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MessageSujet: psychology   Mer 3 Avr - 14:34


http://www.psychologytoday.com/

Lying: What Humans Love Most and Do Best
Why we love lying and pretend we hate it.
Published on April 6, 2014 by Billi Gordon, Ph.D. in Obesely Speaking
Neel Burton, M.D.
This post is a response to How Do I Know When I Am Lying To Myself?

Compulsive eaters, alcoholics, and other addicts often die because they lie to themselves and others about their lives. Although never found on a resume, all humans are consummate liars. We tell between 20 and 200 lies a day experts say. Then we claim to detest lying, which of course, is another lie. For example, a woman once said to me, “I hate lying.” I thought, seriously, with that make-up and weave, you obviously dislike the truth much more than you hate lying. Then I proceeded to embellish my life because if Moses had seen her in those shorts, there would be at least 12 commandments—don’t judge me.
The dictionary defines a lie as “an intentional untruth made with the intent to deceive;” and deceive as “making someone believe something that is not true”; and true as “conforming with reality or fact.” Thus, any story that is not factual is a lie. Therefore, all fictional works of literature, and all non-factual stories, including biblical allegories such as parts of the Bible, are lies because they are not fact. However, we know there is a difference between a lie, and fictional works, even though the dictionary defines a story as “a factual or fictional account of an event,” and fiction as “something that is untrue and made up.” The difference is the intent.

See All Stories In

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How to become a high performer.
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Lying: What Humans Love Most and Do Best
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Storytelling vs. Telling Stories

Storytelling is creating something in your imagination that does not exist and making it real for education or entertainment purposes. That is why a writer spinning a tale is an artist, and a person telling an untruthful story at a cocktail party is a liar, even though both may just be trying to entertain. Clearly there is a difference, although some stories completely lose their entertainment value if the audience knows they are not true, especially comedic stories. Imagine if a comedian began, “Well this story is not true, but a funny thing happened to me…” On the nightclub stage, telling a “funny thing happened to me…” lie is permissible, but not for a patron in the nightclub itself. Yet, in terms of storytelling, the mechanism is identical. In addition, to the extrovert attention whore, as the bard says, “All the world’s a stage.” Of course the bard, like Dante, was a notorious liar. People claim they do not like being deceived, which is another lie. People love movies and movies are a symphony of deceit: the make-up, hair, costumes, lighting, sound, editing, acting, special effects, directing and writing: lies, lies, and more lies—technically.

A person cannot successfully tell a lie unless there are people willing to believe it. Hence, lying is a cooperative act and a prime example of “there are no victims, only volunteers.” Deception is vital to humans, and the terms of usage are contextual at best. At the same nightclub, (where I might tell a funny, fabricated story, and be demonized for doing so), women are walking around with tons of make up and cosmetic surgery that is equally deceptive and much more expensive. Yet, a truth, such as, “I have butt implants,” “one testicle” or “daddy issues” would be just as unwelcome because humans feast on deception, but prefer nibbling on the truth. A prime example is assigning gender to clothing and behavior. Chromosomes and genitals determine gender. Clothing, behaviors, and social preferences do not have genitals or chromosomes, so “male and female clothing” and “masculine and feminine behavior” are lies. Just like Santa Claus, the Easter Bunny, the Tooth Fairy, and body painted abs, hair weaves and perms are lies.

Lies and the Evolutionary Brain

Deception is a trait of the more developed brain. Now before you hit the comment button, when I say more developed brain, I am referring to species not individuals such as primates compared to reptiles. Reptiles cannot be deceptive beyond camouflage and ambush because advanced deception occurs in the orbital prefrontal cortex, which the reptilian brain lacks. Conversely, primates, especially humans, are hardwired for deception and start doing so at birth. Babies will fake cry, and stop and see if anyone is coming and then go back to crying. Women, drag queens, and metrosexual men are not above that either. One year olds are prone to concealment, two year-olds bluff, five year old manipulate via flattery, and nine-year olds are masters of the cover up. In one out of every five interactions, college students lie to their parents. Adults take lying to an entirely different level: politics, journalistic spin, advertising, spam, and ponzi schemes. Facebook took lying to a quantum level with fake identities, embellished posts, and photoshoped or fake profile pics.

Why compulsive overeaters, drug addicts and alcoholics lie

We lie because lying is an attempt to bridge the gap between who we are and who we want to be; the lives we have and the lives we want. When these bridges start burning as such bridges always do, the architects’ lives fall into deconstruction as a crowd of witnessing hearts stand by breaking, helplessly. It is not surprising, nor coincidental that the same brain regions that govern intertemporal choice (delayed gratification) also control the lying pathology associated with alcohol, narcotic, food, and behavioral addictions. The human brain uses its structures wisely. Lying and intertemporal choice (i.e. choosing the smaller immediate reward over the larger, delayed pay-off), are in essence the same. By deluding ourselves, and others, we reap the neurochemical benefits immediately that we would receive, if we could be who wished we were, and have the lives, we wished we had.
Will and Grace

There are two prevailing theories regarding human decision making in this area. They are the “Will” and “Grace” theories. The Will Theory says that honesty is the active resistance of temptation comparable to the controlled cognitive processes that enable delayed gratification. The Grace Theory says that honesty occurs because of the absence of temptation. Neuroimaging studies support The Grace Theory. Individuals who behave honestly do not exhibit control-related neural activity when choosing to behave honestly, compared with a controlled environment in which the opportunity for dishonest gain does not exist. Conversely, subjects displaying dishonest behavior have increased activity in control-related regions of the prefrontal cortex, both when choosing to behave dishonestly and when refraining from dishonesty. Regional activation in the orbital prefrontal correlates with dishonesty frequencies in individuals. Thus, the take home message is loud and clear. Honesty has nothing to do with actively resisting temptation, and everything to do with the presence or absence of temptation. This is humbling for those who believe they are honest because of his or her moral fiber or character.

Wait—before you hit the comment button, consider what opportunity means contextually in individual lives. The dictionary defines opportunity as “a combination of favorable circumstances or situations.” As my agent would say, “define favorable.” Favorable to the addict or compulsive overeater is a circumstance in which he or she can use deceit to bridge the gap between what they wish their reality was, opposed to what it actually is. The greater the disparity between the former and the latter, the more opportunity there is for and in dishonesty. The human brain is opportunistic and will always utilize all opportunity. The brain expresses opportunity on a neural basis, in terms of chemical rewards, such as dopamine and oxytocin. Assessment of social judgment and reconciling one’s behavior with one’s self-perception provides a contextual definition of opportunity and translates into neurochemical rewards on that basis.

Therefore, the key lies in lessening the disparity between your reality and what you think it should be, i.e. self acceptance. If you can trust the Universe more than your ego, then you can embrace who you are, and where you are, as what and where you are supposed to be. When you do that, you obviate the need for a bridge because there is no distance to bridge. Therefore, deception is no longer an opportunity capable of delivering neurochemical rewards and your opportunistic brain will drop it like it's twerking. That does not mean you abandon your dreams, change or pursuit of higher ground. Acceptance is not settling. It is placing the focus on going the distance rather than the distance you are going. So, say it with me children, “I love and accept myself, just as I am!” Remain fabulous and phenomenal!

April the 4th of 2013

What Is Psychology?
One of the most common questions asked by students new to the study of psychology is "What is psychology?" Misconceptions created by popular media as well as the diverse careers paths of those holding psychology degrees have contributed this confusion.

Psychology is both an applied and academic field that studies the human mind and behavior. Research in psychology seeks to understand and explain how we think, act and feel. Applications for psychology include mental health treatment, performance enhancement, self-help, ergonomics and many other areas affecting health and daily life.

Answer:
Early Psychology

Psychology evolved out of both philosophy and biology. Discussions of these two subjects date as far back as the early Greek thinkers including Aristotle and Socrates. The word psychology is derived from the Greek word psyche, meaning 'soul' or 'mind.'

A Separate Science

The emergence of psychology as a separate and independent field of study was truly born when Wilhelm Wundt established the first experimental psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany in 1879.

Wundt's work was focused on describing the structures that compose the mind. This perspective relied heavily on the analysis of sensations and feelings through the use of introspection, a highly subjective process. Wundt believed that properly trained individuals would be able to accurately identify the mental processes that accompanied feelings, sensations and thoughts.

Schools of Thought

Throughout psychology's history, a number of different schools of thought have thought have formed to explain human thought and behavior. These schools of thought often rise to dominance for a period of time. While these schools of thought are sometimes perceived as competing forces, each perspective has contributed to our understanding of psychology. The following are some of the major schools of thought in psychology.

Structuralism
Functionalism
Psychoanalysis
Behaviorism
Humanism
Cognitivism
Psychology Today

Today, psychologists prefer to use more objective scientific methods to understand, explain and predict human behavior. Psychological studies are highly structured, beginning with a hypothesis that is then empirically tested. The discipline has two major areas of focus: academic psychology and applied psychology. Academic psychology focuses on the study of different sub-topics within psychology including personality, social behavior and human development. These psychologists conduct basic research that seeks to expand our theoretical knowledge, while other researchers conduct applied research that seeks to solve everyday problems.

Applied psychology focuses on the use of different psychological principles to solve real world problems. Examples of applied areas of psychology include forensic psychology, ergonomics and industrial-organizational psychology. Many other psychologists work as therapists, helping people overcome mental, behavioral and emotional disorders.

Psychology Research Methods

As psychology moved away from its philosophical roots, psychologists began to employ more and more scientific methods to study human behavior. Contemporary researchers employ a variety of scientific techniques including experiments, correlational studies longitudinal research and others to test, explain and predict behavior.

Areas of Psychology

Psychology is a broad and diverse field. A number of different subfields and specialty areas have emerged. The following are some of the major areas of research and application within psychology:

Abnormal Psychology is the study of abnormal behavior and psychopathology. This specialty area is focused on research and treatment of a variety of mental disorders and is linked to psychotherapy and clinical psychology.

Biological Psychology, also known as biopsychology, studies how biological processes influence the mind and behavior. This area is closely linked to neuroscience and utilizes tools such as MRI and PET scans to look at brain injury or brain abnormalities.

Clinical Psychology is focused on the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. It is also considered the largest employment area within psychology.

Cognitive Psychology is the study of human thought processes and cognitions. Cognitive psychologists study topics such as attention, memory, perception, decision-making, problem-solving and language acquisition.

Comparative Psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the study of animal behavior. This type of research can lead to a deeper and broader understanding of human psychology.

Developmental Psychology is an area that looks at human growth and development over the lifespan. Theories often focus on the development of cognitive abilities, morality, social functioning, identity and other life areas.

Forensic Psychology is an applied field focused on using psychological research and principles in the legal and criminal justice system.

Industrial-Organizational Psychology is a field that uses psychological research to enhance work performance, select employee, improve product design and enhance usability.

Personality Psychology looks at the various elements that make up individual personalities. Well-known personality theories include Freud’s structural model of personality and the "Big Five" theory of personality.

School Psychology is the branch of psychology that works within the educational system to help children with emotional, social and academic issues.

Social Psychology is a discipline that uses scientific methods to study social influence, social perception and social interaction. Social psychology studies diverse subjects including group behavior, social perception, leadership, nonverbal behavior, conformity, aggression and prejudice.
Like this article? Sign up for the Psychology Newsletter to get the latest psychology updates and to learn more about diverse topics including social behavior, personality, development, memory, creativity and much more.

