things that you already know. By establishing relationships between new ideas and previously existing memories, you can dramatically increase the likelihood of recalling the recently learned information. 7. Visualize concepts to improve memory and recall. Many people benefit greatly from visualizing the information they study. Pay attention to the photographs, charts and other graphics in your textbooks. If you do not have visual cues to help, try creating your own. Draw charts or figures in the margins of your notes or use highlighters or pens in different colors to group related ideas in your written study materials. 8. Teach new concepts to another person. Research suggests that reading materials out loud significantly improves memory of the material. Educators and psychologists have also discovered that having students actually teach new concepts to others enhances understanding and recall. You can use this approach in your own studies by teaching new concepts and information to a friend or study partner. Ads Formez-vous au Maquillage koreva-formation.com/Maquilleuse Formation à Distance avec KOREVA, L'école de la Beauté & du Bien-être Ecole de Manucure karis-formation.com/Manucure Méthode d'Enseignement Proche De Vous. Documentation Gratuite ! 9. Pay extra attention to difficult information. Have you ever noticed how it's sometimes easier to remember information at the beginning or end of a chapter? Researchers have found that the order of information can play a role in recall, which is known as the serial position effect. While recalling middle information can be difficult, you can overcome this problem by spending extra time rehearsing this information. Another strategy is to try restructuring what you have learned so it will be easier to remember. When you come across an especially difficult concept, devote some extra time to memorizing the information. 10. Vary your study routine. Another great way to increase your recall is to occasionally change your study routine. If you are accustomed to studying in one specific location, try moving to a different spot during your next study session. If you study in the evening, try spending a few minutes each morning reviewing the information you studied the previous night. By adding an element of novelty to your study sessions, you can increase the effectiveness of your efforts and significantly improve your long-term recall.
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Date d'inscription : 17/05/2007

MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 18:06

10 Facts About Memory By Kendra Cherry 1 of 11 Previous Next 10 Facts About Memory ten facts about memory Ad Why Men Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Learn more about human memory in these fun and fascinating facts. Photo by Bart Coenders/iStockPhoto Our memory helps make us who we are. From fondly recollecting childhood events to remembering where we left our keys, memory plays a vital role in every aspect of our lives. It provides us with a sense of self and makes up our continual experience of life. It's easy to think of memory as a mental filing cabinet, storing away bits of information until we need them. In reality, it is a remarkably complex process that involves numerous parts of the brain. Memories can be vivid and long-lasting, but they are also susceptible to inaccuracies and forgetting. Continue reading to learn more about some of the most interesting aspects of human memory.

rest hee

http://psychology.about.com/od/memory/ss/ten-facts-about-memory.htm
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 8 Mar - 18:06

Forgetting : When Memory Fails By Kendra Cherry Ads: Memory Tests Working Memory Training Behavioral Psychology How Improve Memory Educational Psychology Ebbinghaus forgetting curve Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve Public Domain Image Ads Brain Training Games www.lumosity.com Challenge memory and attention with scientific brain games. Word Memory Test www.wordmemorytest.com The original WMT by Dr. Paul Green is now in MS WIndows Why Men Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. See More About memory forgetting From forgetting where you left your keys to forgetting to return a phone call, memory failures are an almost daily occurrence. Forgetting is so common that we typically rely on numerous methods to help us remember important information such as jotting down notes in a daily planner or scheduling important events on your phone's calendar. As you are frantically searching for your missing car keys, it may seem that that the information about where you left them is permanently gone from your memory. However, forgetting is generally not about actually losing or erasing this information from your long-term memory. Forgetting typically involves a failure in memory retrieval. While the information is somewhere in your long-term memory, you are not able to actually retrieve and remember it. The Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve: Psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus was one of the first to scientifically study forgetting. In experiments where is used himself as the subject, Ebbinghaus tested his memory using three-letter nonsense syllables. He relied on such nonsense words because relying on previously known words would have made use of his existing knowledge and associations in his memory. In order to test for new information, Ebbinghaus tested his memory for periods of time ranging from 20 minutes to 31 days. He then published his findings in 1885 in Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology. His results, plotted in what is known as the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve, revealed a relationship between forgetting and time. Initially, information is often lost very quickly after it is learned. Factors such as how the information was learned and how frequently it was rehearsed play a role in how quickly these memories are lost. The forgetting curve also showed that forgetting does not continue to decline until all of the information is lost. At a certain point, the amount of forgetting levels off. What exactly does this mean? It indicates that information stored in long-term memory is surprisingly stable. Why We Forget: Of course, many factors can help contribute to forgetting. Sometimes you might be distracted when you learn new information, which might mean that you never truly retain the information long enough to remember it later. Well-known memory researcher Elizabeth Loftus has proposed four key explanations for why forgetting occurs. Learn more about some of the most common explanations for forgetting. More About Memory
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