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Date d'inscription : 17/05/2007

MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 11:54

Note: Menus were planned to provide enough calories and protein for 2 adults and 2 children. These menus are for short-term use only so not all nutrients may be provided at recommended levels everyday. A vegetarian multi-vitamin and mineral supplement can be included in your disaster kit.

Side bar:
Food for a Disaster Kit for a Family of 4 for 3 Days That Do Not Require Refrigeration, Cooking, or Water for Preparation (based on menu)


2 15- to 20-ounce boxes of cold ready-to-eat cereal
1-pound can of raisins or other dried fruit (do not need to be refrigerated after opening)
6 1-liter-size aseptic cartons of fortified soymilk
6 half-gallon bottles of fruit juice (can remain at room temperature for a day after opening)
1 1-pound jar of peanut butter, soy-nut butter, or almond butter
1 1-pound package dry, crisp crackers (choose unsalted or lower-sodium versions to reduce thirst if water supply is limited) or 1-2 loaves packaged bread with a long shelf-life (at least 6 months from date of purchase)
1 bag of baked corn chips
3 29-ounce cans of unsweetened fruit
3 15- to 20-ounce cans of unsweetened fruit
6 15-ounce cans of cooked beans (like kidney beans, chickpeas, pinto beans, vegetarian baked beans, etc.)
6 15-ounce cans of vegetables (choose unsalted or lower-sodium versions to reduce thirst if water supply is limited)
1 box of graham crackers
1 pound of granola (if purchased in bulk, store in tightly sealed glass container)
3 12-ounce packages of whole-wheat crackers (choose unsalted or lower-sodium versions to reduce thirst if water supply is limited)
12 ounces of nuts (if purchased in bulk, store in tightly sealed glass container)

Note: If you want to use this list for 6 days instead of 3, simply double the quantities of foods. For longer-term use, be sure to purchase fortified soymilk and a multivitamin and mineral supplement. Consider your family's food preferences when purchasing items like cereal, fruits, vegetables, and juice.

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 11:55

Side-bar:

Additional Foods that Can Be Included in a Disaster Kit. These foods may require minimal cooking or some water for preparation.


Aseptically packed tofu
Packaged tofu jerky
Textured Vegetable Protein
Dry mixes for hummus, bean dip, falafel, and veggie burgers
Canned refried beans
Taco or tostada shells
Salsa (needs to be refrigerated after opening so buy small jars and discard leftovers if they cannot be refrigerated)
Canned chilies
Instant or quick-cooking hot breakfast cereals
Potatoes (can be diced and fried)
Oil
Instant coffee, tea bags, hot chocolate mix, sugar
Meals in a cup
Canned soups
Quick-cooking rice
Pasta and jarred sauce
Couscous
Ramen noodles
Rice, soba, udon noodles
Soy sauce
Tomato sauce (for TVP sloppy joes, chili, and other dishes)
Sports bars
Packaged cookies and other snacks
Single-serving packages of catsup, mustard, jelly
Sidebar:

Ideas for meals requiring limited cooking

Ramen noodles heated with drained canned vegetables and diced aseptically packed firm tofu
Crackers with peanut butter
Fresh or canned fruit
Refried beans in taco shells with salsa
Tortilla chips
Canned vegetable
Curried chickpeas (chickpeas, tomato sauce, spices, small cubes of potatoes)
Whole-wheat couscous
Fresh or canned fruit
Fried potatoes with black beans (dice potatoes and fry in oil until almost done; add drained black beans and spices or canned chilies to taste)
Canned corn
Applesauce
TVP sloppy joes on bread
Instant mashed potatoes
Canned pineapple
Udon noodles with peanut sauce (peanut butter, soy sauce, water, sweetener, red pepper flakes)
Black soybeans
Canned vegetable

Resources

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Hotline at: 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636). This line is available in English and Spanish, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

"Food and Water in an Emergency," FEMA and the American Red Cross, http://www.redcross.org/images/pdfs/preparedness/A5055.pdf

"Pandemic Influenza Planning," USDHHS, http://www.pandemicflu.gov/planguide/

"Preparing an Emergency Food Supply," University of Georgia Extension Service, http://www.fcs.uga.edu/pubs/current/FDNS-E-34-1.html

"Preparing for Disaster," FEMA and the American Red Cross, http://www.redcross.org/images/pdfs/preparedness/A4600.pdf

"Ten Things You Need to Know About Pandemic Influenza," World Health Organization, http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influenza/pandemic10things/en/index.html

"What You Need to Know When the Power Goes Out Unexpectedly," Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), http://www.bt.cdc.gov/poweroutage/needtoknow.asp

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 11:55

Vegetarian Journal Mar/Apr 2001
Do Prison Inmates Have a Right to Vegetarian Meals?
By Amy Ogden and Paul Rebein

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INTRODUCTION
There are many issues surrounding the availability of vegetarian food in prison, and there is much variety in the way different prison systems have addressed these issues. While some prisoners are given limited rights to receive certain diets, including those prisoners with medical conditions and those of certain religious denominations, there are many factors that play a role in a prison's decision of whether to provide vegetarian food.

First, some prison employees have expressed their belief even though it may be unfounded, that inmates often use food as a way to make them feel special. Getting a vegetarian diet when thousands of other inmates have something else is sometimes a psychological ploy used by an inmate in an effort to feel special or different. They may also feel that inmates use food to try to draw attention to themselves. For some employees, it seems that once one inmate gets a special meal, many other inmates suddenly want a special meal. For these reasons, prisons usually require that special diets be prescribed by a physician for medical reasons, or by a chaplain for religious reasons. Prisons want to make sure that an inmate is truly a vegetarian before special provisions are arranged.

Next, prisons are constantly struggling to provide nutritious meals to thousands of prisoners at the lowest cost possible. To keep costs low, uniform meals are essential. Prison officials often claim that it is very difficult for prisons to afford special meals for individual prisoners. This is the main excuse that prisons use for denying requests for vegetarian or vegan meals.

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 11:55

FIRST AMENDMENT RIGHTS
Do prisoners have a right to vegetarian meals? In order to answer this question, a discussion of the First Amendment right to freedom of religion is necessary. The First Amendment of the United States Constitution states, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. . ." Courts, as well as legal scholars, have attempted to define religion; however, it is next to impossible to define it in a way with which everyone agrees on. Religion can be defined either in a broad or narrow manner, and this definition can mean the difference between rights and no rights for an inmate to practice a certain set of beliefs, or "religion."

In 1965, the Supreme Court addressed the definition of religion in United States v. Seeger, 380 US 163, 85 S. Ct. 850 (1965), as it applied to a statute that allowed religious objectors to refrain from being drafted to military service. The Court declared that the statute's definition would be interpreted to include any "sincere and meaningful" belief that "occupies a place in the life of its possessor parallel to that filled by the orthodox belief in God of one who clearly qualifies for the exemption" (Id. at 166). The Court quotes Dr. David Saville Muzzey, a leader in the Ethical Cultural Move-ment: "Religion, for all the various definitions that have been given of it, must surely mean the devotion of man to the highest ideal that he can conceive. And that ideal is a community of spirits in which the latent moral potentialities of men shall have been elicited by their reciprocal endeavors to cultivate the best in their fellow men." In addition, the Court quotes Justice Douglas in US v. Ballard, 322 US 78, 86, 64 S. Ct. 882, 886 (1944): "Men may believe what they cannot prove. They may not be put to the proof of their religious doctrines or beliefs. Religious experiences which are as real as life to some may be incomprehensible to others." As a result of this broad definition, the truth of a belief may not be questioned; however, the sincerity of a belief must be determined based on the facts of each case.