This article is one of the resources included in the Psychology 101 WebQuest, a lesson plan designed for students grade eight and up. The WebQuest allows students to gather information about a specific topic and then utilize what they have learned to create a class presentation


Dernière édition par végétalienne-13 le Sam 29 Nov - 10:22, édité 2 fois
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Mer 3 Avr - 14:34

http://psychology.about.com/od/academicresources/a/psych-webquest.htm
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 9 Mar - 7:35

PSYCHIATRIIA AYUDA 
http://www.grahamkean.co.uk/
PSYCO CURSSO
http://alison.com/topic/learn/1282/24608/operant-conditioning/punishment-including-negative-effects-of-punishment-and-ways-to-maximise-effectiveness
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Sam 15 Mar - 17:39

he merely voiced her opinion, who gave you the job to size her/him up according to your own limited knowledge base? you are rude and ugly to someone you don't know well enough to size up-or, perhaps you are one whose brain has been tampered with, so it's in your programming to refute the fact that many people are victims of what he was referring to?
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Lun 7 Avr - 6:11

LOS PROBLEMAS EMOCIONALES QUE CAUSAN LA DEPRESION
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 13:46

What Is Test Anxiety? A Brief Overview of Test Anxiety By Kendra Cherry Ads: Test Anxiety Anxiety and Panic Managing Anxiety Coping with Anxiety Symptoms of Anxiety Test Anxiety Test anxiety can make it difficult to do your best on exams. Julia Nichols / iStockPhoto Ads Promouvez votre site Web www.google.fr Touchez plus de gens avec AdWords. Recevez 75 € maintenant. 3 Herbs That Beat Anxiety www.a2xanxiety.com Doctors Reveal 1 Weird Compound to Calm Anxiety That May Surprise You. MBA Degree Courses www.le.ac.uk/MBA Study a Quality AMBA Accredited MBA At a Very Competitive Price. Top Related Searches School Basketball Player High School Basketball Text Anxiety Excessive Anxiety Stress And Anxiety Anxiety Test You paid attention in class, took detailed notes, read every chapter and even attended extra study sessions after class, so you should do great on that big exam, right? When the test is presented, however, you find yourself so nervous that you blank out the answers to even the easiest questions. If this experience sounds familiar, then you might be suffering from what is known as test anxiety. What Is Text Anxiety? Test anxiety is a psychological condition in which people experience extreme distress and anxiety in testing situations. While many people experience some degree of stress and anxiety before and during exams, test anxiety can actually impair learning and hurt test performance. A little bit of nervousness can actually be helpful, making you feel mentally alert and ready to tackle the challenges presented in an exam. Excessive fear, on the other hand, can make it difficult to concentrate and you might struggle to recall things that you have studied. Understanding Test Anxiety Test anxiety is a type of performance anxiety. In situations where the pressure is on and a good performance counts, people can become so anxious that they are actually unable to do their best. Other examples of performance anxiety: A high school basketball player becomes very anxious before a big game. A violin student becomes extremely nervous before a recital. While people have the skills and knowledge to do very well in these situations, their excessive anxiety impairs their performance. The severity of test anxiety can vary considerably from one person to another. Some people might feel like they have "butterflies" in their stomach and while others might find it difficult to concentrate on the exam. Others might experience a racing heartbeat and a sense of shakiness. In the most severe cases, people can feel nauseous and short of breath or might even experience a full-blown panic attack.
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 13:47

What Is Compliance? By Kendra Cherry Ads: Marketing Psychology Social Psychology Psychology Test Psychology Today Study Psychology Online Ads Testez AdWords maintenant www.google.fr Touchez vos clients en ligne. Inscrivez-vous et recevez 75 €. Achetez à Prix Cassé www.priceminister.com Sur PriceMinister Profitez-en ! Trouvez Votre Produit à Prix Mini Why Men Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Top Related Searches Pushy Salesperson Commercial Endorsement Consumer Psychology Dangerous Words Can You Do Me A Favor Social Behavior Ads Formation en Psychologie cnfdi.com/Formation-Psychologie Formez-Vous à Distance au CNFDI. Recevez Programme & Tarifs par mail Aide Psychologique -Paris www.euthyma.com Plus qu'une écoute : un dialogue. Thérapie Cognitivo-Comportementale. Have you ever done something you didn't really want to do simply because someone else asked you to? Buying something after being persuaded by a pushy salesperson or trying a particular brand of soda after seeing a commercial endorsement featuring your favorite celebrity are two examples of what is known as compliance. What influence does it have on our social behavior? Are there any factors that impact compliance? In order to learn the answers to these questions, it is important to start by understanding exactly what compliance is and how it works. Continue reading to discover more about what researchers have learned about the psychology of compliance. What Is Compliance? In psychology, compliance refers to changing one's behavior due to the request or direction of another person. It is going along with the group or changing a behavior to fit in with the group, while still disagreeing with the group. Unlike obedience, in which the other individual is in a position of authority, compliance does not rely upon being in a position of power or authority over others. "Compliance refers to a change in behavior that is requested by another person or group; the individual acted in some way because others asked him or her to do so (but it was possible to refuse or decline.)" (Breckler, Olson, & Wiggins, 2006) "Situations calling for compliance take many forms. These include a friend's plea for help, sheepishly prefaced by the question "Can you do me a favor?" They also include the pop-up ads on the Internet designed to lure you into a commercial site and the salesperson's pitch for business prefaced by the dangerous words "Have I got a deal for you!" Sometimes the request is up front and direct; what you see is what you get. At other times, it is part of a subtle and more elaborate manipulation." (Kassin, Fein, & Markus, 2011) Techniques Used to Gain Compliance Compliance is a major topic of interest within the field of consumer psychology. This specialty area focuses on the psychology of consumer behavior, including how sellers can influence buyers and persuade them to purchase goods and services. Marketers often rely on a number of different strategies to obtain compliance from consumers. Some of these techniques include: The "Door-in-the-Face" Technique In this approach, marketers start by asking for a large commitment. When the other person refuses, they then make a smaller and more reasonable request. For example, imagine that a business owner asks you to make a large investment in a new business opportunity. After you decline the request, the business owner asks if you could at least make a small product purchase to help him out. After refusing the first offer, you might feel compelled to comply with his second appeal. The "Foot-in-the-Door" Technique In this approach, marketers start by asking for and obtaining a small commitment. Once you have already complied with the first request, you are more likely to also comply with a second, larger request. For example, your co-worker asks if you fill in for him for a day. After you say yes, he then asks if you could just continue to fill in for the rest of the week. The "That's-Not-All" Technique Have you ever found yourself watching a television infomercial? Once a product has been pitched, the seller then adds an additional offer before the potential purchaser has made a decision. "That's not all," the salesperson might suggest, "If you buy a set of widgets now, we'll throw in an extra widget for free!" The goal is to make the offer as appealing as possible. The "Lowball" Technique This strategy involves getting a person to make a commitment and then raising the terms or stakes of that commitment. For example, a salesperson might get you to agree to buy a particular cell phone plan at a low price before adding on a number of hidden fees that then make the plan much more costly. Ingratiation This approach involves gaining approval from the target in order to gain their compliance. Strategies such as flattering the target or presenting oneself in a way that appeals to the individual are often used in this approach. Reciprocity People are more likely to comply if they feel that the other person has already done something for them. We have been socialized to believe that if people extend a kindness to us, then we should return the favor. Researchers have found that the reciprocity effect is so strong that it can work even when the initial favor is uninvited or comes from someone we do not like. What Does the Research Say About Compliance? There are a number of well-known studies that have explored issues related to compliance, conformity, and obedience. Some of these include: The Asch Conformity Experiments Psychologist Solomon Asch conducted a series of experiments to demonstrate how people conform in groups. When shown three lines of different lengths, participants were asked to select the longest line. When the others in the group (who were confederates in the experiment) selected the wrong line, participants would conform to group pressure and also select the wrong line length. The Milgram Obedience Experiment Stanley Milgram's famous and controversial obedience experiments revealed the power of authority could be used to get people to conform. In these experiments, participants were directed by the experimenter to deliver electrical shocks to another person. Even though the shocks were not real, the participants genuinely believed that they were shocking the other person. Milgram found that 65 percent of people would deliver the maximum, possibly fatal electrical shocks on the orders of an authority figure. The Stanford Prison Experiment During the 1970s, psychologist Philip Zimbardo conducted an experiment in which participants played the roles of guards and prisoners in a mock-prison set up in the basement of the psychology department at Stanford University. Originally slated to last two weeks, the experiment had to be terminated after just six days after the guards began displaying abusive behavior and the prisoners became anxious and highly stressed. The experiment demonstrated how people will comply with the expectations that come from certain social roles. Factors That Influence Compliance People are more likely to comply when they believe that they share something in common with the person making the request. When group affiliation is important to people, they are more likely to comply with social pressure. For example, if a college student places a great deal of importance on belonging to a college fraternity, they are more likely to go along with the group's requests even if it goes against their own beliefs or wishes. The likelihood of compliance increases with the number of people present. If only one or two people are present, a person might buck the group opinion and refuse to comply. Being in the immediate presence of a group makes compliance more likely. More Psychology Definitions: The Psychology Dictionary

Las personas a las que les gustan los gatos son más inteligentes SÁBADO 31.MAY.14 perros y gatos03 Un estudio llevado a cabo por Denise Guastello de la Universidad Carroll en Waukesha, Wisconsin, sugiere que los fanáticos de los gatos son más inteligentes que los fanáticos de los perros. ¿Quieres ver cómo llegó a esta conclusión?El estudio parte de la idea de que nuestras elecciones para mascotas están relacionadas con nuestra personalidad. De modo que si elegimos un perro es porque nos gusta ir afuera, pasear y conocer gente; mientras que si tenemos un gato preferimos quedarnos dentro y somos más introvertidos.Este trabajo se llevó a cabo con la ayuda de 600 estudiantes universitarios que fueron cuestionados acerca de si prefieren gatos o perros. El 60% dijo que prefería los perros y solo el 11% aseguró que prefería a los gatos, el resto aseguró que ambas mascotas le gustaban. Adicionalmente se les aplicó una prueba de personalidad que mostró tendencias interesantes.perros y gatos01Si tienes un perro, tendrás que salir a la calle y ponerle mucha atención a tu mascota; si tienes un gato puedes quedarte en casa y no necesitas ocuparte tanto de él, pero él tampoco se ocupará tanto de ti. Es obvio que estas decisiones dicen mucho sobre los dueños, pero hay más elementos que salieron a la luz. Por ejemplo, los dueños de perros suelen tener más energía y les gusta plegarse a las reglas, mientras que los dueños de gatos son menos conformistas, más sensibles y no disfrutan especialmente la actividad física.Además, los dueños de gatos obtuvieron una puntuación más alta en los test de inteligencia. Hay que tomar en cuenta que se trata de una muestra universitaria únicamente, aunque Guastello considera que es suficiente como para marcar esta tendencia como general. Además no dice mucho sobre el universo de personas que gustan de las dos mascotas. ¿Tú qué piensas?


Dernière édition par végétalienne-13 le Sam 29 Nov - 15:50, édité 1 fois
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 13:47

What Is Persuasion? By Kendra Cherry Ads: Persuasion Counselling Psychology Psychology Career Social Psychology Psychology Test Ads Achetez à Prix Cassé www.priceminister.com Sur PriceMinister Profitez-en ! Trouvez Votre Produit à Prix Mini Human Resource Courses www.le.ac.uk Study a PGDip or MSc Degree via supported Distance Learning. Messagerie pro Google www.google.com/apps Une messagerie hébergée par Google pour votre domaine. 30 j offerts ! Ads Aide Psychologique -Paris www.euthyma.com Plus qu'une écoute : un dialogue. Thérapie Cognitivo-Comportementale. Vêtements Enfant Bas Prix tati.fr/Vetements_Enfant Vêtements enfant, Fille ou Garçon. Large Choix & Livraison Rapide ! Question: What Is Persuasion? Answer: When you think about persuasion, what comes to mind? Some people might think of advertising messages that urge viewers to buy a particular product, while others might think of a political candidate trying to sway voters to choose his or her name on the ballot box. Persuasion is a powerful force in daily life and has a major influence on society and a whole. Politics, legal decisions, mass media, news and advertising are all influenced by the power of persuasion, and influence us in turn. Sometimes we like to believe that we are immune to persuasion. That we have a natural ability to see through the sales pitch, comprehend the truth in a situation and come to conclusions all on our own. This might be true in some scenarios, but persuasion isn’t just a pushy salesman trying to sell you a car, or a television commercial enticing you to buy the latest and greatest product. Persuasion can be subtle, and how we respond to such influences can depend on a variety of factors. When we think of persuasion, negative examples are often the first to come to mind, but persuasion can also be used as a positive force. Public service campaigns that urge people to recycle or quit smoking are great examples of persuasion used to improve people’s lives. What Is Persuasion? So what exactly is persuasion? According to Perloff (2003), persuasion can be defined as "...a symbolic process in which communicators try to convince other people to change their attitudes or behaviors regarding an issue through the transmission of a message in an atmosphere of free choice." The key elements of this definition of persuasion are that: Persuasion is symbolic, utilizing words, images, sounds, etc It involves a deliberate attempt to influence others. Self-persuasion is key. People are not coerced; they are instead free to choose. Methods of transmitting persuasive messages can occur in a variety of ways, including verbally and nonverbally via television, radio, Internet or face-to-face communication. How Does Persuasion Differ Today? While the art and science of persuasion has been of interest since the time of the Ancient Greeks, there are significant differences between how persuasion occurs today and how it has occurred in the past. In his book The Dynamics of Persuasion: Communication and Attitudes in the 21st Century, Richard M. Perloff outlines the five major ways in which modern persuasion differs from the past: The number of persuasive message has grown tremendously. Think for a moment about how many advertisements you encounter on a daily basis. According to various sources, the number of advertisements the average U.S. adult is exposed to each day ranges from around 300 to over 3,000. Persuasive communication travels far more rapidly. Television, radio and the Internet all help spread persuasive messages very quickly. Persuasion is big business. In addition to the companies that are in business purely for persuasive purposes (such as advertising agencies, marketing firms, public relations companies), many other business are reliant on persuasion to sell goods and services. Contemporary persuasion is much more subtle. Of course, there are plenty of ads that use very obvious persuasive strategies, but many messages are far more subtle. For example, businesses sometimes carefully craft very specific image designed to urge viewers to buy products or services in order to attain that projected lifestyle. Persuasion is more complex. Consumers are more diverse and have more choices, so marketers have to be savvier when it comes to selecting their persuasive medium and message.
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 13:48

How to Become a Psychologist

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So you want to become a psychologist? Learn more about this profession and what it takes to become a licensed psychologist.

