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 vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme

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Masculin Nombre de messages : 19980
Date d'inscription : 17/05/2007

MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Mar 18 Jan - 18:29

January 7, 2011

Certainly a plant-based diet which minimizes animal products is the best approach for losing weight, preventing and reversing disease, and optimizing health. However, those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, and those not consuming fatty fish like salmon each week, should be aware of recent studies that suggest they may be deficient in a critical and essential nutrient – especially EPA & DHA the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an omega-3 fat and is the precursor of the longer chain omega 3 fats eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) - ie EPA and to a lesser extent DHA can be made in the body from ALA. Primary sources of these fatty acids are certain fish and seafood.

As a result, vegetarian, and especially vegan, diets provide little EPA and DHA directly. A recent study reviewed the varying dietary fat intake across vegetarians, vegans, omnivores, and semi-omnivores and its impact on essential omega-3 fatty acid availability in tissues. It concluded that vegetarians were left with reduced levels of omega-3 and recommended that they consume additional direct sources of EPA and DHA, regardless of age or gender, for physical, mental and neurological health benefits.1

In addition, ALA, EPA, and DHA are especially important for the prevention of certain cancers, particularly those of the breast and colon, and possibly of the uterus and the skin, and are likely to reduce the risk of postpartum depression, manic-depressive psychosis, dementias, Parkinson's, hypertension, toxemia, diabetes, and to a certain extent, age-related macular degeneration.2

Although vegetarian diets are generally lower in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol than are non-vegetarian diets and may appear to offer cardiovascular health benefits due to higher intakes of antioxidants and fiber, the lack of direct EPA or DHA dietary sources may cause an adverse effect.3,4

With all of this documented research, it is not surprising that when I draw blood for fatty acid analysis on many of my patients, I find that a large percentage of individuals who do not eat fish or seafood regularly do not have optimal levels of DHA – even those using walnuts and flaxseeds on a regular basis. I often see patients eating otherwise excellent diets with itchy dry skin, seborrheac dermatitis and other signs of DHA deficiency.

Although, there are some vegans and vegetarians regularly consuming walnuts and flaxseeds (which supply adequate ALA) may produce enough DHA on their own and may not require supplementation. However, because this issue is so imperative to their health it should be confirmed with a blood test before assuming that the conversion level is adequate. In order to assure optimal production of DHA fat, without recommending that the consumption of fish or refined fish oils, I recommend taking a vegetable sourced DHA supplement. DHA alone can deliver the same benefits of fish oil, since the intake of DHA can cause a natural retro-conversion to EPA internally.

Laboratory cultivated DHA is made from microalgae and is a pure form of DHA without environmental contamination. It is grown in the laboratory, not collected in the wild. It has no mercury or other toxins, which is a concern even for non-vegans who are cautious about eating fish or seafood.

DHA has been shown to protect against dementia, depression, inflammatory diseases, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), allergies, and to offer significant benefits for overall cardiovascular health.

There are other problems with consuming fish oils. The main problem is that the fat turns rancid as it sits on store shelves. As a result, many people complain of burping, indigestion, a foul taste, and long lasting fish breath. I have also observed that rancidity of this fish fat can place a stress on the liver. Patients of mine have had blood tests showing abnormal liver function when consuming fish oil in significant amounts and then have had these tests return to normal when the fish oils were stopped.

Fortunately, vegetable derived DHA, from microalgae, is an alternative. However, even algae-derived DHA can become rancid if not cared for properly. We go through great lengths to deliver the purest and freshest DHA product available on the market today. My DHA Purity is manufactured under strict conditions to ensure purity. Every step of the way, from production to packaging, transportation and storage, this product is kept refrigerated and handled to ensure optimal freshness.

In conjunction with a high nutrient, plant-based diet, I advise all people take a daily DHA supplement from a clean source. Early in life, DHA is supplied via the placenta and from breast milk. While adequate DHA is particularly important for pregnant and nursing women and young children, it is beneficial for all ages!



Dr. Fuhrman's DHA Purity contains 30 ml of pure, all vegan, DHA concentrated liquid. The DHA comes from algae grown under sanitary laboratory conditions. In conjunction with a high nutrient, plant-based diet, I advise all people take one of these supplements daily.


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1Kornsteiner M, Singer I, Elmadfa I. Very low n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status in Austrian vegetarians and vegans. Ann Nutr Metab. 2008; 52(1):37-47.
2Bourre JM Dietary omega-3 fatty acids for women. Biomed Pharmacother. 2007; 61(2-3):105-12
3Davis BC; Kris-Etherton PM Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 78(3 Suppl):640S-646S
4Lee HY; Woo J; Chen ZY; Leung SF; Peng XH Serum fatty acid, lipid profile and dietary intake of Hong Kong Chinese omnivores and vegetarians. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000; 54(10):768-73
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Mar 18 Jan - 18:31

JANUARY 7, 2011

Supplements
Healthy Supplements for a Healthy Lifestyle


Applies for all domestic orders over $25.
*Does not apply to wholesale orders and international orders.
These will be charged shipping separately. Domestic orders under $25 will be charged a $5 flat rate shipping fee.

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Dr. Fuhrman's Gentle Care Formula
MultiVitamin and Mineral Supplement
This completely vegan formulation represents years of careful research, optimizing the proper balance of nutrient levels and avoiding potentially toxic ingredients, such as folic acid, vitamin A, beta carotene, copper and iron. Ingredients are selected for optimal quality, absorption, and gentleness. The balanced antioxidant protection offers phytochemical (anthocyanins) and carotenoid concentrates from green food extracts.

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Dr. Fuhrman's Gentle Prenatal
MultiVitamin and Mineral Supplement with Iron
Gentle Prenatal is different from other prenatal vitamins because it does not include folic acid; a potentially dangerous supplement that is typically recommended to pregnant women despite the dangers. Gentle Prenatal is a vegan multivitamin/multimineral developed to meet the needs of pregnant women, with attention to gastrointestinal comfort. The nutrient profile is similar to that of Dr. Fuhrman’s original Gentle Care Formula but with the addition of iron and extra vitamin D. Dr. Fuhrman has thoroughly reviewed the medical literature to verify that the contents of Gentle Prenatal are appropriate to protect against vitamin and mineral deficiencies without being potentially toxic.

Dr. Fuhrman's Gentle Prenatal is uniquely tailored to the needs of women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, of childbearing age, or still menstruating. See recommendations.

Read more about choosing a multivitamin.
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Dr. Fuhrman's DHA Purity
100% Vegan DHA (long chain Omega–3)
This veggie derived DHA, sourced from microalgae, provides the beneficial omega–3 fatty acid of fish oil without the fish. DHA Purity now comes in an all–new, purified liquid form of very highly concentrated DHA so that it can be digested easier and hidden easily in food. The children’s dose is just one drop (measurable with a built–in graduated dropper) and easily disguised in their food, soup, drink or oatmeal. Just a few drops delivers a daily dose of essential omega–3 fatty acids (DHA).

Storage and Shipping
Dr. Fuhrman has tested other DHA products on the market and found them all to be shockingly high in rancidity scores. Rancid oils can cause burping, indigestion and a foul taste. Consuming rotten oil is not healthful! DHA Purity is kept refrigerated at all times, so that the oil does not become rancid or oxidized. It is packaged in dark glass bottles, shipped in refrigerated trucks and stored under refrigeration until it is shipped. It may take months for DHA to deteriorate and become rancid, outside of a refrigerator, but it is important to purchase a product that begins fresh and without oxidation. You will certainly taste the freshness DHA Purity when it hits your tongue. Nobody should be using capsules, which hide the taste of rotten oil!
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Mar 18 Jan - 18:31

Januayr 7, 2011

Leaders of the Vegan Movement Develop Parkinson's: Case Studies
Herbert Shelton (1895 – 1985) a naturopath and chiropractor and the influential founder of the American Natural Hygiene Society and Nature Cure movement in America and prolific health writer advocated a natural food vegetarian diet of mostly raw fruits, vegetables and nuts. I read all of his highly motivating books, newsletters and writings in my teens. He lived in Texas, was physically fit, grew lots of his own food and ate carefully and fasted periodically. Of course he did not get cancer, he did not get heart disease, but he died of Parkinson's disease and was so severely affected by the age of 78 that even walking was difficult. In 1973 when I met him he was already severely hunched over and had a difficult time walking and caring for himself. Though he lived many years with this significant disability, the quality of his later years was extremely poor.

Prominent Vegetarian and Health Advocate (1921-2008) – this leader in the natural health movement and a personal friend to me also suffered from and eventually died from a fall related to his Parkinson's disease. During his young adult life he embarked on the path of healthy living and vegetarianism. A follower of Shelton's works, he operated a large health food store, one of the first to sell organic fruits and vegetables in America; he became a leader in the health food industry. Of course he was not at risk of cancer or heart disease with his excellent diet, but he developed Parkinson's which limited the quality of his later years.

When he was developing his Parkinsonian tremors, I ordered blood tests and was shocked to see his blood results showing almost a zero DHA level on his fatty acid test, in spite of adequate ALA consumption from nuts and seeds eaten daily. I had never seen a DHA level that low before. Since that time I have drawn DHA blood levels on other patients with Parkinson's and also found very low DHA levels.



Was it a coincidence, that these leaders in the natural food, vegetarian movement, who ate a very healthy vegan diet and no junk food would both develop Parkinson's? I thought to myself--could it be that deficiencies in DHA predispose one to Parkinson's? Do men have worse ability to convert short chain omega-3 into long chain DHA? Is that why Parkinson's affects more men than women? Is there evidence to suggest that DHA deficiencies lead to later life neurologic problems? Are there primate studies to show DHA deficiencies in monkeys leads to Parkinson's? The answer to all of these questions is a resounding, yes.


More than 1 million Americans suffer from Parkinson's Disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disease that is clinically characterized by resting tremor, muscular rigidity, gait problems and impaired ability to initiate movements. Recent scientific findings show diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids, in particular DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), have a protective effect on this type of neurodegenerative disease. Studies in animals clearly show that supplementation of DHA can alter brain DHA concentrations and thereby modify brain functions leading to reduced risk of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.1

A recent study examined mice which were exposed to two diets; one group was fed a diet with DHA and other omega-3 fatty acids; while the other group was given ordinary food, lacking DHA. After a period of time they were given a dose of a chemical that causes the same damage to the brain as Parkinson's disease. The mice on the DHA diet seemed to be immune to the effects of the chemical, whereas the mice that ate ordinary food developed symptoms of the disease.