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) also provides a broad definition of religion in Title VII cases. The EEOC Guidelines, 29 CFR 1605 (1985), state that religious beliefs are "moral or ethical beliefs as to what is right and wrong which are sincerely held with the strength of traditional religious views." In addition, the EEOC has also stated that the protections of Title VII extend not only to traditional religious beliefs, but to moral and ethical beliefs as well (45 FED. REG. At 72, 611 (1980) [citing the analysis applied by the Supreme Court in US v. Seeger, 380 US 163 (1964), and Welsh v. US, 398 US 333 (1970)].

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 11:56

FIRST AMENDMENT RIGHTS
Do prisoners have a right to vegetarian meals? In order to answer this question, a discussion of the First Amendment right to freedom of religion is necessary. The First Amendment of the United States Constitution states, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. . ." Courts, as well as legal scholars, have attempted to define religion; however, it is next to impossible to define it in a way with which everyone agrees on. Religion can be defined either in a broad or narrow manner, and this definition can mean the difference between rights and no rights for an inmate to practice a certain set of beliefs, or "religion."

In 1965, the Supreme Court addressed the definition of religion in United States v. Seeger, 380 US 163, 85 S. Ct. 850 (1965), as it applied to a statute that allowed religious objectors to refrain from being drafted to military service. The Court declared that the statute's definition would be interpreted to include any "sincere and meaningful" belief that "occupies a place in the life of its possessor parallel to that filled by the orthodox belief in God of one who clearly qualifies for the exemption" (Id. at 166). The Court quotes Dr. David Saville Muzzey, a leader in the Ethical Cultural Move-ment: "Religion, for all the various definitions that have been given of it, must surely mean the devotion of man to the highest ideal that he can conceive. And that ideal is a community of spirits in which the latent moral potentialities of men shall have been elicited by their reciprocal endeavors to cultivate the best in their fellow men." In addition, the Court quotes Justice Douglas in US v. Ballard, 322 US 78, 86, 64 S. Ct. 882, 886 (1944): "Men may believe what they cannot prove. They may not be put to the proof of their religious doctrines or beliefs. Religious experiences which are as real as life to some may be incomprehensible to others." As a result of this broad definition, the truth of a belief may not be questioned; however, the sincerity of a belief must be determined based on the facts of each case.

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) also provides a broad definition of religion in Title VII cases. The EEOC Guidelines, 29 CFR 1605 (1985), state that religious beliefs are "moral or ethical beliefs as to what is right and wrong which are sincerely held with the strength of traditional religious views." In addition, the EEOC has also stated that the protections of Title VII extend not only to traditional religious beliefs, but to moral and ethical beliefs as well (45 FED. REG. At 72, 611 (1980) [citing the analysis applied by the Supreme Court in US v. Seeger, 380 US 163 (1964), and Welsh v. US, 398 US 333 (1970)].

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 12:00

IS ETHICAL VEGANISM A RELIGION?
The previous examples of broad definitions of religion are analogous to the argument that ethical veganism should either be recognized as a religion, or alternatively, protected as a class in the same way that religion is. As the Court set out in Welsh, 398 US at 340, "[I]f an individual deeply and sincerely holds beliefs that are purely ethical or moral in source and content but that nevertheless impose upon him a duty of conscience to refrain from participating in any war at any time, those beliefs certainly occupy in the life of that individual a place parallel to that filled by God in traditionally religious persons." By analogy, an inmate who sincerely holds a strong ethical or moral belief in refraining from consuming meat, or any animal by-products, could be said to hold beliefs occupying a place parallel to that filled by God in religious persons, and, therefore, the inmate should be entitled to an alternative to meat and animal by-products.

As different courts define religion in very different ways, some courts have not followed Seeger or Welsh in defining religion broadly. For example, a ruling by the Kansas Court of Appeals held that if an inmate's decision not to eat meat is based on moral, not religious beliefs, the prison does not have to provide vegetarian meals. The prison decided to serve meatless meals only to inmates who were vegetarian for health or religious reasons, and the court said there is a distinction between moral and religious beliefs (Sammons v. Simmons, 963 P.2d 444 (1998)).

NUTRITION ISSUES
If it is determined that an inmate has an arguable basis for the position that his or her rights are constitutionally protected, the next inquiry is whether the prison's dietary policy is reasonably related to legitimate penological purposes. Turner v. Saffley, 482 US 78, 89, 107 S. Ct. 2254 (1987), provides the test for balancing the prison's interests with the inmate's interests. When assessing a prison regulation's reasonableness, the Supreme Court identified four factors to consider: (1) whether there is a rational connection between the prison regulation and the legitimate governmental interest; (2) whether there are alternative means for the prisoner to exercise his right; (3) what impact the requested constitutional accommodation from the prisoner will have on guards, other prisoners, and the allocation of prison resources; and (4) whether the absence of alternatives is evidence of the reasonableness of a prison regulation (Turner, 482 US at 89-90). The Supreme Court has held that Turner applies to all constitutional claims arising in prison with the exception of Eighth Amendment claims.

In federal prisons, there was an adoption by the Bureau of Prisons on May 30, 1984, of Operations Memorandum No. 110-84 (5360), which provided for a Modified Common Fare Religious Diet Program. The Common Fare diet applies to all inmates requesting a religious diet. This program serves foods that largely require no preparation, contain no pork or pork derivatives, do not mix meat or dairy products in the service of food items, and are served with utensils that have not come in contact with pork or pork derivatives. To the extent practicable, this diet contains approximately three hot entrées a week to accommodate the religious dietary needs of the Muslim and Jewish inmates, and meets or exceeds the required dietary allowances established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences. Bureau of Prisons (BOP) policy provides that inmates requesting a religious diet must submit an application to the prison chaplain, who is responsible for approving requests for special religious diets, otherwise called the "common fare diet program." See Federal Bureau of Prisons Operations Memorandum 051-95 (Apr. 6, 1995). An "inmate shall ordinarily begin eating from the common fare menu within two days after Food Service receives written authorization from the Chap-lain." See id. at 3.

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 12:00

One potential roadblock to getting vegetarian food in prison is the prison dietitian. While most prison dietitians are likely to be knowledgeable about vegetarian and vegan diets, some may go so far as to say that a vegetarian diet is unhealthy and could cause nutritional problems in a prison setting. In one case, Jenkins v. Angelone, 948 F. Supp. 543 (1996), the registered dietitian for the prison stated that inmates on such a diet would be prone to rickets, scurvy, and other conditions associated with malnutrition. To prevent an argument like this from destroying a prisoner's case, the prisoner should supply the court with any evidence to the contrary and obtain any supporting affidavits possible. Also, the prisoner should try submitting the position paper from The American Dietetic Association that states that vegetarian diets are healthy and nutritionally adequate.

In Nevada, one prison offers pork-free and vegetarian alternative meals to all inmates and provides special medical diets to inmates who require such accommodation. Prison regulations provide that an inmate may choose one of the pork-free or vegetarian alternatives for religious, health, or personal reasons. These alternatives conform to the dictates of the Muslim, Hare Krishna, and Seventh-day Adventist religions. Also, during the month of Ramadan, the prison provides Muslim inmates with sack lunches so they can eat at religiously dictated times. While this type of policy would be ideal in all state prisons, many policies and decisions regarding meal planning are left to individual prisons. For example, each state is allowed to set its own regulation regarding the daily minimum number of calories that must be provided to each inmate.