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Have you ever wanted to become a psychologist? This can be an exciting career choice with a wide variety of specialty areas and opportunities. So what exactly do you need to do to become a psychologist? How long will you need to go to school? The steps below outline the basic process required to enter this profession.
So What Exactly Is a "Psychologist" Anyway?
First, it is important to realize that there are many different types of psychologists and the educational and licensing requirements can vary considerably depending on the specialty area you are interested in. Some of the different job paths include school psychologyindustrial-organizational psychologyforensic psychologysports psychology and many others.
For the sake of this article, let's assume that when you say "I want to become a psychologist" you are referring to the profession that utilizes the science of the mind and behavior to assess, diagnose, treat and help people who are experiencing psychological disturbances. Of course, there are a number of different professionals that offer psychotherapy services, including counselors and social workers. In this case, we will discuss the specific career path of psychologists with a doctorate-level degree in psychology.
Now that we've sorted that out, it is essential to note that almost all states have laws about exactly who can call themselves psychologists. In the state of California, for example, the designation of psychologist is a protected term. In order to use this title, you need to have a doctorate degree in either psychology or education and also have passed the state licensing exams.2 As you begin planning your path towards becoming a psychologist, be sure to contact your state for specific laws regulating the use of the title of psychologist.

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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 13:49

Survival of the Kindest
11
Psychologist Paul Ekman reveals Charles Darwin's real view of compassion—and it's not what you might think. Darwin's belief that altruism is a vital part of life is being confirmed by modern science.

A macaque monkey with baby.

photo © Sergey Mateev / Dreamstime.com
In 1871, eleven years before his death, Charles Darwin published what has been called his “greatest unread book,” The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. His little-known discussion of sympathy in this book reveals a facet of Darwin’s thinking that is contrary to the competitive, ruthless, and selfish view of human nature that has been mistakenly attributed to the Darwinian perspective.

In the fourth chapter, entitled “Comparison of the Mental Powers of Man and the Lower Animals,” Darwin explained the origin of what he called “sympathy” (which today would be termed empathy, altruism, or compassion), describing how humans and other animals come to the aid of others in distress. While he acknowledged that such actions were most likely to occur within the family group, he wrote that the highest moral achievement is concern for the welfare of all living beings, both human and nonhuman.

It should be no surprise, given Charles Darwin’s commitment to the continuity of species, that he claimed that concern for the welfare of others is not a uniquely human characteristic. Darwin tells the following story: “Several years ago a keeper at the Zoological Gardens showed me some deep and scarcely healed wounds on the nape of his own neck, inflicted on him whilst kneeling on the floor, by a fierce baboon. The little American monkey who was a warm friend of this keeper, lived in the same compartment, and was dreadfully afraid of the great baboon. Nevertheless, as soon as he saw his friend in peril, he rushed to the rescue, and by screams and bites so distracted the baboon that the man was able to escape.” This incident is consistent with F.B.M. de Waal’s 2004 study, “On the Possibility of Animal Empathy.”

The likelihood of such actions, Darwin said, is greatest when the helper is related to the person needing help. “It is evident in the first place,” he wrote in The Descent of Man, “that with mankind the instinctive impulses have different degrees of strength; a savage will risk his own life to save that of a member of the same community, but will be wholly indifferent about a stranger; a young and timid mother urged by the maternal instinct will, without a moment’s hesitation, run the greatest danger for her own infant…”

Darwin recognized, however, that exceptional people will help total strangers in distress, not just kin or loved ones. “Nevertheless many a civilized man who never before risked his life for another, but full of courage and sympathy, has disregarded the instinct of self-preservation and plunged at once into a torrent to save a drowning man, though a stranger. In this case man is impelled by the same instinctive motive, which made the heroic little American monkey, formerly described, save his keeper by attacking the great and dreadful baboon.” Darwin’s line of thinking has been borne out by K.R. Munroe’s 1996 study of exceptional individuals who rescue strangers at risk of their own life, The Heart of Altruism: Perceptions of A Common Humanity.

Darwin did not consider why compassion toward strangers, even at the risk of one’s life, is present in only some people. Is there a genetic predisposition for such concerns, or does it result solely from upbringing, or from some mix of nature and nurture? Nor did Darwin write about whether it is possible to cultivate such stranger-compassion in those who do not have it.

Today these questions are the focus of theory (see P. Gilbert, ed., Compassion, Routledge, 2005) and empirical investigation (D. Mobbs, et. al., “A Key Role for Similarity in Vicarious Reward,” Science, 2009). In “Compassion: An Evolutionary Analysis and Empirical Review,” in Psychological Bulletin, Goetz, Keltner, and Simon-Thomas analyze the psychological literature on empathy, altruism, and compassion, integrating new evidence that they believe suggests compassion should be considered an emotion. In a forthcoming paper, “Compassion and Altruism: A Reformulation and Research Agenda,” Erika Rosenberg and I consider what we call familial compassion to be an emotion, albeit with a restricted target, but argue that it is not useful to classify other forms of compassion as emotions.

Darwin did offer an explanation of the origin of compassion: “We are,” he wrote, “impelled to relieve the sufferings of another, in order that our own painful feelings may be at the same time relieved…” However, as Buddhist scholar B. Alan Wallace points out, not all people respond to suffering in this way. He notes that a person might, for instance, reflect, “How fortunate I am that I’m not that other person.” Many years ago in my own research I found that about a third of the people who witnessed a film of a person suffering showed suffering on their own faces, but that an equal number manifested disgust at the sight of suffering. These proportions were the same among Japanese in Tokyo and Americans in California, indicating that the reactions were not affected by culture.

Darwin also described how natural selection favored the evolution of compassion, regardless of what originally motivated such behavior: “In however complex a manner this feeling may have originated, as it is one of high importance to all those animals which aid and defend one another, it will have been increased through natural selection; for those communities, which included the greatest number of the most sympathetic members, would flourish best, and rear the greatest number of offspring.”

However, contrary to Darwin’s expectation, there are no countries today, or in the known past, in which compassion and altruism toward strangers are shown by the majority of the population, and later in this chapter Darwin wrote more realistically about the extent of compassion.

Darwin concluded the discussion of the origin and nature of compassion and altruism by describing what he considered the highest moral virtue. He wrote: “As man advances in civilization, and small tribes are united into larger communities, the simplest reason would tell each individual that he ought to extend his social instincts and sympathies to all members of the same nation, though personally unknown to him. This point being once reached, there is only an artificial barrier to prevent his sympathies extending to the men of all nations and races. [If they appear different] experience unfortunately shews us how long it is before we look at them as our fellow creatures. Sympathy beyond the confines of man, that is humanity to the lower animals, seems to be one of the latest moral acquisitions… This virtue [concern for lower animals], one of the noblest with which man is endowed, seems to arise incidentally from our sympathies becoming more tender and more widely diffused, until they extend to all sentient beings.”

During discussions I held with the Dalai Lama about emotions and compassion, on which our book Emotional Awareness was based, I read this last Darwin quote to him. The Dalai Lama’s translator, Thupten Jinpa, exclaimed, “Did he use that phrase ‘all sentient beings’?” Jinpa was surprised because this phrase is the exact English translation of the Buddhist description of the all-encompassing compassion of a bodhisattva.

Charles Darwin was rare among thinkers of his time in taking this view, and only in the latter part of the twentieth century did such a concern for compassion toward nonhuman beings become more popular. Darwin was far ahead of his time.

This remarkable similarity between the Buddhist view of virtue and Darwin’s raises the tantalizing possibility that Darwin might have derived his views from Buddhist writings. Darwin did know at least something about Buddhism by the time he wrote The Descent of Man. J.D. Hooker, Darwin’s closest friend, spent many years in the Himalayas. Leading Darwin scholar Janet Browne told me, “Darwin might easily have discussed such matters with J.D. Hooker after Hooker’s travels in Sikkim and elsewhere in India,” and Alison Pearne, coeditor of Evolution: The Selected Letters of Charles Darwin, notes that Hooker mentioned Buddhism in his letters to Darwin from India. Nonetheless, the nub of Darwin’s ideas on morality and compassion appear in his 1838 notebooks, two years after his return from the voyage of the Beagle, when Darwin was twenty-nine. This was five years before he met Hooker. Randal Keynes, Darwin’s great-great-grandson, described Darwin’s thinking about these issues in the notebooks as follows: “His comments were carelessly worded, but he was in no doubt about his underlying aim. [Darwin wrote:] ‘Might not our sense of right and wrong stem from reflection with our growing mental powers on our actions as they were bound up with our instinctive feeling of love and concern for others? If any animal with social instincts developed the power of reflection, it must have a conscience.” Darwin Without regarding the origin…the individual forgets itself, & aids & defends & acts for others at its own expense.” Darwin was also interested at this early point in his life in the origins of morality: “What has produced the greatest good (or rather what is necessary for good at all) is the (instinctive) moral senses… In Judging of the rule of happiness we must look far forward (& to the general action)—certainly because it is the result of what has generally been best for our good far back…society could not go on except for the moral sense.” In 1838 Darwin read Hume’s Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals and thought it important for developing a theory divorced from divine instruction. Human Evolution:David Hume had put sympathy at the center of his thinking about the natural sources of moral principles. He saw it as a natural feeling rather than an attitude based on reasoning from some abstract notion. “There is some benevolence, however small, infused into our bosom; some spark of friendship for humankind; some particle of the dove kneaded in our frame, along with the element of the wolf and the serpent.” Charles now developed this idea and speculated how our moral sense might also grow naturally from that feeling. [Darwin wrote:] “Looking at Man, as a Naturalist would at any other mammiferous animal, it may be concluded that he has parental, conjugal and social instincts…these instincts consist of a feeling of love or benevolence to the object in question…such active sympathy that the individual forgets itself, and aids and defends and acts for others at his own expense.”

In concluding the introduction to their edition of Descent of Man, James Moore and Adrian Desmond wrote that some of Darwin’s contemporaries who studied this book emphasized the “humane aspects of Darwin’s Victorian values: duty, selflessness and compassion…Frances Cobbe [a feminist theorist and pioneer animal rights activist] excused readers who could picture ‘the author as a man who has…unconsciously attributed his own abnormally generous and placable nature to the rest of his species, and then theorized as if the world were made of Darwins.’”

Darwin’s thinking about compassion, altruism, and morality certainly reveals a different picture of this great thinker’s concerns than the one portrayed by those who focus on the catchphrase “the survival of the fittest” (in fact a quote from Spencer, not Darwin). Those unacquainted with his writings, and even some scientists, are unaware of Darwin’s commitment to the unity of humanity, his abolitionist convictions, and his intense interest in moral principles and human and animal welfare.