According to the researchers, among the mice that had been given omega-3 supplementation - in particular DHA - omega-3 fatty acids replaced the omega-6 fatty acids in their brains. Due to the fact that concentrations of other omega-3s (LNA and EPA) had maintained levels in both groups of mice, the researchers suggested that the protective effect against Parkinson's indeed came from DHA.2
Another conclusion drawn from this finding is that a brain containing a lot of omega-6 fatty acids may create a fertile ground for developing Parkinson's disease. These fatty acids, are abundant in foods rich in either vegetable oil or animal fat, which we already know contribute negatively to our health.

Another study observed the effect of DHA on monkeys treated with MPTP, a drug that induces Parkinson's like symptoms, and the results suggested that DHA can reduce the severity of, or delay the development of these drug-induced symptoms and therefore can offer therapeutic benefits in the treatment of Parkinson's. 3

Overall, this research provides evidence that DHA deficiencies can leave us vulnerable to developing diseases like Parkinson's and Alheizmer's. If you are a nutritarian, flexitarain, vegan, or vegetarian and you are not taking DHA or confirming your levels are adequate with blood work you are being negligent, and potentially increasing your risk of such a disease in later life. All the good efforts on proper nutrition can be undone with one deficiency such as Vitamin D, B12, or DHA. I see this every week in my practice.

History Repeats Itself

Some authors, doctors and leaders of the vegan movement today are heavily biased towards the idea of not needing these supplements. They simply give inadequate nutritional advice and in spite of all the science they still pooh-pooh taking long-chain omega-3 DHA. They are risking the quality of their own lives and that of their followers.

Likewise, I have seen so many vegan-promoting doctors and authors negate the need for taking B12, as well as dismiss the need to take vitamin D, stating minimal sunshine is enough. They also deny the need for omega-3 supplementation. There is so much scientific literature available today pointing to the contrary, however, this irresponsible information keeps radiating from the podium of lecture halls.

It reminds me of all the statements in the past, that the need for B12 was exaggerated and that the small amount of bacteria on organic produce or in seaweed was sufficient.


TC Fry (1926 – 1996)- another long-term Natural Hygienist, raw foodest, vegetarian-fruitarian, advocated you did not need supplements as food contained all that we need. He died of an atherosclerotic-related embolism at the age of 70. I saw his hospital record at his death and reviewed his blood work drawn immediately prior to his death. It was quite revealing. He had severe B12, deficiency, so long-standing that his B12 levels were almost undetectable and the lowest I have ever seen. It is kind of interesting reading internet interpretations of why he died, such as "did not practice what he preached," "cheated on his diet," "too much sex," "ozone treatments for his vascular disease". He died prematurely simply because long-standing B12 deficiency leads to extremely high homocysteine levels, which can cause intra-vascular inflammation and cardiovascular disease.


I have seen this over and over again in vegans not supplementing with B12. I even had a patient with extremely severe hyper-homocysteinemia and vascular disease who flew in to see me from Scandinavia. When I diagnosed the problem and discussed how to solve it, she still refused to take the B12 supplements, stating that Dr. Shelton and Dr. Vetrano said that nature provided us with all that we need in natural plant foods. She flew home angry that I disagreed. She died soon after.

Don't be fooled into thinking that by merely eating right you are doing all you can do to protect your health. People must be made aware that by neglecting to take the supplements that are essential to assuring nutritional excellence, they are putting themselves in harm's way. Specifically, not taking DHA, B12 and vitamin D can be potentially dangerous and even life threatening.


Dr. Fuhrman's DHA Purity is a pure, fresh, all vegan, concentrated liquid. This DHA is derived from algae grown under sanitary laboratory conditions.


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1Calon F ; Cole G Neuroprotective action of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids against neurodegenerative diseases: evidence from animal studies. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2007; 77(5-6):287-93
2M. Bousquet, M. Saint-Pierre, C. Julien , N. Salem, Jr., F. Cicchetti and F. Calon Beneficial effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid on toxin-induced neuronal degeneration in an animal model of Parkinson's disease
The FASEB Journal. 2008;22:1213-1225.
3 Samadi P ; Grégoire L ; Rouillard C ; Bédard PJ ; Di Paolo T ; Lévesque D Docosahexaenoic acid reduces levodopa-induced dyskinesias in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine monkeys. Ann Neurol. 2006; 59(2):282-8
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Mar 18 Jan - 18:32

JANUARY 7, 2011

Omega-3 fatty acids are healthy fats that reduce inflammation, inhibit cancer development and protect our blood vessels. There are long-chain and short chain fatty acids. Short-chain omega-3 fats are found in some green vegetables, walnuts, and flax, chia, and hemp seeds. The basic building block of short-chain omega-3 fat is alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Our bodies are only capable of converting a small amount of these short chain fats to long-chain omega-3 fats, called docoshexanoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).

Studies show that people have varying ability to convert ALA into DHA and EPA. Apparently, some people eating sufficient ALA from greens, seeds and walnuts can achieve adequate levels while others cannot. Men generally convert less than women. Conversion of ALA by the body to these longer-chain fatty acids is inefficient: < 5-10% for EPA and only 2-5% for DHA1.

DHA is one of the crucial building blocks of human brain tissue. It has been shown to protect against dementia, depression, inflammatory diseases, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), allergies, and to offer significant benefits for overall cardiovascular health.

Early in life, DHA is supplied via the placenta and from breast milk. While adequate DHA is particularly important for pregnant and nursing women and young children, it is beneficial for all ages!


Improves your child's intelligence
Aids depression and Attention Deficit Disorder
Improves memory
Important for brain and eye development
Promotes smoother skin; prevents wrinkles
Helps prevent heart disease and arthritis
Lowers risk of Alzheimer's and senior dementia
Lowers "bad" cholesterol
These long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are also produced by marine algae which serve as the source of DHA and EPA in fish. Although, fish is a good source of EPA and DHA, unfortunately, it's one of the most polluted foods which we eat. Therefore, it can not be considered a safe source of these healthy fats.

Fish have been shown to contain fat soluble petrochemicals, such as PCB's and dioxins as a result of the dumping of toxic waste and raw sewage into our oceans. Fish also contains mercury. According to the Center for Disease Control, 1 in 12 women of childbearing age in the United States have unsafe mercury levels (and the CDC's threshold for safety is high). Multiple studies have illustrated most of the body's mercury load comes from the consumption of fish.

For these reasons, I recommend consuming little or no fish. If you choose to consume fish, try to stay away from those high in fat and known to be high in mercury such as shark, swordfish, mackerel, pike, tuna, snapper, lobster, grouper, sea bass and bluefish. Instead, use the lower fat (less polluted) fish such as flounder, sole, haddock, scallops, squid, trout, hake, ocean perch, shrimp and tilapia.

Some nutritional advisors encourage consuming high amounts of flax seed oil to promote the conversion of enough DHA. I do not agree. First of all, flax seed oil is an empty calorie food with little or no vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and flavonoids that were present in the original seeds. Furthermore, we have a significant collection of data that indicates that the consumption of high doses of ALA from flax oil may increase, not decrease the risk of prostate cancer2. In contrast, flax seed consumption has been shown in multiple studies to lower the risk of both breast cancer and prostate cancer3.

I prefer people not consume much fish to assure sufficient consumption or conversion of omega-3s. Since the ability to self-convert short chain ALA into long-chain DHA is so variable from person to person, I recommend a mixture of natural omega-3 containing plants plus some extra plant-derived DHA. I advise people obtain their omega-3 fats by consuming the cleaner, plant sources such as walnuts, flax, chia, and hemp seeds and by also taking a daily DHA supplement like my DHA Purity. My DHA Purity is a laboratory cultivated DHA product made from microalgae. It is a pure form of DHA without environmental contamination or unnecessary disruption of our ocean life.

- Yours to good health

Joel Fuhrman, M.D.




Read more on Fatty Acids and Fish Oil.

***********************************************



Dr. Fuhrman's DHA Purity sourced from microalgae, provides the beneficial omega–3 fatty acid of fish oil without the fish! DHA Purity now comes in a purified liquid form of very highly concentrated DHA so that it can be digested easier and hidden easily in food. The children's dose is just one drop (measurable with a built–in graduated dropper) and easily disguised in their food, soup, drink or oatmeal. Just a few drops delivers a daily dose of essential omega–3 fatty acids (DHA).

Beware: even algae-derived DHA can become rancid if not cared for properly.
Often manufacturers and retailers do not safe-guard against rancidity.

Dr. Fuhrman goes to great lengths to deliver the purest and freshest DHA product available on the market today. His DHA Purity is manufactured under strict conditions to ensure purity. Every step of the way, from production to packaging, transportation and storage, this product is kept refrigerated and handled to ensure optimal freshness.



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1Davis, B. C. and P. M. Kris-Etherton. Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78(3 Suppl):640S-646S. Brenna, J. T. Efficiency of conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to long chain n-3 fatty acids in man. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2002;5(2):127-32.
2Brouwer IA, Katan MB, Zock PL. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Nutr 2004 Apr;134(4):919-22
3Demark-Wahnefried W, Price DT, Polascik TJ, et al. Pilot study of dietary fat restriction and flaxseed supplementation in men with prostate cancer before surgery: exploring the effects on hormonal levels, prostate-specific antigen, and histopathologic features Urology 2001 Jul;58(1):47-52
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Mar 18 Jan - 18:36

january 7, 2011

Fatty Acids and Fish Oil

Food sources of omega-3 fats
The American diet is unquestionably low in omega-3 fat and too high in omega-6 fat.
Omega 3 fats are healthy fats that reduce inflammation, inhibit cancer development and protect our blood vessels. The basic building block of omega-3 fat is alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). ALA can be found in most nuts and seeds, but are particularly rich in flaxseeds, hempseeds, walnuts and leafy green vegetables. Most people do not get enough (ALA) in their diet.

Flaxseeds and hempseeds are the foods with the highest concentration of this much-needed fat. Besides omega-3 fats, these seeds also contain very high levels of photochemicals, anti-oxidents and fibers that have been shown to have beneficial effects that inhibit prostate, breast and colon cancer. However, these protective nutrients and cancer-fighting lignans are not present in significant quantity in the oil, only in the whole seed.