Some vegetarian inmates have been transferred to other prisons that could accommodate their dietary needs. There is no specific right to a transfer of this sort; however, in some instances, a carefully crafted request to transfer may be effective after a showing that there are no feasible alternatives at the prison where an inmate is currently incarcerated.

When a prisoner is considering a strategy or plan of action in seeking vegetarian meals, it is important to carefully document any incidents where he or she is denied vegetarian meals. The prisoner should record the date, time, place, and persons involved. For example, if the prisoner requests vegetarian food from the physician or the chaplain, the information regarding that request should be documented.

CONCLUSION
Receiving vegetarian or vegan meals in prison is no easy process. Although it may sound crass, the easiest way to receive vegetarian or vegan meals in prison is to join a religion that has vegetarianism or veganism as a tenet of the faith. Although it could be argued that ethical veganism should qualify as a religion under the First Amendment, courts may rule otherwise.

It is unfortunate and ironic that prisons are resistant to providing vegetarian or vegan meals. If we want prisoners to renounce violence, shouldn't we encourage them to be involved in lifestyles that exemplify non-violence?

Paul W. Rebein is a partner in the law firm Shook, Hardy & Bacon, L.L.P, and has concentrated his practice in civil litigation. He specializes in business litigation, personal injury, and employment litigation. He is vegan.
Amy Ogden is a third year law student at Washburn School of Law. She will be working for the law firm of Shook, Hardy & Bacon, L.L.P, next fall. She is vegan, too.

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 12:01

Este articulo fue escrito el 13 de avril de 1996.

Humans are Omnivores
Adapted from a talk by John McArdle, Ph.D.

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Document Sections:
Introduction
Confusion between Taxonomy and Diet
Omnivorism
The Great Apes
Evidence of Humans as Omnivores
Archeological Record
Cell Types
Fermenting Vats
Jaws
Salivary Glands
Intestines
Conclusion
APPENDIX: Other Thoughts
For Questions or Comments

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Introduction
There are a number of popular myths about vegetarianism that have no scientific basis in fact. One of these myths is that man is naturally a vegetarian because our bodies resemble plant eaters, not carnivores. In fact we are omnivores, capable of either eating meat or plant foods. The following addresses the unscientific theory of man being only a plant eater.

Confusion between Taxonomy and Diet
Much of the misinformation on the issue of man's being a natural vegetarian arises from confusion between taxonomic (in biology, the procedure of classifying organisms in established categories) and dietary characteristics.

Members of the mammalian Order Carnivora may or may not be exclusive meat eaters. Those which eat only meat are carnivores. Dietary adaptations are not limited by a simple dichotomy between herbivores (strict vegetarians) and carnivores (strict meat-eaters), but include frugivores (predominantly fruit), gramnivores (nuts, seeds, etc.), folivores (leaves), insectivores (carnivore-insects and small vertebrates), etc. Is is also important to remember that the relation between the form (anatomy/physiology) and function (behavior) is not always one to one. Individual anatomical structures can serve one or more functions and similar functions can be served by several forms.

Omnivorism
The key category in the discussion of human diet is omnivores, which are defined as generalized feeders, with neither carnivore nor herbivore specializations for acquiring or processing food, and who are capable of consuming and do consume both animal protein and vegetation. They are basically *opportunistic* feeders (survive by eating what is available) with more generalized anatomical and physiological traits, especially the dentition (teeth). All the available evidence indicates that the natural human diet is omnivorous and would include meat. We are not, however, required to consume animal protein. We have a choice.

The Great Apes
There are very few frugivores amongst the mammals in general, and primates in particular. The only apes that are predominantly fruit eaters (gibbons and siamangs) are atypical for apes in many behavioral and ecological respects and eat substantial amounts of vegetation. Orangutans are similar, with no observations in the wild of eating meat.

Gorillas are more typically vegetarian, with less emphasis on fruit. Several years ago a very elegant study was done on the relationship between body size and diet in primates (and some other mammal groups). The only primates on the list with pure diets were the very small species (which are entirely insectivorous) and the largest (which specialize in vegetarian diet). However, the spectrum of dietary preferences reflect the daily food intake needs of each body size and the relative availability of food resources in a tropical forest. Our closest relatives among the apes are the chimpanzees (i.e., anatomically, behaviorally, genetically, and evolutionarily), who frequently kill and eat other mammals (including other primates).

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 12:01

Evidence of Humans as Omnivores
Archeological Record
As far back as it can be traced, clearly the archeological record indicates an omnivorous diet for humans that included meat. Our ancestry is among the hunter/gatherers from the beginning. Once domestication of food sources began, it included both animals and plants.

Cell Types
Relative number and distribution of cell types, as well as structural specializations, are more important than overall length of the intestine to determining a typical diet. Dogs are typical carnivores, but their intestinal characteristics have more in common with omnivores. Wolves eat quite a lot of plant material.

Fermenting Vats
Nearly all plant eaters have fermenting vats (enlarged chambers where foods sits and microbes attack it). Ruminants like cattle and deer have forward sacs derived from remodeled esophagus and stomach. Horses, rhinos, and colobine monkeys have posterior, hindgut sacs. Humans have no such specializations.

Jaws
Although evidence on the structure and function of human hands and jaws, behavior, and evolutionary history also either support an omnivorous diet or fail to support strict vegetarianism, the best evidence comes from our teeth.

The short canines in humans are a functional consequence of the enlarged cranium and associated reduction of the size of the jaws. In primates, canines function as both defense weapons and visual threat devices. Interestingly, the primates with the largest canines (gorillas and gelada baboons) both have basically vegetarian diets. In archeological sites, broken human molars are most often confused with broken premolars and molars of pigs, a classic omnivore. On the other hand, some herbivores have well-developed incisors that are often mistaken for those of human teeth when found in archeological excavations.

Salivary Glands
These indicate we could be omnivores. Saliva and urine data vary, depending on diet, not taxonomic group.

Intestines
Intestinal absorption is a surface area, not linear problem. Dogs (which are carnivores) have intestinal specializations more characteristic of omnivores than carnivores such as cats. The relative number of crypts and cell types is a better indication of diet than simple length. We are intermediate between the two groups.

Conclusion
Humans are classic examples of omnivores in all relevant anatomical traits. There is no basis in anatomy or physiology for the assumption that humans are pre-adapted to the vegetarian diet. For that reason, the best arguments in support of a meat-free diet remain ecological, ethical, and health concerns.

[Dr. McArdle is a vegetarian and currently Scientific Advisor to The American Anti-Vivisection Society. He is an anatomist and a primatologist.]

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 12:02

APPENDIX: Other Thoughts
The following information is taken from The New York Times, May 15, 1979. According to Dr. Alan Walker, a Johns Hopkins University anthropologist, Homo Erectus, the species immediately ancestorial to our own Homo Sapiens, had evidence of an omnivorous diet. Every Homo-Erectus tooth found was that of an omnivore. However, a small sample of teeth from the human-like species during a 12 million year period leading up to the Homo-Erectus period, indicates the earlier species may have been a fruit eater. Even if this species, way before our own, lived on a fruit diet, they probably would not have consumed what we consider typical fruits. Hundreds of plants produce fruits that are tougher, more substantial foods than what we eat today.

Quoted from an editorial by William Clifford Roberts, M.d., Editor-in-Chief of the American Journal of Cardiology:

"When we kill animals to eat them, they end up killing us because their flesh, which contains cholesterol and saturated fat, was never intended for human beings, who are natural herbivores."