Trait Theory of Personality The Trait Approach to Personality By Kendra Cherry Ads: Marketing Psychology Personality Assessment Free Personality Test Personality Psychology Personality Quiz Ads Why Men Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Psychanalyste - Paris 10 paris-psychanalyste.fr/ Sexualités, addictions, violences. Souffrance au travail, dépressions. Cabinet Psychologue Paris www.juliemortimore.fr Psychologue Paris 10 Psychothérapie - Psychanalyse Top Related Searches English Language Dictionary Gordon Allport Foundations Of Personality Trait Approach Theories Of Personality Humanistic Theories Ads Ecole Psychanalyse France efpppaca.com/ Formation de Hauts Niveaux ! Psychothérapie & Psychanalyse L'Anglais 7 à 13 ans www.speakyplanet.fr/anglais-ludique Votre Enfant Bilingue en Anglais en Jouant 10 Min par Jour - Découvrez! If someone asked you to describe the personality of a close friend, what kind of things would you say? A few things that might spring to mind are descriptive terms such as outgoing, kind and even-tempered. All of these represent traits. What exactly does this term mean? A trait can be thought of as a relatively stable characteristic that causes individuals to behave in certain ways. The trait approach to personality is one of the major theoretical areas in the study of personality. The trait theory suggests that individual personalities are composed of these broad dispositions. Unlike many other theories of personality, such as psychoanalytic or humanistic theories, the trait approach to personality is focused on differences between individuals. The combination and interaction of various traits forms a personality that is unique to each individual. Trait theory is focused on identifying and measuring these individual personality characteristics. Gordon Allport’s Trait Theory In 1936, psychologist Gordon Allport found that one English-language dictionary alone contained more than 4,000 words describing different personality traits. He categorized these traits into three levels: Cardinal Traits: These are traits that dominate an individual’s whole life, often to the point that the person becomes known specifically for these traits. People with such personalities often become so known for these traits that their names are often synonymous with these qualities. Consider the origin and meaning of the following descriptive terms: Freudian, Machiavellian, narcissistic, Don Juan, Christ-like, etc. Allport suggested that cardinal traits are rare and tend to develop later in life. Central Traits: These are the general characteristics that form the basic foundations of personality. These central traits, while not as dominating as cardinal traits, are the major characteristics you might use to describe another person. Terms such as intelligent, honest, shy and anxious are considered central traits. Secondary Traits: These are the traits that are sometimes related to attitudes or preferences and often appear only in certain situations or under specific circumstances. Some examples would be getting anxious when speaking to a group or impatient while waiting in line. Raymond Cattell’s Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire Trait theorist Raymond Cattell reduced the number of main personality traits from Allport’s initial list of over 4,000 down to 171, mostly by eliminating uncommon traits and combining common characteristics. Next, Cattell rated a large sample of individuals for these 171 different traits. Then, using a statistical technique known as factor analysis, he identified closely related terms and eventually reduced his list to just 16 key personality traits. According to Cattell, these 16 traits are the source of all human personality. He also developed one of the most widely used personality assessments known as the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). Eysenck’s Three Dimensions of Personality British psychologist Hans Eysenck developed a model of personality based upon just three universal trails: Introversion/Extraversion: Introversion involves directing attention on inner experiences, while extraversion relates to focusing attention outward on other people and the environment. So, a person high in introversion might be quiet and reserved, while an individual high in extraversion might be sociable and outgoing. Neuroticism/Emotional Stability: This dimension of Eysenck’s trait theory is related to moodiness versus even-temperedness. Neuroticism refers to an individual’s tendency to become upset or emotional, while stability refers to the tendency to remain emotionally constant. Psychoticism: Later, after studying individuals suffering from mental illness, Eysenck added a personality dimension he called psychoticism to his trait theory. Individuals who are high on this trait tend to have difficulty dealing with reality and may be antisocial, hostile, non-empathetic and manipulative. The Five-Factor Theory of Personality Both Cattell’s and Eysenck’s theory have been the subject of considerable research, which has led some theorists to believe that Cattell focused on too many traits, while Eysenck focused on too few. As a result, a new trait theory often referred to as the "Big Five" theory emerged. This five-factor model of personality represents five core traits that interact to form human personality. While researchers often disagree about the exact labels for each dimension, the following are described most commonly: Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Neuroticism Openness Assessing the Trait Approach to Personality While most agree that people can be described based upon their personality traits, theorists continue to debate the number of basic traits that make up human personality. While trait theory has objectivity that some personality theories lack (such as Freud’s psychoanalytic theory), it also has weaknesses. Some of the most common criticisms of trait theory center on the fact that traits are often poor predictors of behavior. While an individual may score high on assessments of a specific trait, he or she may not always behave that way in every situation. Another problem is that trait theories do not address how or why individual differences in personality develop or emerge. References:


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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 13:50

By Kendra Cherry Ads: Personality Assessment Personality Quiz Marketing Psychology Personality Psychology Personality Disorder What Is Personality Personality is made up of the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors that make a person unique. Igor Balasanov / iStockPhoto Ads Make Him Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Psychanalyste - Paris 10 paris-psychanalyste.fr/ Sexualités, addictions, violences. Souffrance au travail, dépressions. Achetez à Prix Cassé www.priceminister.com Sur PriceMinister Profitez-en ! Trouvez Votre Produit à Prix Mini Top Related Searches Personality Psychologists Perspectives On Personality Different Theories Of Personality Schools Of Thought In Psychology Ads L'Anglais 7 à 13 ans www.speakyplanet.fr/anglais-ludique Votre Enfant Bilingue en Anglais en Jouant 10 Min par Jour - Découvrez! Why Men Pull Away catchhimandkeephim.com 10 Ugly Mistakes Women Make That Ruins Any Chances Of A Relationship Almost everyday we describe and assess the personalities of the people around us. Whether we realize it or not, these daily musings on how and why people behave as they do are similar to what personality psychologists do. While our informal assessments of personality tend to focus more on individuals, personality psychologists instead use conceptions of personality that can apply to everyone. Personality research has led to the development of a number of theories that help explain how and why certain personality traits develop. Definitions of Personality While there are many different theories of personality, the first step is to understand exactly what is meant by the term personality. The word personality itself stems from the Latin word persona, which referred to a theatrical mask work by performers in order to either project different roles or disguise their identities. A brief definition would be that personality is made up of the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors that make a person unique. In addition to this, personality arises from within the individual and remains fairly consistent throughout life. Some other definitions of personality: "Personality refers to individuals' characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior, together with the psychological mechanisms -- hidden or not -- behind those patterns. This definition means that among their colleagues in other subfields of psychology, those psychologists who study personality have a unique mandate: to explain whole persons." (Funder, D. C., 1997) "Although no single definition is acceptable to all personality theorists, we can say that personality is a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person's behavior." (Feist and Feist, 2009) Components of Personality So what exactly makes up a personality? As described in the definitions above, you would expect that traits and patterns of thought and emotion make up an important part. Some of the other fundamental characteristics of personality include: Consistency - There is generally a recognizable order and regularity to behaviors. Essentially, people act in the same ways or similar ways in a variety of situations. Psychological and physiological - Personality is a psychological construct, but research suggests that it is also influenced by biological processes and needs. It impacts behaviors and actions - Personality does not just influence how we move and respond in our environment; it also causes us to act in certain ways. Multiple expressions - Personality is displayed in more than just behavior. It can also be seen in our thoughts, feelings, close relationships and other social interactions. Theories of Personality There are a number of different theories about how personality develops. Different schools of thought in psychology influence many of these theories. Some of these major perspectives on personality include: Type theories are the early perspectives on personality. These theories suggested that there are a limited number of "personality types" which are related to biological influences. Trait theories viewed personality as the result of internal characteristics that are genetically based. Psychodynamic theories of personality are heavily influenced by the work of Sigmund Freud, and emphasize the influence of the unconscious on personality. Psychodynamic theories include Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual stage theory and Erik Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development. Behavioral theories suggest that personality is a result of interaction between the individual and the environment. Behavioral theorists study observable and measurable behaviors, rejecting theories that take internal thoughts and feelings into account. Behavioral theorists include B. F. Skinner and John B. Watson. Humanist theories emphasize the importance of free will and individual experience in the development of personality. Humanist theorists include Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. Personality Vs. Traits and Character "Having closed in on a sense of what personality is, it may be helpful to compare the concept to others with related meanings. Two concepts that quickly come to mind are 'temperament' and 'character.' In everyday language these terms are sometimes used more or less interchangeably with 'personality,' and historically they have often been used in contexts where, in more recent times, 'personality' would be employed. Within psychology, however, they have somewhat distinct meanings. Temperament usually refers to those aspects of psychological individuality that are present at birth or at least very early on in child development, are related to emotional expression, and are presumed to have a biological basis... Character, on the other hand, usually refers to those personal attributes that are relevant to moral conduct, self-mastery, will-power, and integrity." (Haslam, N., 2007) Like this article? Sign up for the Psychology Newsletter to get the latest psychology updates and to learn more about diverse topics including social behavior, personality, development, memory, creativity and much more. Personality Basics
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 13:51

TTo see aliens in your dream is considered symbolic in nature and connected to a more supreme intelligence. From the very early times even before Christ there are two ideas in harmony and that belief is Adam and Eve created us. Essentially, to dream of aliens means that during your dream you believe in life outside the conventional and you need balance. The dream can signify that a stage of your life needs completion and that you are feeling separated from society.

In dreams a feeling can be determined to recognize if the experience is frightening or unknown. If you dream that you are the alien, it means you are feeling like a stranger in social gatherings and you would like to discover new friends.



If in your dream an androgen (a creature without a gender) was featured, then this represents a stage of development needed in your life.

For more information on the dream meaning of an androgen, please click here.

In your dream you may have…

Seen a flying object (UFO).
Been taken by aliens against your will.
Unable to escape the alien.
Been forcibly taken from terrestrial surroundings to an apparent alien space craft.
Experienced medical or scientific procedures.
Spoken to aliens.
Given birth to an alien.
Been kidnapped by aliens and taken to their ship.
Kidnapped by others - e.g. the government or anything associated with aliens.
If you are involved in any type of abduction.
Witnessed an abduction in your dream.
Control over another human being.
used a weapon– or the threat of a weapon.
Chased by alien zombies.
Seen your family, friends or a pet has been abducted by aliens.


Positive changes are afoot if…

The dream results in a positive outcome.
You were able to escape the alien abduction in your dream.
You become the controlling party - you control the aliens.
Any trouble in your life was overcome.
You have understood and gained insight into the aliens within your dream.
You express emotion towards the aliens in your dream which is positive in nature.
You notice in the dream that everybody is peaceful even though you or someone else is abducted by aliens.

Areas of your life that the dream may be associated with…

Why you may feel it is impossible to leave your current employment as you have worked hard to get where you are.
You are tired of a routine in life.
A work situation to find improvements in your life.
A viewpoint or refraining from a situation to understand what you need to do next.
Responding to others or understanding why they are doing something strange --- their behavior is disturbing you.

New beginnings in your life are needed if in your dream…

You were abducted by more than one alien.
You were taken into a locked room or basement.
The dream involved you feeling unhappy.
A weapon was used.
You feel scared in your dream.


Detailed dream meaning...

Seen a UFO in the sky: to dream that you have seen a flying object, a UFO indicates that you are likely to suffer misfortune from the carelessness of others -- this is a typical dream if you have experienced difficulties at work.
Alien probes: if in your dream you witnessed probes on small scale or beams of light then this demonstrates that new beginnings are afoot. It is time to relax and enjoy your life.
Alien babies: if you have given birth or carried an alien baby in your dream suggests that you are confused about certain things in life. In a nutshell this dream means that you are clearly searching for something in your life and you are not sure what it is yet.
Alien zombies: to be chased by alien zombies suggests that you need to face up to your responsibilities. There is an indication that you have been living in a fantasy world and it is time to connect to reality. If the alien zombies are being sick and chasing you, this means that you are shortly going to undergo a minor health issue. For the aliens to multiply indicates that people around you are soon to help you out.
Alien examination: If you were being examined by an alien being, then this means that things in life are getting you down. If you experience any wounding or torture in your dream then this is connected to your ability to face up to difficult consequences in the future.
Alien transformation: to dream of being an alien yourself shows that you are likely to be harassed by people around you in the near future. It is important to try to grow friendships in advance to this happening.
Kidnapped by aliens: if you are convicted of a crime (for example kidnapping) then this shows that you are likely to feel oppressed and overpowered by a family member in the future. If you are victimized then this shows that you are likely to find a project at work complex and hard to understand. If you are abducted by more than one alien indicates that you have dangerous enemies around you who are likely to destroy a significant part of your life in the future. It is important for you to recognize that there are people in your life that you need to be wary of before they are able to do you any damage.
Raped by aliens: to dream that you are abducted and raped indicates that you are likely to be shocked at the distress of your friends -- difficult times are on the cards from them. If you are a young woman then you are likely to encounter some minor troubles in your love life. If the rapists are arrested then this is a positive omen.
Terrestrial surroundings: If you have some desires to make changes in your waking life then this dream shows that you are able to do so without fear of failure. To see the police in your dream indicates that you are going to successfully outstrip any rivalry in the future. If your abductors are arrested, this indicates that you are going to participate in some affair which is likely to provide you with financial benefit.
Spaceship: If you are taken to a UFO in your dream then you need to think about how you approach others in a work / team situation, as you can be quite expressive and you may offend people.
Beheaded by aliens: to dream that you have been abducted and then you are beheaded generally indicates that you are going to suffer some minor failure in the near future.
UFO shape: if in your dream you encountered a triangular shaped UFO's and even a motherships, then this demonstrates that there are people on a higher level than you who can provide advice.
Attacking: if in your dream the aliens were attacking certain cities then this dream shows your resistance to change when needed.