The whole seeds are tiny and difficult to chew, if ingested whole they typically pass through the body undigested, causing their beneficial nutrients to be lost. Therefore, it is best to buy ground flax or hemp seeds or grind the whole seeds before eating. Ground seeds are also susceptible to rancidity. In my house, we grind a pound at a time using our VitaMix and then store the ground seeds in the freezer to maintain stability of the fats until use. Every morning we just scoop what we need out of the container and put the rest back into the freezer. If you are buying ground seeds, once you open the vacuum sealed package, store it in the freezer. Flax seeds or hemp seeds can also be ground in an inexpensive coffee grinder.

The short-chain omega-3 fats found in seeds, nuts and greens are the building block of the longer chain fat DHA, that our body needs for proper functioning of our brain, nervous system, and immune system. Besides our own production, DHA is also found in fish and fish oil.

EPA and DHA are highly beneficial
Proponents of fish have long touted the benefits of docoshexanoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid shown to exert significant health benefits. DHA has been shown to protect against dementia, depression, inflammatory diseases and have benefits for the heart, including anti-arrhythmic effects.

Low DHA levels are associated with:
Heart Disease
Depression
Schizophrenia
Cancer
Anxiety/Panic
Alzheimer's disease
Hyperactivity
Attention Deficit Disorder
Dyslexia
Allergies
Autoimmune Illnesses
Dermatologic Disorders
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Scientists have known for many years that humans can convert short-chain omega-3 fat (ALA) from seeds and greens into the valuable DHA. The question is can we achieve optimal levels without the consumption of fish?

Studies show that people have varying ability to convert ALA into DHA, and apparently the answer is that some people eating sufficient ALA from greens, flax and walnuts can achieve adequate levels and others, even if careful to consume more ALA cannot. Conversion of ALA by the body to these more active longer-chain metabolites is inefficient: < 5-10% for EPA and 2-5% for DHA1. Men generally convert less than women.

The less fish eaten the more reliant on this conversion and the higher levels of ALA (short-chain fat) is required to produce sufficient levels of DHA. Thus, the total n-3 requirements are higher for vegetarians and those who do not eat any fish.

Because of the higher omega-3 fat requirement for vegetarians and those not eating much fish, nutritional advisors typically encourage the consumption of high amounts of flax seed oil to permit the conversion of enough DHA. I do not agree with this advice. First of all oil is empty calorie food with little or no vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and flavonoids that were present in the original seeds. To encourage health seekers to consume three tablespoons of flax oil a day is adding 360 low nutrient calories to your daily diet. Furthermore we have a significant collection of data that indicates that the consumption of high doses of ALA from flax oil may increase, not decrease the risk of prostate cancer2. Whereas flax seed consumption has been shown in multiple studies to lower the risk of both breast cancer and prostate cancer3; in contrast, flax oil and high ALA consumption has been linked to increased risk.

Should we consume fish and/or fish oil?
The amount of DHA can vary significantly in various fish. Some salmon (especially farm raised) has very little DHA, for example. More importantly, several studies have indicated that both fish and fish oil supplements are prone to contamination with toxic materials. For example fish and fish oils have been shown to contain large concentrations of dioxins and PCBs because the dumping of toxic waste and raw sewage into our oceans has taken a toll. Lipid peroxide contamination occurring with aging of the oil further complicates the supposed health benefits of fish oil consumption. Fish and fish oils also contains mercury. Data from the Center for Disease Control indicates that one in 12 women of childbearing age in the United States has unsafe mercury levels, and their threshold for safety is high. The major contributor to body mercury load is fish and fish oils, not dental fillings. Multiple studies have illustrated most of the body's mercury load is from the consumption of fish.
In spite of the toxicity and risk of consuming fish, most health authorities still advise the regular consumption of fish. This is because they consider the health benefits demonstrated from an avalanche of scientific studies showing benefits from DHA on the prevention of various diseases, including cancer and heart disease.

Not all the studies on people who consume more fish are favorable. Mercury levels from consuming fish have been linked with infertility, neurologic and mental disorders, high blood pressure, and endocrine disorders. Mercury levels from fish consumption have also been directly linked to the risk of heart attack. In an international case controlled study, mercury levels were assessed in 684 European men within 24 hours of a first myocardial infarction and in 724 control subjects without a heart attack. A strong dose response pattern was observed with a more than doubling of the risk for heart attack patients in the highest fifth of mercury levels compared to the lowest. Mercury containing fish and fish oil is obviously not the ideal way to decrease ones risk of heart attack. Epidemiologic data on fish intake and fish-oil consumption is contradictory and inconsistent; with some studies showing a worsening of cardiac events that increase as fish consumption increases.

Given the contamination issues with both fish and fish oils and the rancidity of fish oil we cannot consider fish or fish oils, health food. The studies showing an anti-cancer benefit from consuming fish are marred by other studies showing an increased risk of cancer, such as cancer of the breast from eating more fish4. This referenced study was huge and compelling; they followed over 23,000 women and found a doubling of breast cancer in women eating more fish compared to those consuming little or no fish. These inconsistencies and the data linking fish consumption to breast cancer is explained by the pollution in fish and some populations obviously consume more polluted fish than others.

DHA is definitely a beneficial fat, but we have to reconsider the source of how we find it. Fish are highly polluted, compared to other foods. We have to seriously take a closer look at the typical recommendations of health authorities to consume more fish. After many years of reviewing the evidence and recording mercury levels in patients that invariably correlate well with their fish consumption, I recommend consuming little or no fish and advice strongly against consuming any of those species of fish notoriously high in mercury such as shark, swordfish, mackerel, pike and bluefish.

If you avoid fish and instead consume fish oil, you may still have a problem. One problem with fish oils is that much of the fat has already turned rancid. If you have ever cut open a capsule and tasted it, you will find it can taste like gasoline. Many people complain of burping, indigestion and of fish breath. I have also observed that rancidity of this fish fat places a stress on the liver. Patients of mine with abnormal liver function noted on their blood tests when consuming fish oil have had these tests return to normal when the fish oils were stopped.

Searching for a healthful alternatives to fish oil
When I draw blood tests for fatty acid analysis on many of my patients, I find that a large percentage of individuals who do not eat fish regularly do not have optimal levels of DHA. I often see patients eating otherwise excellent diets with itchy dry skin, seborrheac dermatitis and other signs of DHA deficiency. How can we assure optimal production of DHA fat for all, if we are hesitant about recommending and consuming fish or refined oils?
Fortunately, vegetable derived DHA is an alternative. Laboratory cultivated DHA is made from micro-algae and is a pure form of DHA without rancidity. It is grown in the laboratory, not collected in the wild. It has no mercury or other toxins.

Even algae-derived DHA can develop rancidity. Over the last few years, I have worked with a manufacturer to eliminate rancidity and, improve taste and digestibility of these oils. Out of necessity for my patients, I made DHA derived from freeze dried algae to preserve freshness.

Dr. Fuhrman's DHA Purity contains 30 ml of pure, all vegan, DHA concentrated liquid. The DHA comes from algae grown under sanitary laboratory conditions. In conjunction with a high nutrient, plant-based diet, I advise all people take one of these supplements daily.

Other Supplement Recommendations
My recommendations for adults regarding nutritional supplementation are clear and simple:
Take one tablespoon of ground flax seeds per day
Take 0.5 ml DHA Purity liquid per day
Take two Dr. Fuhrman's Gentle Care Formula per day
Take two to four capsules of Osteo-Sun per day
See my Vitamin Advisor for supplement recommendations to meet your needs.
This keeps the supplemental recommendations simple and inexpensive for most of my patients who follow my Eat To Live plan. One bottle of my Gentle Care Formula lasts 3 months, and one bottle of my DHA Purity lasts 2 months. This is a small price to pay for health security assuring all your nutritional bases are covered from minimal supplementation.

References:
Davis, B. C. and P. M. Kris-Etherton. Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78(3 Suppl):640S-646S. Brenna, J. T. Efficiency of conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to long chain n-3 fatty acids in man. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2002;5(2):127-32.
Brouwer IA, Katan MB, Zock PL. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Nutr 2004 Apr;134(4):919-22
Demark-Wahnefried W, Price DT, Polascik TJ, et al. Pilot study of dietary fat restriction and flaxseed supplementation in men with prostate cancer before surgery: exploring the effects on hormonal levels, prostate-specific antigen, and histopathologic features Urology 2001 Jul;58(1):47-52.
Stripp C, Overvad K, Christensen J, et al. Fish intake is positively associated with breast cancer incidence rate. J Nutr 2003;133(11):3664-9.
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Mar 18 Jan - 18:45

Januayr 18, 2011

It's been two weeks since you took the Pledge to Be Veg for 30 Days! We hope that you've had a chance to check out some of our kitchen-tested recipes, product recommendations, and meal plans.

The first few weeks of trying a new diet or breaking a bad habit are almost always the most difficult, but stick with it and it'll soon become second nature! Not only do vegetarians report feeling better after cutting out meat from their diet, many also find that their skin looks better, they lose weight, and they have more energy.