Quoted from "WHAT DID OUR ANCESTORS EAT?" in Nutrition Reviews, by Stanley Garn, Professor of Nutrition and Anthropology, and William Leonard, Assistant Professor of Human Biology:

"These people of Upper Pleistocene, and later those of the mesolithic, were our immediate ancestors, no longer hunters exclusively and with whole-grain products and a variable amount of roots, fruits, leafy vegetables and nuts in their diet. We must grant them a mixed diet, with animal fat providing a smaller proportion of their food energy than was probably true for the Neanderthals."

This article was originally published in the May/June 1991 edition of the Vegetarian Journal, published by:

The Vegetarian Resource Group
P.O. Box 1463, Dept. IN
Baltimore, MD 21203
(410) 366-VEGE

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 12:03

Vegetarian Journal 2006 Issue 2Low-Cost Vegan Meal Plans
by Melissa Wong
Can someone follow a vegan diet and stay within a strict financial budget? The answer is yes! The following meal plans were devised for three specific populations: young adults, older adults, and a family of four. If you do not fit into one of these categories, you may still use the ideas in this article to develop a meal plan that is just right for you. Each plan features an array of meal ideas that are quick and easy to prepare, that contain the nutrients your body needs, and that won’t put a huge dent in your wallet.

The cost and calorie levels for each meal plan can be found in Table 1 below. Calorie levels were based on the recommendations of the USDA MyPyramid, 1 an online tool that can help you choose the foods and amounts that are right for you. Since this serves as an estimate of calorie needs, you must factor in your own physical activity level. If you are very active, you will require more calories than the amounts that are listed. To increase your caloric intake, you may either consume larger portions of the foods already in the meal plan, or you may add your own favorite foods to the meal plan. Conversely, if you are not very active or would like to lose excess weight, you will require fewer calories than the amounts that are listed. To reduce calories, you may cut down on vegan margarine and snacks, or you can reduce your portion sizes.

The USDA Thrifty Food Plan 2 serves as a national standard for a low-cost, nutritious diet. The costs per day shown in Table 1 were based on the Thrifty Food Plan for each population. All meal plans are within 10 percent of this cost. Whenever possible, store brands were chosen over name brands. Not only were they lower in cost, but compared side-by-side, products had similar ingredients. In addition, frozen vegetables and canned fruits in their own juices were chosen over their fresh counterparts because they were lower in cost but provided the same nutrients. Other money-saving ideas include buying items when they are on sale, buying in larger quantities when possible, and choosing beans over meat analogues. All meals were prepared at home.

These meal plans provide room for substitutions. You should feel free to eat fruits and vegetables other than the ones that are mentioned, but you should make sure that you are consuming adequate nutrients when you make these substitutions. An easy way to do this is to model the colors of the rainbow on your plate. You should make sure you include dark leafy greens in your diet every day and eat fruits and vegetables that are red, orange or yellow, white, and blue or purple regularly. If you are trying to lower your sodium intake, you may need to choose some low sodium products. For example, 2 Tablespoons of peanut butter has 140 milligrams of sodium, while no-salt-added peanut butter doesn’t have any sodium. If you buy high-sodium products, such as canned beans, rinse them under running water before using to reduce their sodium content. Lastly, if you can spend a little more than the Thrifty Food Plan figures, you may want to choose more whole grain products, fresh produce, meat analogues, and/or favorte foods that are not listed here.

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 12:03

Table, Chart, and Recipe Index
Table 1: Calorie Levels and Cost for Budgeted Meal Plans
Chart 1: Low-Cost Vegan Meal Plan for Young Adults - Day 1
Chart 2: Low-Cost Vegan Meal Plan for Young Adults - Day 2
Chart 3: Low-Cost Vegan Meal Plan for Seniors - Day 1
Chart 4: Low-Cost Vegan Meal Plan for Seniors - Day 2
Chart 5: Low-Cost Vegan Meal Plan for a Family of Four - Day 1
Chart 6: Low-Cost Vegan Meal Plan for a Family of Four - Day 2
Chart 7: Low-Cost Vegan Meal Plan for a Family of Four - Day 3
Recipe 1: Mock 'Tuna' Salad
Recipe 2: Veggie Pizza
Recipe 3: Lentil Soup
Recipe 4: Karen's Creamy Rice Pudding
Recipe 5: Vegetarian Chili
Recipe 6: Veggie Pizza
References
Table 1: Calorie Levels and Cost for Budgeted Meal Plans

Young Adult Female Young Adult Male Older Adult Female Older Adult Male Family of Four
Calorie Level 2,200 2,700 1,900 2,300 2,050
(average per person)
Cost Per Day
(Based on Massachusetts prices in June 2005) $4.30 $4.74 $4.24 $4.33 16.67
( $4.17 per person)
Chart 1: Low-Cost Vegan Meal Plan for Young Adults - Day 1

Breakfast:
½ frozen bagel (whole for males)
1 Tablespoon peanut butter (2 Tablespoons for males)
½ medium banana
Fruit smoothie made with:
½ frozen banana
4 ounces thawed frozen calcium-fortified orange juice
1 cup frozen strawberries
Lunch:
Mock 'Tuna' Salad wrap in large tortilla with:
1 cup lettuce
¼ cup tomatoes
¼ cup grated carrots
4 ounces applesauce
1 cup fortified soymilk
3 ginger snaps (6 ginger snaps for males)
Snack:
10 saltines (20 saltines for males)
Dinner:
Tofu and veggie Thai noodles made with:
1/5-block tofu
1 cup frozen mixed vegetables
¼ cup chunky peanut butter
1 cup pasta
1 cup frozen mustard greens, cooked
Dessert:
½ cup canned peaches (1 cup peaches for males)
1 crushed ginger snap (2 crushed ginger snaps for males) to sprinkle over peaches
(Add 4 ounces soymilk for males.)

Goal Price Actual Price +/- Target Price
Females $4.30 $4.16 -$0.14
Males $4.74 $5.05 +$0.31

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 12:03

Mock 'Tuna' Salad
(Serves 3)

1 cup canned chickpeas
1 stalk celery, chopped
1/2 small onion, finely chopped
3 Tablespoons vegan mayonnaise
Salt and pepper to taste

Mash chickpeas in a small bowl. Add remaining ingredients and mix well.

Total calories per serving: 166 Fat: 8 grams
Carbohydrates: 21 grams Protein: 4 grams
Sodium: 305 milligrams Fiber: 4 grams

From Wasserman, Debra, and Charles Stahler. Meatless Meals for Working People, 4th ed. Baltimore: VRG, 2004. Page 118.