Abducted by aliens...

The first and most obvious question upon wakening is: Was I really dreaming? Was I abducted by aliens? In order to deal with this. This dream is associated with how you feel about others around you. The dream interpretation is useful because it is associated with something unnatural to what you are used to. There is a wealth of interpretations depending upon the details of your dream. This dream can also demonstrate some form of spiritual development or alternative wholeness or when an area of your life is complete. You are abducted by aliens then in this dream it shows that you are being taken over by a force against your will; therefore, the dream meaning is simply that – it is literal.

Obviously this dream is disturbing you for obvious reasons but it awakens the feeling of being exhausted and unable to deal with your events in life. It is clear from this dream you are experiencing an area of your waking life where you are feeling abandoned or abducted by somebody or a situation. Most of the time this dream is connected to a work situation. If in your dream you have been abducted by aliens then this shows the need to put your fears at rest. It is vital that you look at the other meanings associated with this dream, such as your family (did you notice if you were alone during the abduction?) Generally we normally have this type of dream when we need to ask ourselves some important questions.

This dream is often referred to as a nightmare as it generally indicates a crisis point of your life - where you seem to have no resolution. You need to analyze events that happened in your life recently as you feel that your spirit has been wounded. The message here is to start to look into situations which have resulted in you trying to overcome any conflict that you have experienced. The most useful change for you going forward is that you need to be able to be subjective in regards to your approach to situations with others. If you focus on looking at the practical matters in your waking life this will enable you to understand the background of complex situations, so you can find the best approach.

A solution from another will be offered if you ask for help. Maybe you have been feeling that you have worked hard in order to get to where you are in life and that you are enjoying your projects and routine but you know that it is time to move on. If you witness other people being taken by aliens then an engagement or pleasurable event is likely to be cancelled.

This is not a positive dream and may also indicate minor misfortune. In some way, shape or form if you are being taken over by aliens then this control is beginning to impact upon you to the point that it is starting to affect your subconscious mind. Time to retreat and start to think about what you want going forward. Is that big fast car really something that inspires you or do you want to grow your circle of friends?

Signs of a real alien abduction...

There have been many accounts of alien abductions and this is the most prevalent theory in regard to unexplained activities. Throughout history alien abduction has been a theme of horror stories since the nineteenth century.

The most mysterious fact is that experience of the Greys; these are creatures whose supposed existence is connected to carrying out implants and procedures on human beings. It is true to conclude that there have been many people who have claimed to be implanted with tiny metal devices, which have been removed by surgeons, the origins of these implants have never been explained.

There are many movies, books and reports of abductions but what does this mean for your dream, or if you believe you have been abducted yourself?

The Red Indian shamans (Black Elk of the Oglala Sioux) believed that aliens traveled to the world through a cosmic pillar, this was symbolized by a tree or natural energy. A spirit form such as a bird would then lead them to a tunnel into a rainbow where the shaman would undergo a series of painful body dismemberment.

The old shamans believed that UFO abductions were connected to parallel universes of other origins. Every one of us has undergone birth and the shamans thought that the trauma was the universal phenomenon and that no two births are the same.

Please note: If your dream was vivid then it is extremely important to make sure that you write down every detail. In 1968 the author Erich von Däniken wrote the book called "the Chariots of the Gods." he put forth a theory that aliens visited Earth to teach humans about technological advances and had an effect on religions.

The signs of true alien abduction and the associated history behind the traumatic experience is detailed below.

An abduction story of Betty Andreasson of South Ashburnham, Massachusetts, USA can be associated to this theory. At 7 pm on 25th of January 1967, Betty was allegedly taken from her living room by more than one alien.

The experience began with her witnessing a bright light in her kitchen; she was alone as her seven children, mother, and father were in the living room. The children began to become distressed as Betty went in the room to comfort them. Betty's father ran into the kitchen to look out of the window, and found the source of the unusual light. To his disbelief and shock, he saw five aliens approaching the house.

The entire family was put into what they stated as a sense of "suspended animation". It was recorded that the alien made telepathic communication with Betty. The alien was just five-feet tall, with the other aliens a foot shorter. All of the beings had a pear-shaped head, with wide eyes, and small ears and noses and mouths which were a slit. They were able to communicate telepathically. They floated Betty outside of the house to a craft and they proceeded to carry out an examination.

At the climax of this event she witnessed a huge bird that spoke to her, it said "I have decided to show you the world" and then it was consumed in flames.

At this point you may be thinking that this is farfetched. To the right is a drawing that Betty did in connection to the aircraft. Betty and her daughter were given a character check, fourteen hours of regressive hypnosis, a psychiatric review, and two lie-detector tests. The results were documented in a 528 page account, which basically stated that both Betty and her daughter were sane people. This case is useful to cite at this point as it has been investigated extensively by urologists. The witness (Betty and her daughter) are reliable and provide us with some insight into true alien abduction signs for which is outlined below:

List of alien abduction signs...

(based on Betty Andreasson's alien abduction)

Loss of Time: you have encountered a loss of time that cannot be accounted for. People forget the majority of their experience.
Return: you remember returning to earth but in a different location than you first thought. If you were sleeping then you wake up in a different area of your bedroom.
Body damage: you currently have or have had unusual scars, marks, designs, wounds. All of these cannot be explained or satisfactorily accounted for.
Recurring dreams of abduction: this is a dream that you have encountered before, you are experiencing complete helplessness and you feel you are at the mercy of these creatures.
Strange noises: you can remember hearing a noise while in your dream such as wind or buzzing noises.
Unable to move when you are awake: you have experienced lucid dreams or nightmares in which you were unable to speak or move your legs or arms and simply had to lie there completely helpless while shadowy beings probed your mind and body.
Going to the toilet: finding it difficult to go to the toilet or sitting down.
Stiffness: feeling like you have a stiff back or body without an explanation.
Being watched: in waking life you had feelings of others watching you leading up to your dream.
Cylindrical room: being enclosed in a room with plastic chairs or given plastic tubes to put in your mouth.
Fluid: being in your mouth or body after you are awake.
Womb analogies: Seeing a transparent chair associated with womb examinations in your dream.
Headache: encountering headaches following the dream / abduction.
Vibrations: encountering any type of vibrations or feeling noises that are not natural.
The garden of delights: seeing a paradise or imagery of so-called nice places while being taken by the aliens. this is called womb experience which happens when medical tests are being conducted.
Floating: the sensations of floating while onboard the UFO.
Fear: Of it happening again on a daily or weekly basis.
Navel probe: the aliens put a probe in your navel. In Betty's account the aliens said that they were awakening death and birth by putting a probe in her navel. This has been featured in other alleged alien abductions.
Bright lights and rooms: including mirror like walls.
Birds or / and worms: Betty experienced seeing birds and worms in her abduction.
Hotness or Coldness: feeling a chill or shivering when you awake, or extensive heat.
The feelings towards the aliens: Though Betty was frightened; she felt a sense of calm and friendship toward the aliens.
Aliens wearing clothes: there was a logo of a bird on their blue coats. Their hands had three fingers, and they wore boots.
Aliens floating: the creatures did not walk like a human but instead floated above the surface.
Craft size: the UFO was estimated to be around 20 feet in diameter and in the classic round UFO design.
Blood: you have found blood in your bed sheets that is unexplained.
Eagle: to see a bird or eagle during your abduction.


Could it be sleep paralysis?

Encountering sleep paralysis just before you wake up can often be mistaken with being taken by aliens. This occurs as part of the natural part of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, which is often called REM Antonia. This state occurs when the brain awakes from REM but the body is still paralyzed. The result is that this leaves you fully conscious, but unable to move. Reports of this feeling lasting between two to three seconds to several minutes following the awakening experience. This results in panic. So what has this got to do with alien abduction? In short while you are consciously going through this state your body could fling around during REM and cause vivid hallucinations. In concluding if you experienced sleep paralysis then it is important to understand that this is generally connected to you being unable to move. Did you feel afraid but not able to call for help?


the 10 Percent of Brain Myth Do We Really Only Use 10 Percent of Our Brain? By Kendra Cherry Ads: Theta Brain Waves Brain Surgery Brain Development Brain Test Brain Memory Capacity 10 percent of brain myth Image: Mysid Ads Make Him Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Why Men Pull Away catchhimandkeephim.com 10 Ugly Mistakes Women Make That Ruins Any Chances Of A Relationship Achetez à Prix Cassé www.priceminister.com Sur PriceMinister Profitez-en ! Trouvez Votre Produit à Prix Mini Top Related Searches Philosopher William James Energies Of Men Regions Of The Brain Urban Legends Brain Imaging Brain Damage "You know, you're only using 10 percent of your brain. Just imagine what you could accomplish if you used the other 90 percent!" Chances are high that you have heard someone make a similar comment at some time or another. The popularly and widely spread belief that we only use or have access to 10 percent of our brain's power is often used to speculate about the extent of human abilities if only we could utilize our brain's full capacity. In reality, this claim is 100 percent myth. We use all of our brain. The only instances where there are unused regions of the brain are those in which brain damage or disease has destroyed certain regions. The Origins of the Myth Researchers suggest that this popular urban legend has existed since at least the early 1900s. It may have been influenced by people misunderstanding or misinterpreting neurological research. The 10 percent myth may have emerged from the writings of psychologist and philosopher William James. In his 1908 book, The Energies of Men, he wrote, "We are making use of only a small part of our possible mental and physical resources." The myth has perpetuated much like other urban legends. Well-intentioned people such as motivational speakers or teachers often cite the 10 percent myth as a way to demonstrate that all people should strive to live up to their full potential. Unfortunately, less well-meaning people have also used the myth to promote and sell products and services that they claim will unlock your brain's hidden potential. Debunking the 10 Percent Myth Neuroscientists point out a number of reasons why the 10 percent myth is false: Brain imaging scans clearly show that almost all regions of the brain are active during even fairly routine tasks such as talking, walking, and listening to music. If the 10 percent myth were true, people who suffer brain damage as the result of an accident or stroke would probably not notice any real effect. In reality, there isn't a single area of the brain that can be damaged without resulting in some sort of consequence. We would not have evolved such large brains if we were only using such a tiny portion of them. The brain uses approximately 20 percent of the body's energy. It would make little evolutionary sense to have such a large portion of our energy resources utilized by such a tiny amount of the brain. Brain mapping research has yet to find any region of the brain that does not serve a function. "Numerous types of brain imaging studies show that no area of the brain is completely silent or inactive," wrote Dr. Rachel C. Vreeman and Dr. Aaron E. Carroll in a study of medical myths. "Detailed probing of the brain has failed to identify the 'non-functioning' 90 percent." Unfortunately, the 10 percent myth remains both popular and persistent. It has been repeated in popular culture in everything from advertisements to television programs. The next time you hear someone claim that we only use 10 percent of our brains, you'll be able to explain why this statement is not true. Not to say that human beings don't have amazing potential – we just use 100 percent of our brains to accomplish these remarkable feats.


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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 13:51

Ufo
Suggests a change in yourself, or personal growth; becoming aware of something new, or some new aspect of yourself, one that you are not familiar with, and so seems strange or alien. For instance a change might be occurring in the way you relate to people or events.