We have every resource that you need to make the transition, so please visit our Web sites often to explore our undercover investigations, learn about the health benefits of a vegetarian diet, browse thousands of recipes, check out our cookbook recommendations and vegetarian merchandise, and explore our "Vegetarian Starter Kit."

http://www.peta.org/living/vegetarian-living/recipes/default.aspx
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Mar 18 Jan - 18:47

January 3, 2011

..We're playing favorites! We've made a list of the mock meats and nondairy delights that make our mouths water the most! Whether you're looking for faux franks, veggie burgers, chicken-free chicken patties, flavored soy milks, or nondairy ice creams—we've got the goods on all of the most appetizing alternatives to beef, pork, chicken, seafood, and dairy products. So grab a shopping cart, stroll down the aisle of your local supermarket or health food store, and add these great vegan vittles to your grocery list:

Dairy Substitutes

Earth Balance Natural Buttery Spread

Soy Garden Natural Buttery Spread

Tofutti Soy-Cheese Slices

Organic Soy Delicious Non-Dairy Frozen Dessert

Tofutti Non-Dairy Frozen Dessert

Soyco—Soymage Vegan Grated Parmesan

WholeSoy Creamy Cultured Soy Yogurt

WhiteWave—Silk Chocolate Soymilk

Tofutti—Better Than Cream Cheese

Smart Balance 37% Light Buttery Spread

Follow Your Heart—Vegan Gourmet Cheese Alternative

Rice Dream Non-Dairy Beverages



Beef Substitutes

Gardenburger Flame Grilled Burgers

Boca Original Vegan Burgers

Morningstar Farms—Better 'n Burgers Veggie Burgers

Morningstar Farms—Grillers Burger Style Recipe Crumbles

Morningstar Farms Meal Starters Steak Strips

Nate's Meatless Meatballs

Now & Zen—Unsteak



Pork Substitutes

Yves Original Jumbo Dog

Lightlife—Smart Bacon

Lightlife—Gimme Lean Sausage Style

Yves Veggie Cuisine—Veggie Breakfast Links

Yves Veggie—Canadian Veggie Bacon

Lightlife—Smart Deli Country Ham Style

Gardenburger Meatless Riblets

Yves Veggie Cuisine—Hot 'n' Spicy Veggie Chili Dogs



Chicken and Turkey Substitutes

Gardenburger Flame Grilled Chik'n

Gardenburger Buffalo Chik'n Wings

Worthington Chic-Ketts

Nate's Chicken Style Nuggets

Yves Veggie Cuisine—Veggie Chick'n Burgers

Tofurky Deli Slices

Yves Veggie Cuisine—Veggie Turkey Slices

Boca Chik'n Patties

Boca Chik'n Nuggets

Morningstar Farms Meal Starters Chik'n Strips



Seafood Substitutes

Vegieworld.com—Vegetarian Lobster Balls

Vegieworld.com—Vegetarian Salmon

Natural Touch—Tuno

Soy Caviar
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Mar 18 Jan - 18:50

Januayr 1, 2011

Two-Week Sample Vegan Menus
..
... ..Do you consider yourself "culinarily challenged"? Well, no worries! PETA's chefs have created sample vegan menus featuring simple, easy recipes that anyone can follow—no cookbooks or creativity required! So, whether you're a new vegan looking for a simple starter plan or you want to drop a few pounds before swimsuit season, our menus are perfect!

Our Two-Week Sample Vegan Menus below are designed for new vegans who are not sure what to eat and for longtime vegans who are looking to shake up their current diet and try something new. The recommendations focus on two types of dishes: easy-to-prepare meals with a balance of fresh ingredients and tasty heat-and-serve options.


Week 1Week 2 MondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFridaySaturdaySunday Breakfast
Banana Muffins
Fresh fruit

Lunch
Avocado Reuben
Sumptuous Spinach Salad With Orange-Sesame Dressing

Dinner
Mama's Mock Meatloaf
Creamy Chive Mashed Potatoes
With Brown Gravy

Breakfast
Breakfast Burritos
Lunch
Tofurky Sandwich with lettuce, tomato, and Vegenaise
Pretzels
Apple or other fresh fruit
Dinner
Tofu-Spinach Lasagna
Fresh tossed salad
Garlic bread topped with Earth Balance vegan buttery spread

Breakfast
"Sausage" and bagel sandwich (You can make a hearty breakfast sandwich with Lender's Bagels, Gardenburger sausage patties, and soy cheese slices.)
Lunch
Ready-made vegan chili (Boca makes a great frozen chili, while Yves and Lightlife both make refrigerated options. If you prefer canned chili, try Hormel.)
Tortilla chips
Fresh avocado drizzled with lime juice
Dinner
Potato Leek Soup
Caesar Salad
Crusty French bread

Breakfast
Potato and "Bacon" Hash
Fresh fruit
Nondairy yogurt (try WholeSoy and Silk brands)
Lunch
Italian Eggplant Sandwich
Mixed green salad
Dinner
Shepherd's Pie
Tossed green salad

Breakfast
Chocolate Chip Scones
Lunch
Veggie salami deli-style sub (Make your own deli-style sub with your favorite veggies, mustard, and Vegenaise.)
German Potato Salad
Dinner
Enchilada Bake
Spanish rice (Try Lipton's Festive Sides Spanish Rice—it's vegan.)
Salsa

Breakfast
Vegan French Toast
Fresh sliced strawberries and melons
Lunch
Tofu "Tuna" Salad
Pita bread or crackers
Fresh-cut vegetables
Dinner
Tempeh Creole This recipe is a little labor-intensive, but it's well worth the effort—save the leftovers for lunch during the week. Serve with steamed brown rice.
Steamed brown rice

Brunch
"Bacon," Potato, and Green-Onion Frittata
Toast
Fruit salad
Dinner
Carrot-Ginger Soup
Grilled Tofu With Tamarind Glaze
Steamed rice
Steamed asparagus

MondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFridaySaturdaySunday Breakfast
Biscuits with veggie sausage patties (Look for quick-baking Pillsbury biscuits in the refrigerated section of your grocery store, and try Lightlife's Gimme Lean sausage [or Gardenburger's sausage patties.)
Fresh fruit
Lunch
Creamy Pasta Salad With Artichoke Hearts
Crusty Italian bread
Fresh fruit
Dinner
Buffalo Wing-Style 'Chicken' Nuggets
Ranch Dressing
Baked French fries
Celery sticks
Carrot sticks
Breakfast
Soy yogurt mixed with granola.
Lunch
Vegetarian hot dog (Yves and Lightlife both make tasty veggie dogs.)
Vegetarian baked beans (try Bush brand)
Rainbow Salad
Dinner
Portobello and Red Pepper Quesadillas
Tortilla chips with guacamole and salsa
Breakfast
Oatmeal with walnuts and raisins (Most commercial oatmeal is vegan—just add maple syrup for extra flavor.)
Lunch
BBQ Tofu Salad
Sumptuous Spinach Salad With Orange-Sesame Dressing
Dinner
Tomato, Cucumber, and Basil Salad
Alfredo-Style Fettuccini
Garlic bread topped with Earth Balance vegan buttery spread
Breakfast
Cereal with soy milk
Fresh fruit
Lunch
Vegan Sloppy Joes (If you're taking this to the office, be sure to pack the bread and the filling in separate containers.)
Red Potato Salad
Fresh fruit
Dinner
'Hamburger'-Macaroni Casserole
Tossed salad with vegan dressing
Breakfast
Bagel with nondairy cream cheese (Try Tofutti brand.)
Fresh fruit
Nondairy yogurt (try WholeSoy or Silk brand)
Lunch
Veggie burger (try the Vegan Boca Burger)
Roasted Potatoes
Celery sticks
Cubed watermelon
Dinner
Chipotle Split-Pea Soup
Tomato-Onion Tarts
Fresh tossed salad
Breakfast
Apple-Pecan Pancakes with maple syrup
Veggie sausage (Try Gardenburger brand.)
Lunch
Tex-Mex Tortilla Wraps
Tossed salad with Vegan Ranch Dressing or Thousand Island Dressing
Dinner
'Better Than Beef' Stroganoff
Tossed green salad
Brunch
Tofu Scramble
Hash browns
Toast
Fresh fruit
Dinner
Asian Fusion Salad
Scallion Pancakes
Spicy Sesame Noodles

Print the Two-Week Sample Vegan Menus.

In between meals, or in a hurry? Try one of these easy options:


Refrigerated and Frozen Vegan Meals
Boca Meatless Chili

TofuTown Tofu Tenders—Havana Black Bean
Lightlife Smart BBQ
Amy's Enchilada With Spanish Rice and Beans
Fantastic Foods Vegetarian Pad Thai
Amy's Non-Dairy Vegetable Pot Pie
Celentano Vegetarian Eggplant Parmigiana
Yves Veggie Lasagna

SnacksTry these delicious vegan options or check out our shopping guide for other great suggestions.
Fresh FruitFestive Salsa or Black-Bean Dip and baked tortilla chipsSpiced Party NutsTaffy-Apple Dip with apples and pears Hummus and pita breadTrail MixGranolaApplesauce with raisinsSwiss RollsFruit Skewer With 'Yogurt' SauceFruit Smoothie (Try freezing this in popsicle containers for a tasty treat.)S'Mores (Make this classic treat with Nabisco Original Graham Crackers, Ricemellow Crème, and vegan chocolate—try Chocolove Dark Chocolate Bar or Newman's Own Sweet Dark ChocolateSpicy Pizza Bagels
DessertsTry some of our favorite vegan desserts.

Carrot Cake
Vegan Cheesecake
Apple Cobbler
Chocolate Chip Cookies
Fresh Apricot Crisp
Peanut Butter Rice Crispy Treats
Vegan Oatmeal Cookies
Chocolate Chip Brownies
Date-Crumb Squares

http://www.peta.org/living/vegetarian-living/two-week-vegetarian-menu.aspx
..
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Mar 18 Jan - 18:51

JANUARY 1, 2011

Breakfast
Biscuits with veggie sausage patties (Look for quick-baking Pillsbury biscuits in the refrigerated section of your grocery store, and try Lightlife's Gimme Lean sausage [or Gardenburger's sausage patties.)
Fresh fruit

Lunch
Creamy Pasta Salad With Artichoke Hearts
Crusty Italian bread
Fresh fruit

Dinner
Buffalo Wing-Style 'Chicken' Nuggets
Ranch Dressing
Baked French fries
Celery sticks
Carrot sticks

http://www.peta.org/living/vegetarian-living/two-week-vegetarian-menu.aspx
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Mar 18 Jan - 18:54

january 3, 2011

Eating for Life
..
...
"Animal rights is a part of my everyday life. When you live by example, you create a certain level of awareness. Friends of mine-people I have never discussed animal rights or vegetarianism with-are adopting vegetarian habits because they see it."
—Joaquin Phoenix
..The health benefits of a vegetarian diet are impressive. Dr. T. Colin Campbell, nutritional researcher at Cornell University and director of the largest epidemiological study in history, says, "The vast majority of all cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and other forms of degenerative illness can be prevented simply by adopting a plant-based diet."

The American Dietetic Association, the nation's largest organization of nutrition professionals, states that vegetarians have lower rates of heart disease, cancer, diabetes, obesity, and other health problems. By adopting a nutritious vegan diet, you will likely lose unwanted weight, have more energy, and dramatically lower your risk of various diseases. Here are a few pointers on how to maximize the benefits:

Top Tips

Eat a variety of "whole foods," with plenty of beans, nuts, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables.
Avoid unhealthy foods like trans fats, which are usually listed as partially hydrogenated oils. Deep-fried foods often contain trans fats. Choose margarines that use nonhydrogenated oil, like Earth Balance or Smart Balance. Although a diet consisting of Coke and French fries is technically vegan, you can't be healthy if you eat nothing but junk food.
..Vitamin B12: Vitamin B12 is produced by bacteria, and some experts believe that vegetarians used to get plenty of this vitamin from bacteria in drinking water. Since drinking water is now treated with chemicals that kill the bacteria, it's important to make sure that you get enough vitamin B12 from fortified foods (like most brands of soy or rice milks, some breakfast cereals, and many brands of nutritional yeast) on a daily basis or by taking a sublingual B12 tablet of 10 mcg per day.
A healthy, balanced vegan diet rich in beans, nuts, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables—along with a bit of vitamins B12 and D—will give you everything that your body needs. But if you often eat on the go and don't always have time to eat nutritious meals, taking a regular multivitamin might be a good option.