Chart 2: Low-Cost Vegan Meal Plan for Young Adults - Day 2

Breakfast:
1 cup store-brand 'Total' cereal
1 cup fortified soymilk
¼ cup raisins
½ medium banana
One vegan English muffin with:
2 Tablespoons nonhydrogenated vegan margarine
1 cup thawed frozen calcium-fortified orange juice
Lunch:
Baked potato - medium for females, large for males
(with 2 Tablespoons nonhydrogenated vegan margarine for males)
1 cup frozen broccoli, cooked
4 ounces canned pears
3 ginger snaps
Snack:
Rice cake with:
2 Tablespoons peanut butter
1 cup fortified soymilk
Dinner:
Bean burrito (2 bean burritos for males) made with:
1 cup canned beans and rice
½ cup canned beans, mashed and cooked to make refried beans
1 cup frozen spinach, cooked
1 tortilla
10 tortilla chips
½ cup salsa

Goal Price Actual Price +/- Target Price Two-Day Total +/- Target Price
Females $4.30 $3.95 -$0.35 $8.11 -$0.49
Males $4.74 $4.21 -$0.53 $9.26 -$0.22

Chart 3: Low-Cost Vegan Meal Plan for Seniors - Day 1

Breakfast:
1 cup prepared quick oatmeal
½ cup fortified soymilk
One medium banana
1 cup thawed frozen calcium-fortified orange juice
(Add 2 slices of toast and 2 Tablespoons nonhydrogenated vegan margarine for males.)
Lunch:
1 cup pasta
4 ounces marinara sauce
1 cup frozen broccoli, cooked
1 slice bread (2 slices for males) with:
1 teaspoon nonhydrogenated vegan margarine (2 teaspoons for males)
3 ginger snaps
(Add 4 ounces applesauce for males.)
Snack:
9 Ritz-type crackers with:
2 Tablespoons peanut butter
1 cup fortified soymilk
Dinner:
Baked potato (small for females, large for males) with:
2 teaspoons nonhydrogenated vegan margarine (4 teaspoons for males)
½ cup vegetarian baked beans
1 cup frozen peas and carrots, cooked
1 cup canned peaches

Goal Price Actual Price +/- Target Price
Females $4.24 $3.39 -$0.85
Males $4.33 $3.88 -$0.45

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 12:04

Chart 4: Low-Cost Vegan Meal Plan for Seniors - Day 2

Breakfast:
1 cup store-brand 'Total' cereal
½ cup fortified soymilk
¼ cup raisins
1 slice toast (2 slices for males) with:
1 Tablespoon peanut butter (2 Tablespoons for males)
(Add 1 cup thawed frozen calcium-fortified orange juice for males.)
Lunch:
Veggie Pizza
1 cup frozen turnips, cooked
1 cup thawed frozen strawberries
2 crushed ginger snaps (3 crushed ginger snaps for males) to sprinkle over strawberries
Snack:
10 saltine crackers with:
½ cup hummus
½ cup fortified soymilk
Dinner:
1 cup red beans and rice
Stir-fry made with:
1 cup frozen kale
1/5-block tofu
1 cup canned pears
Additional Snack:
(One rice cake with 2 Tablespoons peanut butter for males)

Goal Price Actual Price +/- Target Price Two-Day Total +/- Target Price
Females $4.24 $4.27 +$0.03 $7.66 -$0.82
Males $4.33 $4.86 +$0.53 $8.74 +$0.08

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 12:04

Chart 4: Low-Cost Vegan Meal Plan for Seniors - Day 2

Breakfast:
1 cup store-brand 'Total' cereal
½ cup fortified soymilk
¼ cup raisins
1 slice toast (2 slices for males) with:
1 Tablespoon peanut butter (2 Tablespoons for males)
(Add 1 cup thawed frozen calcium-fortified orange juice for males.)
Lunch:
Veggie Pizza
1 cup frozen turnips, cooked
1 cup thawed frozen strawberries
2 crushed ginger snaps (3 crushed ginger snaps for males) to sprinkle over strawberries
Snack:
10 saltine crackers with:
½ cup hummus
½ cup fortified soymilk
Dinner:
1 cup red beans and rice
Stir-fry made with:
1 cup frozen kale
1/5-block tofu
1 cup canned pears
Additional Snack:
(One rice cake with 2 Tablespoons peanut butter for males)

Goal Price Actual Price +/- Target Price Two-Day Total +/- Target Price
Females $4.24 $4.27 +$0.03 $7.66 -$0.82
Males $4.33 $4.86 +$0.53 $8.74 +$0.08

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 12:06

Veggie Pizza
(Serves 1)

1 cup frozen sliced mixed bell peppers, thawed
4 ounces marinara sauce
1 large tortilla

Preheat oven to 400 degrees. Spread marinara sauce evenly on large tortilla. Top with mixed bell peppers. Bake for 5 minutes or until tortilla is crisp.

Total calories per serving: 317 Fat: 8 grams
Carbohydrates: 53 grams Protein: 9 grams
Sodium: 816 milligrams Fiber: 6 grams

Chart 5: Low-Cost Vegan Meal Plan for a Family of Four - Day 1

Breakfast:
¾ cup fortified cold cereal (1 cup for adult males)
1 cup fortified soymilk
½ banana (whole for adult males)
6 ounces calcium-fortified orange juice (8 ounces for adults)
(Add 2 slices of toast with 2 teaspoons nonhydrogenated vegan margarine for adult males.)
Morning Snack:
Celery sticks with:
2 Tablespoons peanut butter
(Add 2 Tablespoons raisins for adults.)
Lunch:
Hummus sandwich with:
2 slices bread
2 Tablespoons hummus
Lettuce and tomato
4 ounces applesauce
3 ginger snap cookies (6 cookies for children and for adult males)
(8 ounces fortified soymilk for children)
Afternoon Snack:
1½ cups air-popped popcorn (2 cups for adult males)
Dinner:
Lentil Soup with:
1 slice of toast
½ cup frozen mustard greens, cooked (1 cup for adult males)
(4 ounces fortified soymilk for children)
Dessert:
Karen's Creamy Rice Pudding
(Add 1 graham cracker for children and for adult males.)

Goal Price Actual Price +/- Target Price
Family of Four
(Two adults and two children) $16.67 $16.69 + $0.02

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 12:06

Lentil Soup
(Serves 4)

2 shallots, finely chopped
1 small yellow onion, finely chopped
2 teaspoons olive oil
3 cups water
1 cup dry green lentils, rinsed
1 red potato, peeled and finely diced
1 large tomato, peeled and diced
1 small stalk celery, diced
1 small carrot, slivered
1/4 cup freshly chopped parsley
Salt and pepper to taste

In a deep soup pot, sauté shallots and onions in heated oil. Add water and lentils and bring to a boil. Reduce heat and simmer, adding more water if needed to keep the 3-cup level of liquid. Cook lentils until barely tender. Add all other vegetables and seasonings. Continue to cook for at least 20 minutes. Fork-mash or purée mixture. Serve warm.

Total calories per serving: 225 Fat: 3 grams
Carbohydrates: 39 grams Protein: 13 grams
Sodium: 45 milligrams Fiber: 9 grams

From Wasserman, Debra, and Reed Mangels, eds. Vegan Handbook. Baltimore: VRG, 2005. Page 26.


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Karen's Creamy Rice Pudding
(Serves 4)

1 cup precooked rice
3/4 teaspoon cinnamon
1/2 Tablespoon vanilla extract
1/2 cup raisins
2 cups soymilk

Mix all ingredients in a pot. Simmer until mixture begins to thicken, stirring occasionally. Remove from stove and serve.

Total calories per serving: 168 Fat: 3 grams
Carbohydrates: 32 grams Protein: 5 grams
Sodium: 21 milligrams Fiber: 3 grams

From Wasserman, Debra, and Reed Mangels. Simply Vegan, 4th ed. Baltimore: VRG, 2006. Page 115.