Our mind has the ability to view our experience as a whole, rather than in parts. What we sense unconsciously in this way is presented to the conscious mind as images such as UFO’s or circles of light. Another way of explaining this is to realise that our conscious self is only a tiny part of the whole process of life active in us. There are amazing potentials in each of us that might only be glimpsed in stress situations. Occasionally this more powerful or bigger side of ourselves breaks through and is experienced as an alien, or great being. Because of the hallucinatory aspect of the dream process, and the fact that in dreaming we see exterior imagery as real, when this breaks through while we are awake, it is difficult to accept the source of it as our own unconscious. See: altered states of consciousness; space; spaceship.



The ball of light or fire: This is a common waking experience as well as dream image. It occurs when the person touches their sense of wholeness as described above. We see this mentioned in the description of Pentecost – the flame on top of the head – and may account for cases of people seeing flying saucers.


Example: ‘A flying saucer dropped a man on our lawn. He was seven feet tall and stood in a ring of light. The sky was vivid pink and a peculiar aeroplane flew over. It was the shape of a cross.’ Mrs A.

The circle, the light, the shape of the cross and the big man, are all symbols of the Self.

Did you dream of seeing a UFO, or was it reality?

The dream psychologist Carl Jung believed that a UFO is a religious symbol - he compared the dream visulisation to the appearance of Christ. In accordance to Jung's theory, UFO's are an apparent image of psychological progress, whereas Freud attributed phallic symbolism to the image. In dreams UFOs are considered to signify thoughts in connection with accomplishment. To dream that you are taken by a UFO indicates that you are accomplishing a great amount of understanding in life and the requirements that you have. You make use of life's journey, whether it's a religious, psychological or substance.

To see alien's on the UFO implies that you'll be descending into your unconscious mind - maybe you need to meditate on the dream to discover the message it was trying to communicate. Moreover, the alien refers to setbacks that you have acknowledged in your daily life. To discover a UFO landing in one's dream suggests the need to uncover new aspects of yourself, either positive or negative.

UFO sightings have been reported throughout history. A UFO or U.F.O. is the popular term for any flying object that cannot be identified. In the dream state the UFO  is often associated with raw energy, dedication, force, stress, intense passion and aggression. Even though the dream was in no doubt worrying in ancient dream dictionaries, this is a positive dream.

In your dream you may have...

Seen a UFO in the sky.
Traveled in a UFO.
You are in a UFO.


New beginnings in your life are needed if …

There is negativity in the dream.
The dream was rather uncomfortable.
The dream involved fear - e.g. you were scared or worried about the UFO.



Positive events are afoot if...

The experience was positive.
The dream was inspiring.


Detailed dream meaning...

While many alien abductions have been reported in dreams, a UFO is a symbol of the universe. This dream relates to the fact one's subconscious mind is focused on trying to reach the higher self. Seeing a UFO flying in the sky means possible freedom. This can be financial as well as emotional. It also means that you are trying to create a hybrid between your emotions and feelings. There is a focus on trying to be level headed. The material that the UFO is made from is an important factor. A metal UFO denotes that justice and protection is on its way. To see a white UFO then protection will be required in a work context. A gold UFO symbolises future riches.

If the UFO was not round but any other shape then this dream often suggests that you are going to face at least one problem in your life, this must be overcome to progress. If the UFO was signified as a bright white light then this is a spiritual symbol - it is a call to develop you spiritually. To see a triangular UFO or a mothership attacking the earth then this means you will encounter many people in conflict. You may not be part of this conflict but the peace maker.


If the colour of the space ship is red then this foretells that danger is around the corner. Make sure that you double check your car doors and your property is locked when you are out! If your dream features a hurricane's alongside a UFO's then this demonstrates that you will travel to far places. To dream of energy such as magnetic forces or more than one UFO means that you need to take some relaxation time. If you dream of being in space traveling in a UFO then this demonstrates that you maybe in danger of getting too depressed. If your dream featured stars and planets then the message is that the world is your oyster. To dream of an event such as the film " The Independence Day" is related to your own actions to make life better. If in your dream the sighting of the UFO was disturbing then you need to consider if you experienced sleep paralysis which can feel real.

Feelings that you may have encountered during a dream of a UFO...

Surprised. Worried. Amazed. Confused.

How Many Neurons Are in the Brain? By Kendra Cherry Ads: Human Neurons The Brain Brain Trauma Brain Test Brain Development How Many Neurons Are in the Brain? Image by Mark Miller (CC BY-SA 2.0) Ads Why Men Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Ouvrez vos Chakras www.meditation3g.com/Chakra Essayez la Méditation Profonde ! Manuel de Méditation 100% Gratuit Brain Training Games www.lumosity.com Train memory and attention with scientific brain games. Question: How Many Neurons Are in the Brain? Answer: The human brain is made up of a complex network of neurons. These neurons serve as the building blocks of the nervous system, transmitting information to and from the brain and throughout the body. Just how many neurons are there in the human brain? How Many Neurons are in the Human Brain? According to most sources, the human brain contains around 100 billion neurons (give or take a few billion). This estimate has been often reported for many years in neuroscience and psychology textbooks. Recently, however, Brazilian researcher Dr. Suzana Herculano-Houzel discovered that these estimates might not be entirely accurate. While the number is widely cited, she found that no one seemed to know where this number originated. She then decided to investigate in order to determine if the number is accurate. Researchers used a method that involves dissolving the cell membranes in order to create a sort of "brain soup" so that they can then count the number of cell nuclei. How many neurons did the researchers find in the brains they analyzed? "We found that on average the human brain has 86bn neurons. And not one that we looked at so far has the 100bn. Even though it may sound like a small difference the 14bn neurons amount to pretty much the number of neurons that a baboon brain has or almost half the number of neurons in the gorilla brain. So that's a pretty large difference actually," explained Herculano-Houzel. So, according to this new research, the human brain likely has somewhere around 85 billion neurons. Neurons in Other Animals According to Herculano-Houzel, human brains are remarkably similar to primate brains with one important distinction: we have far more brain cells that require a tremendous amount of energy to fuel and maintain. Experts suggest that an estimated 25 percent of all our energy expenditure goes toward fueling these cells. The sheer number of neurons present in the human brain becomes more apparent when compared to other species. So how many neurons are in the brains of other animals? Fruit Fly: 100 thousand neurons Cockroach: One million neurons Mouse: 75 million neurons Cat: One billion neurons Chimpanzee: 7 billion neurons Elephant: 23 billion neurons Learn more about neurons and the human brain:


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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 13:52

Introduction to the Brain - The Cerebral Cortex



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Image by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA

The human brain is not only one of the most important organs in the human body; it is also the most complex. In the following tour, you will learn about the basic structures that make up the brain as well as how the brain works. This is not an in-depth look at all of the research on the brain (such a resource would fill stacks of books). Instead, the goal of this brain tour is to familiarize you with major brain structures and their functions.
The cerebral cortex is the part of the brain that functions to make human beings unique. Distinctly human traits including higher thought, language and human consciousness as well as the ability to think, reason and imagine all originate in the cerebral cortex.
The cerebral cortex is what we see when we look at the brain. It is the outermost portion that can be divided into the four lobes of the brain. Each bump on the surface of the brain is known as a gyrus, while each groove is known as a sulcus.
Next: The Four Lobes of the Brain
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 13:53

What Are Emotions? By Kendra Cherry Ads: Marketing Psychology New York Psychology Psychology Test Cognitive Psychology Psychology Today scream.jpg Emotions have three key elements: the subject, physical, and behavioral components. Image: Marek Bernat Ads Why Men Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Sophrologie Caycédienne www.idrec-sophrologie.com Ecole déléguée de Carcassonne Sophrologie - Relation d'aide Achetez à Prix Cassé www.priceminister.com Sur PriceMinister Profitez-en ! Trouvez Votre Produit à Prix Mini Top Related Searches Paul Eckman Types Of Emotions Universal Emotions Different Types Of Emotions Robert Plutchik Human Cultures Ads Why Men Pull Away catchhimandkeephim.com 10 Ugly Mistakes Women Make That Ruins Any Chances Of A Relationship Forfaits Sosh sosh.fr Profitez de -5€/mois sur l'offre Internet + Mobile sur Sosh.fr! Question: What Are Emotions? Emotions seem to rule our daily lives. We make decisions based on whether we are happy, angry, sad, bored, or frustrated. We choose activities and hobbies based on the emotions they incite. What exactly is an emotion? Answer: "An emotion is a complex psychological state that involves three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response." (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2007) In addition to understanding exactly what emotions are, researchers have also tried to identify and classify the different types of emotions. In 1972, psychologist Paul Eckman suggested that there are six basic emotions that are universal throughout human cultures: fear, disgust, anger, surprise, happiness, and sadness. In 1999, he expanded this list to include a number of other basic emotions including embarrassment, excitement, contempt, shame, pride, satisfaction, and amusement. During the 1980s, Robert Plutchik introduced another emotion classification system known as the "wheel of emotions." This model demonstrated how different emotions can be combined or mixed together, much the way an artist mixes primary colors to create other colors. Plutchik suggested that there are 8 primary emotional dimensions: happiness vs. sadness, anger vs. fear, trust vs. disgust, and surprise vs. anticipation. These emotions can then be combined in a variety of ways. For example, happiness and anticipation might combine to create excitement. In order to better understand what emotions are, let's focus on their three key elements. The Subjective Experience While experts believe that there are a number of basic universal emotions that are experienced by people all over the world regardless of background or culture, researchers also believe that the experience of emotion can be highly subjective. While we might have broad labels for certain emotions such as 'angry,' 'sad,' or 'happy,' your own unique experience of these emotions is probably much more multi-dimensional. Consider anger. Is all anger the same? Your own experience might range from mild annoyance to blinding rage. Plus, we don't always experience 'pure' forms of each emotion. Mixed emotions over different events or situations in our lives are common. When faced with starting a new job, you might feel both excited and nervous. Getting married or having a child might be marked by a wide variety of emotions ranging from joy to anxiety. These emotions might occur simultaneously, or you might feel them one after another. The Physiological Response If you've ever felt your stomach lurch from anxiety or your heart palpate with fear, then you realize that emotions also cause strong physiological reactions. Many of the physical reactions you experience during an emotion such as sweating palms, racing heartbeat, or rapid breathing are controlled by the sympathetic nervous system, a branch of the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary body responses such as blood flow and digestion. The sympathetic nervous system is charged with controlling the body's fight-or-flight reactions. When facing a threat, these responses automatically prepare your body to flee from danger or face the threat head-on. While early studies of the physiology of emotion tended to focus on these autonomic responses, more recent research has targeted the brain's role in emotions. Brain scans have shown that the amygdala, part of the limbic system, plays an important role in emotion and fear in particular. The amygdala itself is a tiny, almond-shaped structure that has been linked to motivational states such as hunger and thirst as well as memory and emotion. Researchers have used brain imaging to show that when people are shown threatening images, the amygdala becomes activated. Damage to the amygdala has also been shown to impair the fear response. The Behavioral Response The final component is perhaps one that you are most familiar with – the actual expression of emotion. We spend a significant amount of time interpreting the emotional expressions of the people around us. Our ability to accurately understand these expressions is tied to what psychologists call emotional intelligence and these expressions play a major part in our overall body language. Researchers believe that many expressions are universal, such as a smile indicating happiness or pleasure or a frown indicating sadness or displeasure. Cultural rules also play an important role in how we express and interpret emotions. In Japan, for example, people tend to mask displays of fear or disgust when in the presence of authority figure. Emotions Vs. Moods In everyday language, people often use the terms 'emotions' and 'moods' interchangeably, but psychologists actually make distinctions between the two. How do they differ? An emotion is normally quite short-lived, but intense. Emotions are also likely to have a definite and identifiable cause. For example, after disagreeing with a friend over politics, you might feel angry for a short period of time. A mood on the other hand is usually much milder than an emotion, but longer-lasting. In many cases, it can be difficult to identify the specific cause of a mood. For example, you might find yourself feeling gloomy for several days without any clearly identifiable reason.
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 13:54