It's never too late to turn over a new leaf-you can take control of your health today by going vegetarian. Request a free vegetarian starter kit today!

Recommended Reading
Eat Right, Live Longer by Dr. Neal Barnard, M.D.
The Food Revolution by John Robbins
Healthy Eating for Life: For Children by Dr. Amy Lanou, Ph.D.
Healthy Eating for Life: For Women by PCRM
American Dietetic Association and Dieticians of Canada: Joint Position Paper on Vegetarian Diets
PCRM's Vegetarian Starter Kit (Free)
..
http://www.peta.org/living/vegetarian-living/eating-for-life.aspx
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Jeu 20 Jan - 8:45

12 février 2010

Tableau

Les sources végétariennes de nutriments

Aliment
Apport



milligramme
microgramme





Minéraux
Acide
Vitamines

Type
Quantité
Fer
Zinc
Calcium
Linolénique
B2
B12
D

Graines de soja cuites
125 mL
4,4
1,0
88
1000







Graines de soja grillées
60 mL
1,7
2,1
60









Graines de soja vert
125 mL




130









Lait de soja
125 mL


0,3











Lait de soja enrichi
125 mL
0,4–1,0
0,5–1,0
100–159


200
0,4–1,6
0,5–1,5

Yaourt au soja enrichi
125 mL




367









Tempeh
83 g
2,2
0,9
92









Tofu ferme, précipité avec du calcium
126 g
6,6
1,0
120–430
700







Steak de soja enrichi
28 g
0,5–1,9
1,2–2,3






0,5 – 1,2



Haricots Azukis cuits
125 mL
2,3
2,0











Haricots blancs pré-cuisinés végétariens
125 mL
1,7
1,8
64









Haricots noirs cuits
125 mL
1,8
1,0
46









Pois chiches cuits
125 mL
2,4
1,3
40









Haricots du grand nord cuits
125 mL
1,9
0,8
60 – 64









Haricots nains cuits
125 mL
2,6
0,9











Lentilles cuites
125 mL
3,3
1,2











Haricots de Lima cuits
125 mL
2,2
0,9











Flageolets
125 mL

2,3
60 – 64









Haricots Pinto cuits
125 mL
2,2


41









Amandes
60 mL
1,5
1,2
88


300





Beurre d’amande
30 mL




86









Noix de cajou
60 mL
2,1
1,9











Beurre de cacahuète
30 mL
0,6
0,9











Cacahuètes grillées
60 mL
0,8
1,2











Graines de potiron moulues grillées
60 mL
5,2
2,6











Sésame (Tahin)
30 mL
2,7
1,4
128









Graines de tournesol grillées
60 mL
2,3
1,8











Orge, perlé, cuit
125 mL
1,0
0,6











Céréales, pré-cuisinées, enrichies
28 g
2,1 – 18
0,7 – 15
55 – 315


200–1700
0,6 – 6,0
0,5 – 1,0

Crème de froment cuite
125 mL
5,1













Farine d’avoine, instantanée, enrichie, cuite
125 mL
4,2













Farine d’avoine, ordinaire, instantanée ou rapide, cuite
125 mL
1,6













Quinoa, cuite
125 mL
2,1
0,8











Germe de blé
14 g
0,9
1,8











Pain au blé complet ou à la farine blanche enrichie
28 g
0,9
0,5











Abricots
60 mL
1,5













Raisins de Corinthe
60 mL
1,2













Figues
60 mL
1,1


137









Prunes
60 mL
1,1













Raisins secs
60 mL
1,1













Orange (grosse)
1




74









Jus d’orange enrichi
125 mL




150









Bok choy (chou chinois, pak choi) cuit
125 mL
0,9


83 – 94









Brocoli cuit
125 mL
0,7


39









Choux vert Collard cuit






119









Haricots vert ou jaune cuits
125 mL
0,8













Choux frisés cuit
125 mL
0,6


49









Choux frisés Scotch cuit






90









Moutarde verte cuite
125 mL




54









Gombo cuit






53









Haricots Mung germés
125 mL
0,8













Champignons cuits
125 mL
1,4
0,7




200





Petits pois cuits
125 mL


1,0











Patates cuites au four avec leur peau
173 g
2,3













Jus de tomate
125 mL
0,7













Navet vert
125 mL
0,6


104









Mélasse Blackstrap
15 mL
3,5


172









Lait de vache
125 mL


0,5
137 – 158


200
0,4 – 0,5
1,2 – 1,3

Fromage Cheddar
21 g


0,7
153









Œuf (gros)
50 g


0,5




600
0,5



Jaune d’œuf
17 g












0,6

Yaourt, simple
125 mL


0,8 – 1,1
137 - 230


300





Levure alimentaire en petits flocons (Red Star Vegetarian Support Formula)
3 g








1900
1,5



Huile de colza
15 mL






1300 - 1600







Graines de lin moulues
15 mL






1900 - 2200







Huile de lin
5 mL






2700







Huile de graines de soja
15 mL






900







Noix, noisettes, etc.








2700







Huile de noix








1400 – 1700







Yaourt, simple
125 mL


0,8 – 1,1
137 - 230


300






NOTE. Sources : informations et bases de données du Ministère de l’Agriculture des Etats-Unis, Service de Recherche Agricole, 2002 ; Base de données pour les Références Standards nutritionnelles du Ministère de l’Agriculture des Etats-Unis, révision n°15 ; Site internet du Laboratoire de données nutritionnelles : http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp ; Bhatty RS. Composition nutritionnelle des graines complètes de lin et farine de graines de lin. Dans : Cunnane SC, Thompson LU, eds. Flaxseed et nutrition humaine. Champaign, IL : AOCS Press ; 1995 :22-42.
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Jeu 20 Jan - 8:45

05 juin 2010










Pour finir parlons des additifs alimentaires. Il s'agit des colorants, des conservateurs, des anti-oxydants, des émulsifiants, des stabilisants et des révélateurs de goût.

Certains sont vegans, d'autres pas. Et il y en a beaucoup : il existe en Europe 827 additifs et quelques milliers d'arômes autorisés (aux États-Unis, près de 3 000 additifs sont recensés). C'est donc un casse-tête, car ceux-ci sont en effet mentionnés, mais soit sous leur nom scientifique, soit par un code: ce sont les fameux E (pour Europe) suivi de trois chiffres (de 100 à 927).

L'alternative est donc : soit éviter les produits ayant des additifs (ce qui n'est pas nécessairement mauvais vue leur dimension parfois nocive pour la santé), soit avoir la liste sur soi lors des achats.

Voici la liste des additifs qui sont vegans; les autres sont à considérer comme ne l'étant pas, ou bien possiblement pas; toutefois nous rappelons que les listes diffèrent parfois, en raison de l'opacité de l'industrie et de la difficulté à connaître exactement les composants ou le processus de fabrication.

Nous vous engageons donc plutôt à éviter les additifs (et à privilégier le bio quand on peut), et à vérifier selon différentes sources pour être vraiment sûr, même si le degré de certitude est à relativiser. Attention ici aux sites religieux, dont les critères ne sont pas vegan: par exemple un additif issu de l'utilisation de matières d'origine animale interdite par une religion pourra être considéré comme sans rapport avec les matières d'origine animale en question...

E100 E100i E100ii E102 E104
E107 E110 E122 E123 E124
E127 E129 E131 E132 E133
E140 E141 E141i E141ii E142
E150a E150b E150c E150d E151
E160a E160ai E160aii E160aiii E160aiv
E160b E160bi E160bii E160c E160d
E160di E160dii E160diii E160e E160f
E161 E161a E161d E161e E161f
E161h E161hii E161j E162 E163
E163ii E163iii E163iv E163v E171
E172 E172i E172ii E172iii E173
E174 E175 E180 E181 E200
E201 E202 E210 E211 E214
E215 E218 E219 E220 E221
E222 E223 E224 E226 E228
E230 E242 E249 E250 E251
E260 E261 E261i E261ii E262
E262i E262ii E263 E280 E281
E283 E284 E285 E290 E296
E297 E300 E301 E303 E306
E307 E307a E307b E307c E308
E309 E310 E311 E312 E314
E315 E316 E319 E320 E321
E330 E331 E331i E331ii E331iii
E332 E332i E332ii E333i E333ii
E333iii E334 E335 E335i E335ii
E336 E336i E336ii E337 E338
E339 E339i E339ii E339iii E340
E340i E340ii E340iii E341 E343
E343i E343ii E343iii E350 E350i
E350ii E351 E351i E351ii E352
E352i E352ii E353 E354 E355
E356 E357 E363 E375 E380
E385 E386 E388 E400 E401
E402 E403 E405 E406 E407
E407a E408 E410 E411 E412
E413 E414 E415 E416 E417
E418 E420 E420i E420ii E421
E425 E426 E440 E440a E440b
E444 E445 E450 E450i E450ii
E450iii E450iv E450v E450vi E450vii
E450viii E451 E451i E451ii E452
E452i E452ii E452iii E452iii E452iv
E452v E452vi E460 E460i E460ii
E461 E462 E463 E464 E465
E466 E468 E469 E480 E500
E500i E500ii E500iii E501 E501i
E501ii E503 E503i E503ii E504
E504i E504ii E507 E508 E509
E511 E512 E513 E514 E515
E516 E520 E521 E522 E523
E524 E525 E526 E527 E528
E529 E530 E535 E536 E538
E540 E541 E541i E541ii E550
E551 E552 E553 E553i E553ii
E553iii E554 E555 E556 E557
E559 E574 E575 E576 E577
E578 E579 E586 E620 E621
E622 E623 E624 E625 E650
E900 E900a E900b E902 E903
E905 E905a E905b E905c E905ci
E905cii E905d E905e E905f E905g
E914 E927b E938 E939 E941
E942 E943a E943b E944 E948
E949 E950 E952 E952i E952ii
E952iii E952iv E953 E954 E954i
E954ii E954iii E954iv E955 E957
E959 E962 E965 E965i E965ii
E967 E968 E999 E999i E999ii
E1103 E1200 E1201 E1202 E1204
E1404 E1410 E1412 E1413 E1414
E1420 E1422 E1440 E1442 E1450
E1452 E1505 E1517 E1518 E1520

http://laterredabord.fr/articles2/vivreveganauquotidien.html
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Jeu 20 Jan - 18:11

June 23, 2009 Beauty in vegan eats and raw food treats

Lately I have been exploring vegan and raw foods. I have been talking about my experience, showed photos and tweeted recipes all over Twitter. I thought I should also do a quick post on Clumps of Mascara in case there are other Clumps readers looking to incorporate healthier foods in their diets.