Chart 6: Low-Cost Vegan Meal Plan for a Family of Four - Day 2

Breakfast:
Eggless French Toast (See recipe in Meatless Meals or at vrg.org.) with:
1 Tablespoon maple syrup for each slice of French Toast
¼ cup thawed frozen strawberries
6 ounces calcium-fortified orange juice (8 ounces for adults)
8 ounces fortified soymilk
Lunch:
Eggplant-Rice Burger (See recipe in Vegan Handbook or at vrg.org.) with:
2 slices of bread (4 slices for adult males)
1 Tablespoon vegan mayonnaise (2 Tablespoons for adult males)
½ cup frozen carrots, cooked
(Add ½ cup frozen kale, cooked, for adults.)
½ cup pineapple chunks (1 cup for adults)
(8 ounces fortified soymilk for children)
Snack:
5 saltines (10 for adult males) with:
1 Tablespoon peanut butter (2 for adult males)
6-ounce frozen apple juice bar with added vitamin C
Dinner:
1 cup Vegetarian Chili (See below.)
Baked potato with:
1 teaspoon nonhydrogenated vegan margarine
½ cup broccoli (1 cup for adults)
(Add a slice of bread with 1 teaspoon vegan margarine for adult males.)
(8 ounces fortified soymilk for children)

Goal Price Actual Price +/- Target Price
Family of Four (Two adults and two children) $16.67 16.85 +$0.18

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 12:07

Vegetarian Chili
(Serves 4)

1 package chili seasoning
One 16-ounce can kidney beans
One 16-ounce can chickpeas
16 ounces tomato sauce

Combine all ingredients in a large pot. Bring to a boil, cover, and simmer for 10 minutes.

Total calories per serving: 273 Fat: 3 grams
Carbohydrates: 52 grams Protein: 13 grams
Sodium: 1,612 milligrams Fiber: 10 grams

Chart 7: Low-Cost Vegan Meal Plan for a Family of Four - Day 3

Breakfast:
½ frozen bagel (whole bagel for adults) with:
2 Tablespoons peanut butter (4 Tablespoons for adults)
½ medium banana (whole banana for adult males)
(Add 2 Tablespoons raisins for boys and for adults.)
6 ounces calcium-fortified orange juice (8 ounces for adults)
8 ounces fortified soymilk
Lunch:
Veggie Pizza (2 pizzas for adult males)
½ cup canned peaches (1 cup for adults)
3 ginger snaps (6 for adult males)
(Add 2 Tablespoons peanut butter for children.)
(8 ounces fortified soymilk for children)
Dinner:
1 cup spaghetti and marinara sauce
½ cup frozen peas and corn, cooked
½ cup spinach (1 cup for adult males)
1 slice bread for boys (2 slices for adults) with:
1 teaspoon nonhydrogenated vegan margarine for boys (2 teaspoons for adults)
(8 ounces soymilk for children)
Dessert:
Apple crisp made with:
½ cup baked apples with cinnamon
¼ cup store-brand 'Total' cereal, crushed

Goal Price Actual Price +/- Target Price
Family of Four
(Two adults and two children) $16.67 $14.22 - $2.45
For Total Three Days $50.01 $47.76 - $2.25



Veggie Pizza
(Serves 1)

1/4 cup stewed tomatoes
1 large tortilla
1/8 cup olives
1/8 cup mushrooms
1/4 cup thawed frozen spinach

Preheat oven to 400 degrees. Crush stewed tomatoes with a fork and spread evenly onto the large tortilla. Top with olives, mushrooms, and spinach. Bake for 5 minutes or until tortilla is crisp.

Total calories per serving: 285 Fat: 7 grams
Carbohydrates: 48 grams Protein: 8 grams
Sodium: 712 milligrams Fiber: 5 grams


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


References
MyPyramid: Food Intake Patterns. Accessed on June 22, 2005.
USDA Food Plans. Accessed on June 22, 2005.
Official USDA food plans: Cost of food at home at four levels, U.S. average, April 2005. Accessed on June 22, 2005.
Note: The content of this article is not intended to provide personal medical advice. Medical advice should be obtained from a qualified health professional.



Melissa Wong wrote this article while doing a rotation for her dietetic internship with The Vegetarian Resource Group.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Excerpts from the 2006 Issue 2:

Low-Cost Vegan Meal Plans
Dietetic intern Melissa Wong helps young adults, seniors, and families of four eat healthfully without emptying their wallets.
Fiery Vegan Dishes From Around the World
Habeeb Salloum adapts spicy-hot recipes from Latin America, North Africa, Southern Asia, and beyond.
Perchlorate Controversy Calls for Improving Iodine Nutrition
David M. Crohn, PhD, examines the risks of perchlorate consumption and how vegetarians and vegans can improve their iodine health.
Nutrition Hotline
What is tempeh, where can you buy it, and what do you do with it?
Note from the Coordinators
Letters to the Editors
Notes from the VRG Scientific Department
Interviews that our dietitians granted.
Vegan Cooking Tips
How to Use Leftover Rice, by Chef Nancy Berkoff.
Scientific Update
Veggie Bits
Book Reviews
Catalog
Vegetarian Action
Vegetarianism and Tennis: An Interview with Peter Burwash by Heather Gorn.
Look for These Products in Your Local Market

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Vegetarian Journal published here is not the complete issue, but these are excerpts from the published magazine. Anyone who wishes to see everything should subscribe to the magazine.

Thanks to volunteer Stephanie Schueler for converting this article to HTML.

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 12:11

Este articulo fue escrito el 11 de junio de 2000.

Rethinking Restaurant Tipping

This is an article about tipping in restaurants. It occurred to me that this subject needed to be addressed among vegetarians because I had noticed so many times that waiters (both men and women) serving vegetarians were being shortchanged.
I have seen it happen both in vegetarian restaurants, and in non-vegetarian restaurants when people ordered vegetarian food. What spurred me to write something was a recent experience on a New York trip when I had dinner in a vegetarian restaurant with two middle-aged couples (with comfortable lifestyles), who got up from the table and left a total of $2.00 as their tip. We had had a pleasant and inexpensive meal, and we had occupied the table for over an hour.

It costs waiters in vegetarian restaurants just as much for living expenses as people serving food in any other restaurant. I have thought for a long time now that it did not seem fair that these waiters, who are willing to work in a place that promotes good health (and, intentionally or not, compassion for animals, and a healthier environment), should end up with less compensation for their labors than people working in places which do not promote such values.

If we want to encourage the proliferation of vegetarian restaurants, we should not expect the service people to become economic martyrs. If the average dinner in a traditional restaurant costs $20 - $25 or more, and a waiter can earn a tip of $4 - $5 (and up) for serving such a meal, we can understand why many waiters would want to (or have to) work there, rather than in a vegetarian restaurant, where a meal might cost $8 - $10 (or even less). If people use the traditional 15 - 20% rate for tipping, then many of these waiters end up leaving because they can not support themselves.

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 12:12

There's a Greek restaurant I sometimes patronize. When I do, I order a plate full of vegetables and grains (such as green beans, eggplant, potatoes, carrots, rice, etc.). Since they charge only $3.00-$3.50 for the platter (pricing each vegetable as if it were a side dish), I end up with a whole dinner's worth of food for less than what many people spend when they go out for lunch. If I were to tip 15 or 20%, the poor waiter would end up with a 50 to 70 cents tip for serving my meal. I cannot believe that person would look forward to my return, or that she or he would encourage the restaurant owner to put a lot of inexpensive vegetarian options on the menu. (I also think these platters should be priced higher since restaurants count on selling more expensive entrees.) The problem is compounded by the fact that many, if not most, vegetarians do not drink much liquor, traditionally a big profit item in restaurants.

Even if we dine in non-vegetarian restaurants, but order healthy (and inevitably less expensive) food, I feel we should tip as if we had ordered an average priced meal in that restaurant. Otherwise, we will not be welcome as customers by the waiters, since they know they will have to serve us for the same amount of time as those ordering the more expensive food, but will receive a lot less money in tips. I want to encourage restaurants to offer vegetarians options without having to fight the waiters.