What Is Emotional Intelligence? Definitions, History, and Measures of Emotional Intelligence By Kendra Cherry Ads: Emotional Intelligence Assessment Psychology Counselling Psychology Psychology Test Emotional IQ Test emotionally-intelligent.jpg Emotional intelligence involves our ability to understand, express, and control our emotions. Image: Cultura/Liam Norris / Getty Images Ads Why Men Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Test De QI? www.test-my-iq.com Faites le dernier test de QI. Obtenez le certificat avec votre QI Test De QI www.test-de-qi-2012.fr 30 questions, 2 types de test. Lancer le test de QI maintenant! Top Related Searches History Of Emotional Intelligence Peter Salovey Edward Thorndike David Wechsler Regulation Of Emotion Wayne Payne Ads Achetez à Prix Cassé www.priceminister.com Sur PriceMinister Profitez-en ! Trouvez Votre Produit à Prix Mini Why Men Pull Away catchhimandkeephim.com 10 Ugly Mistakes Women Make That Ruins Any Chances Of A Relationship "All learning has an emotional base." -- Plato The ability to express and control our own emotions is important, but so is our ability to understand, interpret, and respond to the emotions of others. Imagine a world where you couldn't understand when a friend was feeling sad or when a co-worker was angry. Psychologists refer to this ability as emotional intelligence, and some experts even suggest that it can be more important than IQ. Learn more about exactly what emotional intelligence is, how it works, and how it is measured. What is Emotional Intelligence? Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while others claim it is an inborn characteristic. Since 1990, Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer have been the leading researchers on emotional intelligence. In their influential article "Emotional Intelligence," they defined emotional intelligence as, "the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions" (1990). The Four Branches of Emotional Intelligence Salovey and Mayer proposed a model that identified four different factors of emotional intelligence: the perception of emotion, the ability reason using emotions, the ability to understand emotion and the ability to manage emotions. Perceiving Emotions: The first step in understanding emotions is to accurately perceive them. In many cases, this might involve understanding nonverbal signals such as body language and facial expressions. Reasoning With Emotions: The next step involves using emotions to promote thinking and cognitive activity. Emotions help prioritize what we pay attention and react to; we respond emotionally to things that garner our attention. Understanding Emotions: The emotions that we perceive can carry a wide variety of meanings. If someone is expressing angry emotions, the observer must interpret the cause of their anger and what it might mean. For example, if your boss is acting angry, it might mean that he is dissatisfied with your work; or it could be because he got a speeding ticket on his way to work that morning or that he's been fighting with his wife. Managing Emotions: The ability to manage emotions effectively is a key part of emotional intelligence. Regulating emotions, responding appropriately and responding to the emotions of others are all important aspect of emotional management. According to Salovey and Mayer, the four branches of their model are, "arranged from more basic psychological processes to higher, more psychologically integrated processes. For example, the lowest level branch concerns the (relatively) simple abilities of perceiving and expressing emotion. In contrast, the highest level branch concerns the conscious, reflective regulation of emotion" (1997). A Brief History of Emotional Intelligence 1930s – Edward Thorndike describes the concept of "social intelligence" as the ability to get along with other people. 1940s – David Wechsler suggests that affective components of intelligence may be essential to success in life. 1950s – Humanistic psychologists such as Abraham Maslow describe how people can build emotional strength. 1975 - Howard Gardner publishes The Shattered Mind, which introduces the concept of multiple intelligences. 1985 - Wayne Payne introduces the term emotional intelligence in his doctoral dissertation entitled "A study of emotion: developing emotional intelligence; self-integration; relating to fear, pain and desire (theory, structure of reality, problem-solving, contraction/expansion, tuning in/coming out/letting go)." 1987 – In an article published in Mensa Magazine, Keith Beasley uses the term "emotional quotient." It has been suggested that this is the first published use of the term, although Reuven Bar-On claims to have used the term in an unpublished version of his graduate thesis. 1990 – Psychologists Peter Salovey and John Mayer publish their landmark article, "Emotional Intelligence," in the journal Imagination, Cognition, and Personality. 1995 - The concept of emotional intelligence is popularized after publication of psychologist and New York Times science writer Daniel Goleman’s book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. Measuring Emotional Intelligence "In regard to measuring emotional intelligence – I am a great believer that criterion-report (that is, ability testing) is the only adequate method to employ. Intelligence is an ability, and is directly measured only by having people answer questions and evaluating the correctness of those answers." --John D. Mayer Reuven Bar-On's EQ-i A self-report test designed to measure competencies including awareness, stress tolerance, problem solving, and happiness. According to Bar-On, “Emotional intelligence is an array of noncognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures.” Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS) An ability-based test in which test-takers perform tasks designed to assess their ability to perceive, identify, understand, and utilize emotions. Seligman Attributional Style Questionnaire (SASQ) Originally designed as a screening test for the life insurance company Metropolitan Life, the SASQ measures optimism and pessimism. Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI) Based on an older instrument known as the Self-Assessment Questionnaire, the ECI involves having people who know the individual offer ratings of that person’s abilities on a number of different emotional competencies. Want to discover how emotionally intelligent you are? Start by taking our quick and fun emotional intelligence quiz. Learn more:
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 13:54

quiz

http://psychology.about.com/library/quiz/bl_eq_quiz.htm
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 13:55

The Purpose of Emotions How Our Feelings Help Us Survive and Thrive By Kendra Cherry Ads: Marketing Psychology Emotions New York Psychology Psychology Test Social Psychology Emotions can play an important role in how we think and behave. First, it is important to understand the three critical components of an emotion. Our emotions are composed of a subjective component (how we experience the emotion), a physiological component (how our bodies react to the emotion), and an expressive component (how we behave in response to the emotion). These different elements can play a role in the function and purpose of our emotional responses. Our emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of annoyance at a co-worker, or long-lasting, such as enduring sadness over the loss of a relationship. But why exactly do we experience emotions? What role do they serve? Emotions can motivate us to take action. Emotions motivate us Image by mushedup88 When faced with a nerve-wracking exam, you might feel a lot of anxiety about whether you will perform well and how the test will impact your final grade. Because of these emotional responses, you might be more likely to study. Since you experienced a particular emotion, you had the motivation to take action and do something positive to improve your chances of getting a good grade. We also tend to take certain actions in order to experience positive emotions and minimize the probability of feeling negative emotions. For example, you might seek out social activities or hobbies that provide you with a sense of happiness, contentment, and excitement. On the other hand, you would probably avoid situations that might potentially lead to boredom, sadness, or anxiety. Ads
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 13:55

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e8c_GTLFOcCognitive Bias - Psychology Definition of the Week By Kendra CherryMarch 14, 2014 My BioHeadlinesRSS Follow me on: Ads: Marketing Psychology Psychology Test Counselor Psychology Social Psychology Psychology Learning psychology dictionary Definition: A cognitive bias is a pattern of thinking that involves errors, distortions, inaccuracies, or irrationality. Such illogical thinking can lead to mistakes in how we interpret situations, how we draw inferences about other people, and even distort our perceptions of the world around us. In some cases, cognitive biases can be adaptive; they allow us to draw conclusions and make decisions quickly and efficiently. In other instances, these biases prevent us from making accurate decisions or taking in all of the information that is available to us. Such biases arise for a number of reasons, including limited processing capacity, mental shortcuts, emotions, motivations, social influences, and attentional limitations. Learn more about the influence that these biases have in this quick overview of cognitive biases.
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 13:56

What Is the Self-Serving Bias? By Kendra Cherry Ads: Marketing Psychology Cognitive Psychology Psychology Test Social Psychology Clinical Psychology Ads Why Men Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Why Men Pull Away catchhimandkeephim.com 10 Ugly Mistakes Women Make That Ruins Any Chances Of A Relationship Formation Aide Soignante www.coursminerve.com/Correspondance Votre Passion, Votre Métier ! Cours par Correspondance de Qualité See More About self-serving bias cogntive biases self-esteem Ads Formation Photographe lignes-formations.com/cours-photo École à Distance de Photographie Reporter - Studio - Mode Brain Training Games www.lumosity.com Train memory and attention with scientific brain games. When we are taking in information and making judgments about the world and events around us, we don't always interpret these things objectively. Cognitive biases often interfere with how we evaluate information and arrive at decisions. One such cognitive bias is known as the self-serving bias. What is the self-serving bias? Answer: The self-serving bias refers to our tendency to take personal credit for success while blaming outside sources for our failures. Essentially, we tend to believe that our successes are due to internal traits and talents, while our failures are caused by variables outside of our control. If you ace an exam, it's because you studied hard. If you failed, on the other hand, it's because the teacher didn't explain the subject properly, or the classroom was too warm, or your roommate kept you up all night before the exam. Why does the self-serving bias occur? In many cases, this cognitive bias allows people to protect their self-esteem. By attributing positive events to personal characteristics, people get a boost in confidence. By blaming outside forces for failures, people protect their self-esteem and absolve themselves from personal responsibility. A number of factors have been shown to influence the self-serving bias, including: Age: Older adults tend to make more internal attributions. Gender: Men may tend to make more external attributions. Locus of Control: People with an internal locus of control are more likely to make internal attributions, while those with an external locus are more likely to lay the blame on outside factors. Culture: People from individualistic cultures are more likely to engage in the self-serving bias. Depression and Self-Esteem: Depressed individuals are less likely to engage in the self-serving bias. Role in the Situation: People are often more likely to make internal attributions when they witness other people's failures. However, people directly involved in a situation are more likely to engage in the self-serving bias. This is highly related to what is known as the actor-observer bias. More Examples of the Self-Serving Bias in Action Following a car accident, both parties involved blame the other driver for causing the crash. After a disastrous meeting with a potential client, a businessman blames losing the account on a competitor. A high school basketball player makes a throw during the final seconds of a game and manages to make a basket. He attributes this to his skill at the game. A student fails an exam. She blames the teacher and accuses the professor of including "trick questions" on the test. Observations "There is strong evidence for the self-serving bias. It has the advantage of encouraging us to persevere even when things are going against us. For example, unemployed workers are more likely to find work if they exhibit the self-serving bias, and avoid attributing their failure to obtain a job to their incompetence or lack of skill." (Eysenck, 2000) "The self-serving bias is widespread in Western cultures such as the United States and Canada, but it is much less common in East Asian cultures such as Japan, China, and Taiwan. Unlike Americans, the Japanese tend to attribute their successes to luck and their failures to lack of ability or talent. The self-serving bias may be embedded within a cultural ethic in the United States and other individualistic cultures that place a premium on self-esteem." (Nevid, 2013)
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 13:58

A friend of mine recently witnessed an accident, but found himself unsure of what to do or how to intervene. Since there were other people around, my friend assumed that someone else would help Fortunately, someone with emergency training was also on the scene and was able to lend a hand, but my friend has been berating himself for not getting involved. Have you ever found yourself in this type of situation? In this week's newsletter, learn more about the bystander effect and a few things that you can do to overcome it.
 