Follow my photo journey!

A week starts with a visit to one of the local farmer’s markets here in Orlando. Can you believe I spend no more than $7 for a week’s worth of fruits and veggies? And people say eating healthy is expensive. Ha!



Google “green smoothies” and tell me what you find. Greens blended with your favorite fruits are the ultimate power drinks. They are not only tasty but are full of vitamins and minerals. My body literally craves these things. I usually use kale, spinach, collards, blueberries, strawberries, mangoes, bananas, ginger, almond milk, coconut milk, cinnamon. Whatever I can find, I toss in! The combinations are endless and ALWAYS delicious. No matter how funky it looks.


Lunch is usually a huge spinach salad with sunflower seeds, raisins, olive oil, lemon pepper, sprouts, tomatoes, peppers, etc. And although I’m not a fan of carrots, I find that munching on them keeps the hunger pangs at bay. Oh—and a gallon of water a day is a must!


One of my favorite meals! Spaghetti squash topped with fresh tomatoes and raw lemon drenched kale. Don’t knock it until you try it!



Can you tell I love kale? If I’m craving a crunch with a bit of saltiness, I make kale chips. Toss them in the oven for 10 minutes, sprinkle a little sea salt on top and they almost taste like chips.

And just because I’m incorporating more greens doesn’t mean I have to go without my sweets. I love pina coladas. Toss in a few pineapples, coconut milk, ice and cinnamon and oh wee….sah-weet!



Vegan chocolate chips anyone? Don’t turn your nose up. They taste just as good as the regular ones….if not better! This is the recipe I used.



Many have asked WHY I have gone this route. I simply wanted to spice up the way I eat—in a good way. I’ve been a good eater for quite some time but I am loving adding veggies to everything! And loosing weight along the way ain’t so shabby.

Let me know what you think! You know I find beauty in EVERYTHING so don’t be surprised to see more green foods somehow tied with beauty on Clumps of Mascara.

My Top Raw Resources:
Raw Epicurean
Choosing Raw

If you are on Twitter, I highly suggest following these ladies. They tweet great tips and recipes!
@naptress
@MyRawChef
@JulieK
@VeganCook101

…..there are so many! My online Coach has even started a support group so if you are looking to incorporate greens in your diet, join us here!
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Jeu 20 Jan - 18:18

Vegetarians Beware: Your Yogurt and Cheese Might Contain Animal Products
Animal Products Are in a Lot of Food You Might Not Think About
Gemma Argent, Yahoo! Contributor Network
Nov 6, 2007 "Contribute content like this. Start Here."
.More: Might Free Products Rennet Products Health Products .As if vegetarians don't have a hard enough time finding food that is free from animal products, some foods they might consider 'safe' really contain animal products after all. Two such foods are yogurt and
cheese. For vegetarians, not to mention everyone else, dairy is a very beneficial product, except for Vegans who are more strict and don't eat anything from animals, including leather, milk, eggs, etc. But, for those who do eat dairy, it would be a good idea to learn about what products might be in some foods.

There is substance called rennet that is used as an enzyme to harden cheeses. It's very important to know that there are two types of rennet; one is derived from animals and the other is not. Animal rennet is made from the stomach lining of young animals, primarily calves, but other animals like sheep or pigs can be used. The other rennet is made from vegetable sources. Cheese made with the vegetable rennet is, of course, acceptable to vegetarians. However, if non-vegetarians decide they don't like the idea of eating cheese containing a product from the lining of an animal's stomach, they might want to think about vegetable rennet, too. Not all cheeses contain animal rennet, and with the advent of more organic foods and cheeses, it's not too hard anymore to find non-animal rennet cheese in the stores. Most cheese using vegetable rennet will say so on the label.

Now we come to another animal-derived product. Gelatin. That's right, the main ingredient in Jell-O, many fruity type gummy candy, yogurt, and other foods. Gelatin is made by extracting collagen from connective tissue of an animal. Once obtained, gelatin is a colorless and tasteless solid. It's used to thicken, hence the term gelatinous, foods. Gelatin is a protein that comes from the hydrolysis of bones and connective tissue where the collagen is stored. The animals used are the typical farm animals like cows, sheep, pigs and even horses. When gelatin is heated up, it turns to liquid and then becomes solid again when it cools.

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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Jeu 20 Jan - 18:18

You don't have to be a vegetarian to want to stay away from animal products, so if a person makes the decision to avoid gelatin or animal rennet, reading labels is a good way to start.
Next time you're in the grocery store, check the labels on yogurt. Most varieties contain gelatin. There are a few brands that don't and most of the organic brands don't as well. It's a bit more difficult to find a cheese that doesn't contain animal rennet, or to know what is meant when the label simply says rennet. But, unless the label states clearly that the enzymes are from a vegetable source, the cheese probably contains animal rennet. Once you get into the habit of reading labels, it isn't so bad. And there are always alternatives to Jell-O or gummy candy. Just look around or visit some of the health food stores for animal free products.

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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Ven 21 Jan - 7:59

January 20, 2011

Kale is the New Beef!



Kale is the New Beef T-shirts, which were introduced at the Princeton Immersion this past weekend, are now available for sale on our website! The phrase was coined in a video clip featuring Dr. Fuhrman and Marilu Henner and has really been catching on! Watch it here! T-shirts are available in women's v-neck or men's crew neck.

http://drfuhrman.com/shop/fitness.aspx#kale_tshirts

The Westin Princeton • Princeton, NJ • January 14-16, 2011

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Close to 300 people traveled to Princeton, N.J. for a whirlwind weekend, centered around eating to live!

Dr. Fuhrman provided nutritional knowledge, exercise classes, and of course great-tasting, beautifully presented nutritarian cuisine taken from his own recipes. Inspiration came from attendees who shared their own personal stories and health triumphs in an open forum.

details

Read what people had to say . . .



"I was beyond blown away.
Dr. Fuhrman was so amazingly inspiring and informative. I have been at this for several years, but I learned so many new things.

The food was off the charts too!"



"I enjoyed the weekend very much!
Thanks to Dr Furhman and staff for a well-organized event!"



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

"I stayed to the very last question and answer — learning something new all
the way to the end."


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"The whole weekend was awesome and we learned so much!"



"Having success stories live and in person is very powerful - almost like I truly believe I could look like that now that I’ve seen it. I’ve seen it before on the website but nothing is more powerful then seeing how people changed their lives in person."


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

"Dr. Fuhrman does a wonderful job sharing information and answering our questions. He is truly a trustworthy physician and inspired me to change. I would absolutely recommend this to family and friends."


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

"I loved this life altering weekend."



"All the fresh fruit, sorbets, soups and salad were wonderful.
Great variety! Nice to sample so much."


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

"It was a wonderful and oh so good weekend. It is just so nice to have such a choice of food and not have to worry about the ingredients."


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

"The session on supplements was incredibly helpful in demystifying all the misinformation out there."


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"Having the stars of the film “Fat, Sick and Nearly Dead” there was so touching and made it so much more personal physically seeing them here. It gave compassion, hope and “way to go” for so many of us in the room."



"All the food choices were excellent.
It is great to see that a large hotel will actually accommodate menu requests and do such a good job with the food."


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

"It was such a wonderfully planned event and you can tell the staff worked hard to make it seem effortless. I have returned with lots of enthusiasm and am especially thankful that my mom is now on board. I pray she will receive support when she returns back to her home too."


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"Outstanding!
We will now be nutritarians and pass the word on!
This was definitely a life changing event!"

http://www.drfuhrman.com/events/princeton_immersion/princeton_weekend_immersion_highlights.aspx
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Ven 21 Jan - 7:59

January 20, 2011



view video


Dr. Fuhrman's 2011 Health Getaway
June 26 - July 2, 2011


The Grand Summit Hotel
AAA rated Four-Diamond resort
Park City, Utah


Dr. Fuhrman invites you to join his 2011 annual health Getaway. From the moment you arrive at this AAA Four-Diamond Resort an inspiring, learning and fun-filled stay awaits. Canyons Resort is proud to be honored by the New York Times as one of the top 41 Places to Go in 2011.

Daily events include lectures and workshops led by Dr. Fuhrman, delicious high-nutrient Eat for Health cuisine, health screenings and planned social events. Dr. Fuhrman's program is a health-promoting life-changing experience for you and your loved ones.

Deluxe accommodations, spa and health club facilities, along with indoor and outdoor activities including scenic gondola rides, hiking, golf, concerts and much more make for a never to be forgotten health revitalizing vacation.

Highlights

Dr. Fuhrman is pleased to announce this year's special celebrity guest emcee, Marilu Henner.

About Marilu
Marilu Henner is a well-known actress and the New York Times' best-selling author of Marilu Henner's Total Health Makeover and The 30-Day Total Health Makeover, I Refuse to Raise a Brat, Healthy Life Kitchen, Healthy Kids, Healthy Holidays, Wear Your Life Well, and By All Means Keep on Moving. For more than twenty years she has championed a vigorous, healthy lifestyle and has inspired millions of people along the way.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


2011 Health Getaway
All-inclusive package:
Daily lectures presented by Dr. Fuhrman on
the latest nutritional research

Dr. Fuhrman's Eat For Health cuisine at every meal
Health Screening
Cooking demonstrations
Exercise classes - twice daily
Roundtable discussions - "living it" with Lisa Fuhrman
Discussion groups to support you in a Nutritarian lifestyle
Fun and activities for the whole family
Outdoor Pool
Whirlpool - Tub
Scenic Gondola Rides
Hiking / Mountain Bike Trails
Alpine Disc Golf
Each room comes with complimentary wireless high speed internet
Welcome gift for each guest
For an additional charge,
guests can enjoy the following recreational activities:

Full Spa and Health Club
White Water Rafting
Horseback Riding
Alpine Slide
Kids Day Camp (ask us for details)


Members receive an additional $100 off Early Bird Specials!