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 12:13

In my opinion, at today's prices, someone should leave a minimum tip of $3.00 - $3.50 (per person) for dinner, no matter how inexpensive the tab. It is tough enough for vegetarian restaurants to afford rent and utility costs when they are competing with traditional places --let's not have those willing to work there make half or a third of what someone makes at restaurants serving expensive, but unhealthy food.

Another thought -- related but slightly off the topic -- is the matter of tipping at banquets and conferences. When vegetarians do not tip the service providers, or tip them with minimal amounts, then the owners of the facilities have less incentive to have future vegetarian events. The irony is that often the service people working at vegetarian events must work harder to prepare food that they are not familiar with and need to spend more time learning about new dishes. They really deserve more in tips, not less!!! If we can afford to eat out, we can afford decent tips.

This article was originally published in the Vegetarian Journal Reports, Copyright 1990, published by:
The Vegetarian Resource Group
P.O. Box 1463, Dept. IN
Baltimore, MD 21203
(410) 366-VEGE
The Vegetarian Resource Group (VRG) is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating the public on vegetarianism and the interrelated issues of health, nutrition, ecology, ethics, and world hunger. In addition to publishing the _Vegetarian_Journal_, VRG produces and sells cookbooks, other books, pamphlets, and article reprints.
For more information, send a stamped self-addressed envelope to the above address. Subscriptions to the Vegetarian Journal are $20 per year. All contributions above the $20 subscription are tax-deductible to the full extent allowed by law. Contributions help VRG promote vegetarianism.

This article may be reproduced for non-commercial use intact or with credit given to The Vegetarian Resource Group.

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 12:14

Et en ce qui concerne devenir végétalien ?
Un régime végétalien est un régime qui exclue tous les produits animaux, y compris les produits laitiers et les œufs. De plus beaucoup de végétaliens ne portent pas de cuir ou de laine, et évitent les autres produits qui contiennent des ingrédients en provenance d’animaux.

Pour certains, devenir végétarien n’est pas assez. La souffrance des animaux dans les industries laitières et les élevages de volaille est tellement énorme que beaucoup de gens estiment devoir contrer cela en s’abstenant de consommer des produits laitiers et des œufs. De toute évidence, c’est une progression parfaitement logique que de passer du végétarisme au végétalisme. Si nous voulons réduire le montant de brutalités que causent nos besoins et nos appétits, il n’aide en rien de prendre pour acquis que nous avons fait tout ce que nous pouvions en devenant végétarien. Les végétariens ont besoin de se méfier de l’autosatisfaction, et les arguments de ce livre encouragent le passage du végétarisme au végétalisme tout autant que le passage de la consommation de viande au végétarisme.

Comme nous l’avons vu, l’industrie laitière et l’industrie de la viande ne sont en réalité qu’une seule et même entité économique. Les vaches doivent vêler afin de produire du lait. La plupart des veaux ainsi conçus (surtout les mâles parmi eux) n’ont aucune utilité si ce n’est comme viande. En encourageant l’industrie laitière, nous encourageons en même temps l’industrie de la viande. Il est plein de sens, considérant ce que nous savons maintenant, d’aller jusqu’au bout et d’arrêter d’encourager les deux. Cela peut vouloir dire regarder de près les étiquettes de ce que l’on achète. Les œufs et le lait sont utilisés dans un large rayon de produits, y compris les biscuits, les gâteaux, les yaourts, les glaces, le chocolat, etc., mais pour tous il y a des alternatives végétaliennes.

Si vous prenez la décision de devenir végétalien, il y a un nutriment auquel vous devez donner une attention particulière : la vitamine B12. Elle est nécessaire pour une bonne production sanguine et pour subvenir aux besoins du système nerveux. La viande et les produits laitiers en sont des sources abondantes, mais les légumes ne contiennent que des traces de cette vitamine. Cependant, elle est abondante dans les extraits de levure et la nourriture fermentée comme la sauce au soja et le miso, et la vitamine B12 est ajoutée en complément dans d’autres produits (certaines margarines, le lait de soja, les céréales de petit déjeuner, etc.). Nous n’avons besoin chaque jour que de quantités infimes, et même pour une femme enceinte, les 2 millionièmes d’un gramme seront suffisant pour la maintenir en bonne santé. Si vous avez un doute, prenez un supplément.

Si vous mangez de la viande, vous pouvez penser que c’est un changement trop radical que d’adopter directement un régime végétalien. En fait votre système digestif est susceptible de ne pas s’adapter si facilement à une telle modification de vos habitudes alimentaire en un temps trop court. Il est de meilleur conseil de changer vos habitudes petit à petit - après tout, tout changement que vous opérerez en vous dirigeant vers le végétalianisme va représenter un bénéfice pour le monde. Même si vous ne pensez pas pouvoir devenir immédiatement végétalien alors que vous consommez de la viande, il est toujours bon d’être conscient que devenir végétarien est une action immensément positive. Au cours d’une vie de durée moyenne, cela aura pour conséquence qu’un grand nombre d’animaux n’auront pas à faire les expériences infernales que nous avons explorées en imagination. Une fois que vous vous sentez bien à l’aise en étant végétarien, vous pouvez commencer à manger végétalien de plus en plus.

Si vous êtes un végétarien qui consommez toujours des produits laitiers et des œufs, j’espère que cette exploration des principes du végétarisme et des pratiques fermières modernes vous persuaderont d’aller un pas plus loin dans la direction de l’abstention de faire du mal, et de cultiver un amour embrassant tout ce qui vit.

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 12:15

Introduction
Je n’avais jamais envisagé de devenir végétarien, mais jamais non plus je n’avais vu d’animal en train de se faire abattre. Ma classe d’étudiants vétérinaires en troisième année effectuait la visite d’un abattoir, et l’on nous montrait de quelle façon les animaux sont tués. Le cochon choisi pour l’abattage reçut une balle dans la tête avec un pistolet paralysant, sa gorge fut tranchée à l’aide un couteau, et il mourut dans une mare de sang sur le carrelage blanc. Cela ne prit que quelques secondes.

Beaucoup de personnes – en fait des millions – ont arrêté de manger de la viande ces dernières années. Les végétariens ont cessé d’être une toute petite minorité mais rassemblent une partie significative de la population du Royaume Uni. Dans d’autres parties du monde occidental nous pouvons observer la même tendance. Ceci représente un changement majeur dans nos habitudes alimentaires, et un changement dans notre comportement éthique vis-à-vis du monde animal. Comme il arrive souvent avec les changements, il y a eu une certaine confusion. Certaines réclames disent que la viande est essentielle pour la santé, et d’autres qu’elle nous tue. Certaines réclames nous disent que nous avons besoin de « Viande pour Vivre », d’autres que la « Viande est du Meurtre ».

Il peut être difficile de porter un regard objectif sur le sujet de la consommation de viande. Même le fait de penser à modifier une habitude de longue date – et il se peut que nous ayons mangé de la viande depuis que nous sommes bébé – peut être quelque chose de difficile. Il se peut que nos amis mangent de la viande et n’y voient aucun problème, et il n’est pas facile d’être différent de ceux qui nous sont proches. D’un autre côté, la question de la souffrance animale peut provoquer des réactions émotionnelles fortes. Cela peut avoir une utilité, mais cela peut aussi accroître la difficulté d’être clair vis-à-vis des questions en jeu. Parfois il semble plus facile de ne pas y penser du tout ! Mais si vous avez ce livre sous les yeux, alors probablement le végétarisme est un sujet qui vous intéresse, et peut-être envisagez-vous de devenir végétarien.