Early Bird Special
Until January 31st After January 31st
Non-Member Member Non-Member & Member
Single
Occupancy $2,398* $2,298* $2,598*
Double
Occupancy $1,948* $1,848* $2,148*

*Rate is quoted per person, per stay and subject to availability.
Additional fees apply for some recreational activities and all spa services.

http://drfuhrman.com/events/utah_2011/utah_2011_health_getaway.aspx
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Ven 21 Jan - 11:27

10 novembre 2010

Au secours, j'ai un végane à la maison !
Recevoir un végane est facile, voici nos conseils :

Que mange un végane ?
Un végane mange tous les légumes, céréales, légumineuses, fruits, noix, champignons et algues. Cela vous fait donc une grande variété d'aliments avec lesquels composer un repas. Pour rappel, un végane ne mange aucun aliment d'origine animale. Le miel est un produit animal, comme les œufs, les coquillages ou les produits laitiers.

Est-ce que je lui fais un plat à part ?
Les aliments véganes peuvent convenir à tout le monde : pourquoi ne pas faire un repas végane commun plutôt que de préparer des plats supplémentaires ? Toutefois, si vous décidez de préparer des plats différents pour votre invité végane, il est préférable de préparer un plat à part.

Idées recettes
•Apéritif : olives, noix, fruits secs, tomates cerises, etc.
•Pâtes aux cèpes
•Ratatouille maison et riz
•Poêlée de légumes à l'huile d'olive
•Soupe de légumes maison
•Taboulé
•Salade composée
•Salade de fruits
•Crèmes et yaourts au soja
Véganisez un plat !
Il existe des alternatives aux produits laitiers qui sont délicieuses ! Les crèmes végétales (soja, riz, amande, avoine...) vous permettent de créer une sauce en un clin d'œil, de la même manière que la crème liquide ou la crème fraîche. Les margarines végétales remplacent agréablement le beurre, sur les tartines et dans les gâteaux !

Visitez notre rubrique recettes pour essayer des préparations véganes plus élaborées. Pourquoi ne pas essayer de faire un repas végane pour tout le monde ?
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Ven 21 Jan - 11:28

19 novembre 2010

Des professionnels de santé pour une alimentation responsable
L'APSARES est une association indépendante à but non lucratif dont l'objectif est de contribuer à l'amélioration de la santé publique par la promotion d'une alimentation responsable. Plus de détails

Le concept d'alimentation responsable repose sur une vision élargie des conséquences des modes alimentaires "standard" des pays riches, à savoir des problèmes majeurs de santé publique, mais également la dégradation de l'environnement et la pénurie alimentaire dans les pays pauvres.

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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Ven 21 Jan - 11:29

L'APSARES sera présente le 28 novembre 2010 au Paris Vegan Day
Venez nous rencontrer le dimanche 28 novembre 2010 de 11h à 23h à l'occasion du Paris Vegan Day.
Le Paris Vegan Day est un événement annuel qui rassemble de nombreuses associations et entreprises sur le thème de l'alimentation végétalienne.
Plus de renseignements sur cet événement : http://www.parisveganday.fr/

Deux médecins ainsi que deux diététiciens de l'APSARES seront présents.
Vous pouvez venir dialoguer avec nous sur le stand de l'Association Végétarienne de France (espace "Le club") qui a accepté de nous héberger.

L'APSARES sera présente le 28 novembre 2010 au Paris Vegan Day
Venez nous rencontrer le dimanche 28 novembre 2010 de 11h à 23h à l'occasion du Paris Vegan Day.
Le Paris Vegan Day est un événement annuel qui rassemble de nombreuses associations et entreprises sur le thème de l'alimentation végétalienne.
Plus de renseignements sur cet événement : http://www.parisveganday.fr/

Deux médecins ainsi que deux diététiciens de l'APSARES seront présents.
Vous pouvez venir dialoguer avec nous sur le stand de l'Association Végétarienne de France (espace "Le club") qui a accepté de nous héberger.
Des mini-consultations médicales personnalisées (prise de tension artérielle) et des conseils nutritionnels vous seront offerts gracieusement sur le stand.

Par ailleurs, nous donnerons des conférences au rez-de-chaussée dans l'espace "Le loft" sur les thèmes et aux horaires suivants :

11h15 - 12h : Parents véganes : quelle alimentation pour votre bébé de 0 à 1 an ? (Dr Florence Lelièvre)
suivie d'une séance de questions/réponses.

12h30 - 13h30 : Comment s'alimenter de façon végétalienne (chez les adultes) ? Quels bénéfices pour la santé ? (Ludovic Ringot, diététicien, Dr Jérôme Bernard-Pellet ainsi que Dr Stephen Walsh, scientifique anglophone de la Vegan Society)
suivie d'une séance de questions/réponses.

14h30 - 15h00 : Table ronde sur le soja
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Ven 21 Jan - 11:30

23 novembre 2010

Des campagnes pour un jour hebdomadaire sans viande se multiplient partout dans le monde
A l'heure
où les gouvernements justifient la mise en place de nouvelles taxes et de nouvelles mesures portant atteinte aux libertés individuelles, au prétexte de "lutte contre le réchauffement climatique", des associations de plus en plus nombreuses agissent pour faire valoir l'intérêt d'un tout autre type de mesure, autrement plus efficace, et dont chacun pourrait retirer des bénéfices, notamment pour la santé : la réduction de la consommation de viande !

Ces associations sollicitent des initiatives politiques concrètes comme la mise en place d'une journée hebdomadaire végétarienne dans la restauration collective.

En Belgique...

Depuis le 13 mai 2009, le jeudi est déclaré "journée sans viande" par la ville de Gand, deuxième ville de Belgique par le nombre d'habitants.

Cette campagne, intitulée "Donderdag Veggiedag" ("Jeudi, jour végétarien"), résulte d'un partenariat entre une association et les autorités municipales.

Concrètement, à Gand, tous les jeudis, le menu servi dans les restaurants gérés par la municipalité est végétarien, y compris, depuis la rentrée de septembre 2009, dans les cantines des 35 écoles de la ville.

D'autres villes belges ont indiqué leur volonté d'emboîter le pas à cette initiative, et un programme similaire vient de démarrer dans la ville de Hasselt.



Voir l'interview du maire de Gand, partenaire de la campagne.



En France...

L'Association Végétarienne de France (AVF) vient à son tour de lancer une campagne similaire, et est soutenue dans son initiative par plusieurs associations dont l'APSARES.

Le site internet "Un jour sans viande" est le support de la campagne française.



Voir la lettre envoyée au maire de Paris pour l'instauration d'une journée végétarienne hebdomadaire dans la capitale.



Au niveau Européen...

Les célèbres Paul McCartney et Rajendra Pachauri (Prix Nobel de la Paix 2007) ont lancé leur propre campagne afin d'instaurer une journée végétarienne par semaine à l'échelle européenne, sur le modèle de la ville de Gand.

Ils ont écrit une lettre pour les responsables et décideurs (notamment les maires des grandes villes européennes) expliquant les enjeux de cette campagne.

Ils ont été reçus le 3 décembre 2009 au Parlement Européen, à Bruxelles, pour une audition sur le thème "réchauffement climatique et la politique alimentaire : moins de viande = moins de réchauffement", présidée par le président du Parlement Européen.

Et ailleurs encore

En Grande-Bretagne, une campagne intitulée "Meatout Mondays" ("Lundis sans viande") a également vu le jour.

Un programme similaire à celui de la ville de Gand vient de démarrer au Brésil, dans la mégapole de Sao Paulo !

Aux Etats-Unis, des repas végétariens hebdomadaires sont déjà en place dans la ville de Baltimore...
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Ven 21 Jan - 11:30

Site sur le végétalisme :

http://www.alimentation-responsable.com/
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Ven 21 Jan - 11:31

10 novembre 2010

Alimentation et santé publique : un constat inquiétant

Les habitudes alimentaires ont considérablement évolué depuis le milieu du XXème siècle. Comme cela est observé dans le rapport commun de l'OMS et de la FAO de 2002 intitulé « Alimentation, nutrition et prévention des maladies chroniques », une alimentation riche en graisses et en aliments à forte densité énergétique, centrée autour d'aliments d'origine animale, a remplacé l'alimentation traditionnelle principalement basée sur des aliments d'origine végétale. Cela a joué un rôle clé dans l'augmentation de la prévalence des maladies chroniques évitables d'origine nutritionnelle : obésité, diabète, maladies cardio-vasculaires, cancers et ostéoporose principalement.1

Ces maladies ne sont plus limitées aux « pays riches », et constituent désormais un problème de santé publique croissant dans les pays en développement1, où le modèle alimentaire « occidental » se propage et remplace souvent les alimentations traditionnelles.

EVOLUTION DES HABITUDES ALIMENTAIRES
Entre 1950 et aujourd'hui, soit en à peine deux générations, l'alimentation des Français (de même que celles des autres pays occidentaux) s'est complètement transformée. Ce phénomène peut s'expliquer par les profondes mutations économiques et sociales ayant conduit à un bouleversement des modes de vie au cours de cette même période.
Cette modification des modes alimentaires s'est traduite par:

une forte augmentation de la consommation de viande, produits laitiers (yaourts, fromages), produits à index glycémique élevé (boissons sucrées, desserts lactés sucrés et glaces notamment), produits gras (dont fromage et charcuterie);
une forte diminution de la consommation de pain, céréales, pommes de terre, légumes secs.
Ces évolutions ont conduit à une alimentation trop riche en lipides, trop riche en sucres rapides et trop pauvre en fibres.2 L'effet néfaste de l'excès quantitatif de graisses est renforcé par le déséquilibre qualitatif des graisses consommées (excès d'acides gras saturés du fait de la consommation excessive de produits animaux, déséquilibre entre oméga6 et oméga3). Concernant les protéines, la tendance est également à l'excès2 et au déséquilibre qualitatif : près de 80% des protéines consommées sont désormais d'origine animale, quand elles étaient à 80% d'origine végétale il y a un siècle.3

CONSÉQUENCES SUR LA SANTÉ : TENDANCES GÉNÉRALES
Alors que la sous-alimentation et les carences en vitamines et minéraux, répandus dans les pays pauvres, affectent la santé générale dès l'enfance, la sur-alimentation* a une incidence à long terme sur la santé, engendrant des maladies cardiaques, des cancers ou d'autres maladies chroniques qui apparaissent généralement à partir de la quarantaine et au-delà.

Des chercheurs de l'université de Harvard ont montré que la sur-alimentation était responsable d'au moins autant de cas de maladies de par le monde que la sous-alimentation, et que plus de la moitié du fardeau mondial des maladies résultait d'une mauvaise alimentation (par manque, par excès ou par déséquilibre).4

Une alimentation pléthorique et trop riche en graisses favorise l'obésité, laquelle augmente considérablement le risque de maladies cardiaques, d'accidents vasculaires cérébraux, de diabète, et de divers cancers. Ces quatre pathologies sont responsables de plus de la moitié de l'ensemble des décès dans les pays riches.
En outre, avec l'augmentation de l'obésité juvénile, il est à prévoir que ces « maladies d'adultes » toucheront à l'avenir de plus en plus de jeunes.

Cancers
L'incidence des cancers a augmenté de 63% en France entre 1980 et 2000.5 C'est aujourd'hui la première cause de mortalité en Europe.
D'après le Fonds mondial de recherche contre le cancer, un simple changement d'habitudes alimentaires permettrait de prévenir 30 à 40% des cas de cancers dans le monde, soit autant voire plus que l'arrêt du tabac.6

Diabète

Le nombre de diabétiques dans le monde a quintuplé entre 1985 et 1998, passant de 30 millions à 143 millions.6 Le diabète est désormais la 3ème cause de mortalité en Europe. Sans compter qu'il est également indirectement responsable de nombreux autres décès. La Fédération Internationale du Diabète estime que le nombre de diabétiques doublera d'ici 2025 pour atteindre les 300 millions.

D'autre part, le diabète de type 2 touche de plus en plus de jeunes adultes et d'enfants (20% en 1998 contre seulement 4% au début des années 1990).6
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Ven 21 Jan - 11:31

02 novembre 2010

Maladies cardio-vasculaires

« On estime que d'ici 2020, les deux tiers de la charge mondiale de morbidité seront imputables à des maladies non transmissibles chroniques, pour la plupart nettement associées au régime alimentaire. Le passage à une alimentation comportant davantage de denrées alimentaires raffinées, d'aliments d'origine animale et de graisses joue un rôle majeur dans l'épidémie actuelle d'obésité, de diabète et de maladies cardio-vasculaires, entre autres affections non-transmissibles. » Bulletin de l'OMS n°80, 2002
Les maladies cardio-vasculaires restent la deuxième cause de décès en Europe, bien que les progrès de la médecine aient permis de diminuer la mortalité liée à ces maladies au cours des dernières décennies. Cependant, du fait de l'augmentation de la prévalence de quatre facteurs de risque de ces maladies (obésité, tabagisme féminin, sédentarité et pollution de l'air), on peut craindre un retournement de cette tendance et une évolution à la hausse de la mortalité par maladies cardio-vasculaires dans les années à venir.5

VERS UNE DIMINUTION DE L'ESPERANCE DE VIE ?
Des chercheurs des universités de Harvard et de Washington ont conduit en 2008 une étude7 qui a mis en évidence une baisse de l'espérance de vie des femmes dans certains comtés défavorisés des Etats-Unis, ceux où l’on trouve le plus de décès entraînés par des maladies chroniques liées au tabac, à l’obésité, au surpoids et à l’hypertension artérielle. Le docteur Murray qui a mené cette étude a déclaré : « Dans la mesure où les modes de vie malsains mis en cause dans cette étude se répandent partout, on peut craindre que la baisse de la longévité ne se généralise. Je pense que c'est un signe avant-coureur. Cette situation ne restera pas un cas isolé limité à ces comtés. Les coûts de santé publique ne cessent d'augmenter, de même que la prévalence de l'obésité et de l'obésité infantile. »
Une autre étude menée par des chercheurs américains en 2005 avait déjà conclu que l'augmentation continuelle de l'espérance de vie observée depuis deux siècles aux Etats-Unis allait prochainement se renverser à cause de l'épidémie d'obésité.8 Etant donnée la diffusion du mode d'alimentation américain à l'ensemble de la planète, on peut craindre que ce phénomène ne se généralise.

En effet, la « Framingham heart study » a montré qu'un simple surpoids faisait perdre en moyenne 3 ans de vie, alors que l'obésité faisait perdre en moyenne entre 7 ans de vie pour un non-fumeur et 14 ans pour un fumeur.

« Je pense que d'ici peu, à cause de ces deux épidémies [obésité et diabète de type 2], nous allons commencer à voir une diminution de l'espérance de vie. » Pr Claude Bouchard, président de la Société Internationale d'Etude de l'Obésité, 2004
Dans son livre paru en 2006 intitulé « Espérance de vie, la fin des illusions »5, le scientifique Claude Aubert prédit lui aussi une baisse de l'espérance de vie dans les décennies à venir du fait d'une convergence de facteurs dont les principaux seraient l'obésité et la pollution. Selon lui « si nos habitudes alimentaires n'ont pas empêché l'espérance de vie d'augmenter, c'est parce qu'elles sont trop récentes pour avoir déjà un impact notable [...] la première génération à n'avoir connu depuis l'enfance qu'une alimentation proche de celle d'aujourd'hui, trop riche en viande, en matières grasses et en glucides rapides, est née à la fin des années 1960. Elle a aujourd'hui moins de 50 ans et est donc trop jeune pour que les principaux effets de ces déséquilibres se traduisent déjà par une augmentation sensible de la mortalité. »

QUELLES SOLUTIONS ?
Une étude a montré que la viande, les produits laitiers, les oeufs et les graisses animales représentaient 77% des apports en acides gras saturés et 100% des apports en cholestérol dans les pays développés.9
Afin d'évaluer le coût des soins médicaux directement imputables à la consommation de viande, le Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (comité de médecins pour une médecine responsable) a comparé la prévalence de l'hypertension, des maladies cardiaques, des cancers, du diabète, des calculs biliaires, et de l'obésité chez les végétariens et chez les non-végétariens aux Etats-Unis. Il ressort de cette étude qu'entre 29 et 61 milliards de dollars annuels sont directement attribuables à la consommation de viande.10

Il est donc possible de prévenir ou de guérir les maladies liées à la sur-alimentation par un changement d'habitudes alimentaires et de mode de vie. Ainsi, 30 à 40% des cancers, 17 à 22% des maladies cardio-vasculaires et 24 à 66% des cas de diabète pourraient être évités par une forte réduction de la consommation d'acides gras saturés (présents principalement dans la viande, les oeufs et les produits laitiers) et par une augmentation de l'activité physique.6
Une recherche menée par l'école de santé publique de Harvard a montré que les alimentations traditionnelles ayant été associées à une meilleure espérance de vie et à un taux réduit de maladies d'origine nutritionnelle étaient des alimentations basées principalement sur des aliments végétaux (riches en céréales complètes, légumes, fruits et noix), et de très faibles quantités -voire une absence- de produits animaux.6

L'exemple de la Corée du Sud corrobore ce constat. La population de ce pays a conservé son alimentation traditionnelle largement végétale, en dépit des évolutions socio-économiques de ces dernières années. Des études ont montré que les maladies chroniques et l'obésité étaient moins fréquents en Corée du Sud que dans les autres pays industrialisés ayant un développement économique comparable.11-12
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Masculin Nombre de messages : 19980
Date d'inscription : 17/05/2007

MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Ven 21 Jan - 11:32

20 octobre 2010

CONCLUSION
La sur-alimentation est donc une forme de malnutrition dont les conséquences en termes de santé publique sont aussi lourdes qu'une autre forme de malnutrition, la sous-alimentation.

Si près de 900 millions de personnes dans le monde souffrent encore de la faim, le nombre de personnes en surpoids dépasse désormais 1 milliard de personnes et ne cesse de s'accroître, y compris dans les pays en développement.

Si rien n'est fait pour enrayer cette véritable épidémie et son cortège de maladies chroniques, un renversement à la baisse des tendances de longévité est à prévoir, sans parler de l'accroissement de la morbidité liée à ces maladies.

Les professionnels de santé peuvent et doivent agir au quotidien contre ce phénomène, en divulgant le plus largement possible des conseils hygiéno-diététiques adaptés : promotion d'une alimentation principalement végétale, augmentation de l'activité physique, arrêt du tabac, etc...



* Entendons par sur-alimentation une alimentation hyper-énergétique et/ou déséquilibrée par surabondance d'un ou plusieurs types de nutriments nocifs en excès (graisses, sucres rapides, protéines animales). Une alimentation hyper-énergétique est une alimentation qui apporte plus de calories que le corps n'en a besoin, ce besoin étant variable en fonction de l'activité physique.

Références :


1- OMS/FAO, Diet, Nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases, 2002
2- INCA2 Afssa
3- Aubert C, Le Berre N, Faut-il être végétarien ? Pour la santé et la planète, Terre Vivante, 2007
4- Murray CJ, Lopez AD, The global burden of disease, Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press, 1996
5- Aubert C, Espérance de vie, la fin des illusions, Terre Vivante, 2006
6- Gardner G, Halwell B, Underfed and Overfed: The Global Epidemic of Malnutrition, World Watch Institute Paper 150, March 2000
7- Ezzati M et alii, The Reversal of Fortunes: Trends in County Mortality and Cross-County Mortality Disparities in the United States, Plos Med, 2008, 22;5(4):e66.
8- Olshansky SJ et alii, A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century, N Eng J Med, 2005, 352 (11) : 1138-1145
9- Nestle M, Animal vs. plant foods in human diets and health: is the historical record unequivocal?, Proc of the Nut Soc,1999, 58, 211-218
10- Barnard ND, Nicholson A, Howard JL, The medical costs attributable to meat consumption, Prev Med, 1995, 24(6):646-55.
11- Lee MJ, Popkin BM, Kim S, The unique aspects of the nutrition transition in South Korea : the retention of healthful elements in their traditional diet, Public health Nutrition, 2002, 5:197-203
12- Kim SW, Moon SJ, Popkin BM, The nutrition transition in South Korea, Am J of Clin Nut, 2002, 71:44-53
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MessageSujet: Re: vegetarianismo estricto / strict vegetarianism / végétalisme   Aujourd'hui à 3:44

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