Est-ce que le bouddhisme peut aider à y voir plus clair dans les questions éthiques qui sont en jeu ? Ou l’image donnée par le monde bouddhiste est-elle aussi confuse – peut-être encore davantage ? A l’inauguration d’un nouveau temple tibétain au Royaume Uni, du poulet et d’autres viandes étaient disposés sur les tables pour les invités. Dans un monastère chinois, les moines sont strictement végétariens, et les laïques mangent à certaines occasions de la nourriture végétarienne. Le Dalaï Lama mange de la viande, mais d’autres bouddhistes pensent que manger de la chair est une violation de la règle la plus fondamentale de l’éthique bouddhiste.

C’est ma conviction que l’éthique bouddhiste encourage l’adoption d’un régime végétarien, végétalien même, et ce livre a pour but d’encourager ceux qui mangent de la viande à devenir végétarien. J’espère qu’il sera d’un intérêt particulier à ceux qui commencent à prendre le bouddhisme au sérieux et font attention aux implications que les principes bouddhistes peuvent avoir sur leur vie. J’espère également que ce livre aura quelque chose à offrir à ceux qui ne se considèrent pas eux-mêmes bouddhistes mais veulent connaître les perspectives que l’éthique bouddhiste a à offrir. Si des bouddhistes de longue date, végétariens ou non, trouvent un quelconque bénéfice à lire ces mots, c’est une bonne chose.

Le bouddhisme nous encourage à développer une attitude plus profonde et compasionnée en relation au monde dans lequel nous vivons. Idéalement – enseigne le bouddhisme – nous devrions faire tous les efforts possibles afin de prendre responsabilité pour les effets de nos actions, de telle manière que nos vies causent le moins de mal possible, et que nous fassions autant de bien que nous le puissions. Bien entendu, si nous ne connaissons pas le résultat de nos actions, il est difficile, sinon impossible, de prendre responsabilité de cette manière. Particulièrement en occident, nous sommes « protégés » de cette sensibilisation concernant la consommation de viande, parce que ceux qui produisent la viande savent que beaucoup parmi nous serions peu disposé à en manger si nous connaissions les détails bien peu plaisants de sa production.

Afin d’en apprendre plus sur les effets de nos actions, nous allons dans ce livre visiter les fermes et les abattoirs pour voir comment les animaux vivent et meurent. Ceci afin de nous aider à faire un choix plus informé quant à notre volonté de donner ou non notre support à ces activités. Nous examinerons les bases de l’éthique bouddhiste, et en quoi cela peut être lié à la consommation de viande. Nous nous pencherons sur certaines des questions les plus communément posées quant au fait de devenir végétarien, et nous verrons si le végétarisme est bon pour la santé ou non. Nous nous pencherons également sur certaines des conséquences positives de l’adoption d’un régime végétarien – pour nous-mêmes et la planète que nous habitons. Aussi nous nous poserons la question du régime alimentaire du Bouddha, et s’il s’avère qu’il mangeait de la viande, si cela nous fournit des raison de faire de même.

Mais d’abord, allons à l’essentiel.

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Mer 4 Fév - 12:15

Les souffrances des animaux de ferme
L’ancetre de Macdonald avait une usine
A quoi pensons-nous lorsque nous faisons notre petit tour dans les allées du supermarché et que nous regardons les emballages cellophanés de morceaux d’agneau ou de bœuf à l’aspect presque clinique ? Peu d’entre nous avons eu l’opportunité de voir ce qui se passe dans la production de viande. Nos conceptions sur l’élevage agricole sont souvent basées sur les illustrations de livres pour enfants qui présentent des vaches heureuses, des poussins jaunes duveteux, et des cochons roses à la queue en tire-bouchon qui gambadent dans la cour de la ferme. Nos idées à propos de l’élevage fermier – si tant est que nous en ayons – peuvent être remarquablement romantiques et aseptisées. La plupart d’entre nous n’ont jamais posé le pied dans la cour d’une ferme, et cela ne me serait probablement pas arrivé non plus, si ce n’eut été dans le cadre de mes études vétérinaires. Je vous propose une visite guidée dans une ferme moderne. Nous n’avons ni le temps ni l’espace d’examiner chaque détail, ni chaque animal ; je donnerai juste quelques exemples pour donner un sens de ce à quoi ressemble la vie dans une ferme d’aujourd’hui.

La vie pour les animaux de ferme n’est pas agréable et il est quasiment certain que vous trouverez certaines parties de ce compte rendu bouleversantes. Les comptes rendus donnés ici sont basés sur les pratiques courantes des fermes modernes – ils ne concernent pas les pires choses (et parfois illégales) qui se passent dans les fermes-usines. Il y a des fermiers relativement compassionnés qui gardent leurs animaux dans de bien meilleures conditions que celles que je décris. De plus, les ordonnances régissant les conditions de vie des animaux, aussi bien que le sérieux avec lequel ces mesures sont appliquées, varient suivant les pays. A certains égards les animaux des pays moins industrialisés mènent des vies plus libres, mais à d’autres la vie – et la mort – des animaux, comme c’est le cas pour les humains, peut être bien plus cruelle dans les parties pauvres du monde. Ce que vous allez lire est un compte rendu bien représentatif de la façon dont vivent les animaux dans le monde industrialisé.

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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Jeu 5 Fév - 9:23

Este articulo fue escrito el 15 de agosto de 1995.

Alimentación

Respetar verdaderamente los intereses de los demás animales implica adoptar una dieta 100% vegetariana, (sin productos de origen animal). La obtención de cualquier producto animal siempre ocasiona sufrimiento y muerte.

No es posible respetar a alguien cuando nos estamos alimentando con partes de su cuerpo o con productos derivados de su explotación, es decir cuando estamos ignorando sus intereses para que prevalezcan los nuestros.

Aquellas / os que podemos reflexionar sobre las consecuencias de nuestros actos tenemos el deber de considerar equitativamente los intereses de todas/os aquellos que se ven a afectados por nuestras decisiones, sean humanos, atunes, vacas, cerdos o pollos e independientemente de los beneficios que obtuviésemos de ignorar los intereses de dichos individuos.

El que otros no puedan o no quieran respetar a determinados sujetos con capacidad para sentir no justifica que nosotras / os no lo hagamos, debemos respetar el interés en vivir de un/a niña/o aunque haya individuos que no lo hagan, de la misma manera, debemos respetar la vida de una gacela aunque un león no pueda hacerlo.

En ocasiones se pide la abolición de aquellas formas de explotación animal que más sufrimiento ocasionan, evitando cuestionar e incluso reforzando otras formas de explotación donde los animales gozan de un poco más de libertad o bienestar. Pero lo cierto, es que no existe una forma “aceptable” de explotar a otras/os, un ser con intereses no existe para beneficio ajeno y por tanto, toda utilización del mismo debe ser abolida.

Lo que olvidan quienes defienden la ganadería tradicional o la ecológica es que los demás animales, al igual que nosotras/os tienen ante todo interés en vivir y en ser libres, intereses que ninguna forma de explotación respeta. Pedir la abolición de aquellas formas de explotación que más sufrimiento causan es reforzar la idea de que existen formas de explotación justificables.

Cientos de millones de animales mueren anualmente para acabar en nuestro plato siendo nuestra comida o cena, a pesar de que es perfectamente posible vivir sin alimentarnos de productos de origen animal.

Una dieta basada en alimentos vegetales puede ser perfectamente sana, deliciosa y equilibrada, es únicamente cuestión de informarse sobre nutrición y sobre las alternativas existentes al consumo de productos obtenidos de la explotación animal.
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MessageSujet: Re: végétalisme   Aujourd'hui à 16:08

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