How to Overcome the Bystander Effect Factors That Increase Helping Behavior By Kendra Cherry Ads: Marketing Psychology Psychology Career Social Psychology Psychology Test Psychology Learning Having first aid skills can help overcome the bystander effect Knowing what to do in an emergency situation can help combat the bystander effect. Image: dragon_art / http://www.sxc.hu Ads Why Men Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Tests Que Choisir www.quechoisir.org Guides et Comparatifs Que Choisir. Prix réduits de 45% soit 45€ /an ! Why Men Pull Away catchhimandkeephim.com 10 Ugly Mistakes Women Make That Ruins Any Chances Of A Relationship See More About bystander effect prosocial behaviors altruism heroism Ads Rencontres Sur Zoosk ® www.zoosk.com Faîtes des rencontres près de chez vous. C'est facile & gratuit! 3 Herbs that Beat Anxiety www.a2xanxiety.com Doctors Reveal 1 Weird Compound to Calm Anxiety that May Surprise You Psychologists have long been interested in exactly why and when we help other people. There has also been a tremendous amount of interest in the reasons why we sometimes don't help others. The bystander effect is a social phenomenon that occurs when people fail to help those in need due to the presence of other people. In many cases, people feel that since there are other people around, surely someone else will leap into action. While the bystander effect can have a negative impact on prosocial behavior, altruism, and heroism, researchers have identified a number of different things that can help people overcome this tendency and increase the likelihood that they will engage in helping behaviors. Some of these include: Witnessing Helping Behavior Sometimes just seeing other people doing something kind or helpful makes us more willing to help others. Imagine that you are walking into a large department store. At the entrance is a bell ringer asking for donations to a charitable organization. You notice that many of the people who walk by are stopping to drop their change into the donation bucket. As a result, you might feel more inspired to stop and donate your own change. Researchers have found that when we observe other people engaging in prosocial behaviors, such as donating blood, we are more likely to do the same. Being Observant One of the key reasons people often fail to take action when help is needed is that they do not notice what is happening until it is too late. Ambiguous situations can also make it difficult to determine if help is truly needed. In one famous experiment, participants were less likely to respond when smoke began to fill a room when the other people in the room also failed to respond. Since no one else was taking action, people assumed that there must not be an emergency. Rather than relying purely on the responses of those around you, staying alert and attuned to the situation can help you best decide how to react. Being Skilled and Knowledgeable When faced with an emergency situation, knowing what to do greatly increases the likelihood that a person will take action. How can you apply this to your own life? While you certainly cannot be prepared for every possible event that might transpire, taking first aid classes and receiving CPR training could help you feel more competent and prepared to deal with potential emergencies. Guilt Researchers have found that feelings of guilt can often spur on helping behaviors. So-called "survivor guilt" is just one example. Following the 9/11 terrorist attacks, some people who had survived the event felt driven to help others in the aftermath. Having a Personal Relationship Researchers have long known that we are more likely to help people that we know personally. In an emergency situation, people in trouble can help cultivate a more personalized response even in strangers by taking a few important steps. Simple behaviors such as making direct eye contact and engaging in small talk can increase the likelihood that a person will come to your aid. So if you are in trouble, you might be better of singling out an individual from the crowd, making eye contact, and directly asking for assistance, rather than making a general plea to the group. Seeing Others as Deserving of Help People are also more likely to help others if they think that the person truly deserves it. In one classic study, participants were more likely to give money to a stranger if they believed that the individual's wallet had been stolen rather than that the person had simply spent all his money. This might explain why some people are more willing to give money to the homeless while others are not. Those who believe that homeless people are in their situation due to laziness or unwillingness to work are less likely to give money, while those who believe that these individuals are genuinely deserving of help are more likely to provide assistance. Feeling Good Researchers have also found that feeling good about ourselves can also contribute to prosocial behaviors. People who feel happy or successful are more likely to lend assistance, and even relatively small events can trigger such feelings. Hearing your favorite song on the radio, enjoying a warm summer day, or successfully completing an important task at work can leave you feeling joyful and competent – and more likely to help out another person in need. This is often referred to as the "feel good, do good" effect. Want to learn more about prosocial behavior? Be sure to check out the following links:
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 13:58

What Is Altruism? By Kendra Cherry Ads: Marketing Psychology Psychology Online Health Psychology Social Psychology Psychology Test Ads Why Men Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Brain Training Games www.lumosity.com Train memory and attention with scientific brain games. Achetez à Prix Cassé www.priceminister.com Sur PriceMinister Profitez-en ! Trouvez Votre Produit à Prix Mini Ads L'Anglais 7 à 13 ans www.speakyplanet.fr/anglais-ludique Votre Enfant Bilingue en Anglais en Jouant 10 Min par Jour - Découvrez! Femmes Polonaises russiancupid.com Rencontrez des femmes polonaises à la recherche de l'âme soeur! Definition: What causes people to jeopardize their own health and well-being to help other people? What is it that inspires individuals to give their time, energy, and money to aid in the betterment of others, even when they receive nothing tangible in return? Altruism involves the unselfish concern for other people. It involves doing things simply out of a desire to help, not because you feel obligated to out of duty, loyalty, or religious reasons. Everyday life is filled with small acts of altruism, from the guy at the grocery store who kindly holds the door open as you rush in from the parking lot to the woman who gives twenty dollars to a homeless man. News stories often focus on grander cases of altruism, such as a man who dives into an icy river to rescue a drowning stranger to a generous donor who gives thousands of dollars to a local charity. While we may be all too familiar with altruism, social psychologists are interested in understanding why it occurs. What inspires these acts of kindness? What motivates people to risk their own lives to save a complete stranger? Altruism is one aspect of what social psychologists refer to as prosocial behavior. Prosocial behavior refers to any action that benefits other people, no matter what the motive or how the giver benefits from the action. Remember, however, that altruism involves true selflessness. While all altruisms acts are prosocial, not all prosocial behaviors are altruistic. For example, we might help others for a variety of reasons such as guilt, obligation, duty or even for rewards. Psychologists have suggested a number of different explanations for why altruism exists, including: Biological Reasons: Kin selection - We may be more altruistic towards those we are related to because it increases the odds that our blood relations will survives and transmit their genes to future generations. Neurological Reasons: Altruism activates reward centers in the brain. Neurobiologists have found that when engaged in an altruistic act, the pleasure centers of the brain become active. Cognitive Reasons: While the definition of altruism involves doing for others without reward, there may still be cognitive incentives that are not obvious. For example, we might help others to relieve out own distress or because being kind to others upholds our view of ourselves as kind, empathetic people.
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 13:59

The Psychology of Heroism Heroism Defined By Kendra Cherry Ads: Marketing Psychology Counselling Psychology Social Psychology Psychology Test Clinical Psychology Heroism Image by Julian Walker Ads Why Men Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Tests Que Choisir www.quechoisir.org Guides et Comparatifs Que Choisir. Prix réduits de 45% soit 45€ /an ! Formation en Psychologie cnfdi.com/Formation-Psychologie Formez-Vous à Distance au CNFDI. Et Prenez un Nouveau Départ ! Top Related Searches Arthur Ashe What Is Heroism Sikh Temple Imagination Project Aurora Colorado Oncoming Train Ads Virginie Dalla Costa www.jacobdallacosta.com Psychologue Spécialiste en Coaching et Préparation Mentale des Sportifs Votre Enfant a 7-13 ans? www.speakyplanet.fr/anglais-ludique Vous Aimeriez qu'il Parle Anglais? C'est Possible Avec SpeakyPlanet. "True heroism is remarkably sober, very undramatic. It is not the urge to surpass all others at whatever cost, but the urge to serve others at whatever cost." – Arthur Ashe On January 2, 2007, approximately 75 people waiting at a busy subway station watched as a young man suffered a seizure and then fell from the platform onto the subway tracks. Onlookers watched in horror yet did nothing, but a man named Wesley Autry took action. Handing his two young daughters to a stranger, he leapt down onto the tracks hoping to have time to drag the man out of the way of an oncoming train. When Autry realized that there was no time to move the other man, he instead held him down between the tracks as a train passed over the top of them. "I don't feel like I did something spectacular; I just saw someone who needed help. I did what I felt was right," he told The New York Times after the incident. What makes certain people take heroic actions in the face of great danger? When you think about heroism, several recent examples might spring to mind. After the tragic theater shooting in Aurora, Colorado during the summer of 2012, three women who survived the shooting revealed that they had been saved by their boyfriends. The three men had had shielded their girlfriends with their own bodies and died as a result. In another 2012 shooting at a Sikh temple, one man died trying to disarm the shooter while another suffered serious injury as he tried to help. Heroism is something that is deeply valued across cultures, but how exactly do we define a hero? What is it that inspires some people to take heroic action? While researchers know a great deal about what causes people to perform actions described as evil, our understanding of what makes people heroes is not quite so clear. What Is Heroism? According to the Heroic Imagination Project, a non-profit organization that focuses on teaching people to become heroes, heroism involves a behavior or action on behalf of another person or for a moral cause. They identify four key elements of heroism: It's voluntary It is done in the service of people or communities in need It involves some type of risk, either physical, social, or in terms of quality of life It is done without the need for recompense or material gain How do psychologists and other heroism researchers define heroism? Here are just a few of the many suggestions put forth by various experts: "Simply put, then, the key to heroism is a concern for other people in need—a concern to defend a moral cause, knowing there is a personal risk, done without expectation of reward." (Philip Zimbardo, "What Makes a Hero?," 2011) "Although we find it true that heroism is in the eye of the beholder, we do acknowledge that people’s beliefs about heroes tend to follow a systematic pattern. After polling a number of people, we discovered that heroes tend to have eight traits, which we call The Great Eight. These traits are smart, strong, resilient, selfless, caring, charismatic, reliable, and inspiring. It’s unusual for a hero to possess all eight of these characteristics, but most heroes have a majority of them." (Scott T. Allison & George R. Goethals, "Our Definition of 'Hero,'" 2011) "Heroism consists of actions undertaken to help others, despite the possibility that they may result in the helper's death or injury." (Selwyn W. Becker & Alice H. Eagly, " The Heroism of Women and Men," 2004) Other definitions often break heroism down by types or degrees of the personal risk and sacrifice involved. Some involve grand acts such as endangering one's life in order to save another person, while others are smaller, everyday acts designed to help another human being in need. In a piece published on the Psychology Today website, psychologist Frank Farley made a distinction between what he calls "big H" heroism and "small h heroism." Big H heroism "involves significant risk, which could include death, injury, imprisonment, or other serious or significant consequences," he explains. Small h heroism, on the other hand, "is everyday heroism, helping others, doing good deeds, showing kindness, etc., where serious harm or major consequences are not usually a result." What Makes a Person a Hero? So now that we know a bit more about what heroism is, the question shifts to exactly why people become heroes? Are there any characteristics of heroism that these individuals seem to share? Farley suggests that there are two key factors underlying the grand acts of heroism that involve a risk of personal harm: risk-taking behavior and generosity. People who risk their lives in the service of another are naturally more likely to take greater risks and they also possess a great deal of compassion, kindness, empathy, and altruism. In an article that appeared in a 2004 issues of American Psychologist, researchers Selwyn Becker and Alice Eagly suggested that heroism might also have a more self-serving purpose as a means to ensure status. In other words, sometimes engaging in self-sacrificing behavior can lead to long-term rewards. In one small study conducted with 78 participants, researchers found that people who were willing to endure the pain of holding their hands in a tub of ice or being dunked in a tank of water were more likely to be judged as likable by the other participants. Not only did the others view these individuals more favorably, they also rewarded them by giving them much more of a pot of money amounting to $1,170 that the participants were allowed to divvy up in any way they wished. Researchers have long known that both people and animals are more likely to help those to whom they are genetically related, a concept known as kin selection. By helping those who share our genes, we help ensure the likelihood that those genes will be passed on to future generations. In others cases, we help others with the expectation that someday they might help us in return, an idea known as reciprocal altruism. But what about the kinds of altruism that don't hinge on helping relatives or expecting some type of payback? In such cases, situational, cultural, and personality variables can play pivotal roles. After people take heroic actions, they often claim that they don't see themselves as heroes; that they were simply doing what anyone in that situation would have done. In the face of immediate life and death situations, the power and immediacy of the situation can inspire some people to take action. These same situational forces that galvanize some individuals to heroic acts can actually impede others from helping. When a crisis arises in the presence of many people, we often fall into a trap of inaction by assuming that someone else will offer assistance, a phenomenon known as the bystander effect. Because personal responsibility is diffused by the presence of others, we believe that someone else will take on the role of the hero. Some people may also have personality traits that predispose them to behave in altruistic and heroic ways. Researchers have suggested that those who have a particular mind-set that leads them to behave confidently and morally in difficult situations tend to act immediately and unconsciously when an emergency occurs. Are Heroes Born or Are They Made? One of the biggest questions researchers face comes down to the age-old debate over nature versus nurture. Is heroism something we are born with, or is heroism something that can be learned? "Some people argue humans are born good or born bad; I think that’s nonsense," explains Philip Zimbardo. "We are all born with this tremendous capacity to be anything, and we get shaped by our circumstances—by the family or the culture or the time period in which we happen to grow up, which are accidents of birth; whether we grow up in a war zone versus peace; if we grow up in poverty rather than prosperity." So if heroism is something that can be cultivated, how exactly do we go about encouraging people to behave in heroic ways? In the second part of this article, we'll learn more about one program designed to foster altruism and heroism in young people. NEXT: Continue reading to learn more about teaching heroism.
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 13:59

Teaching Heroism How One Program Is Helping Kids Become Heroes By Kendra Cherry Ads: Marketing Psychology Social Psychology Kids Psychology Psychology Online New York Psychology Youth volunteers Zimbardo's program is designed to help youth become agents of change, such as these Earth Day volunteers. Image by Virginia State Parks staff, Creative Commons Ads L'Anglais 7 à 13 ans www.speakyplanet.fr/anglais-ludique Votre Enfant Bilingue en Anglais en Jouant 10 Min par Jour - Découvrez! Lie Detection - Polygraph www.test4truth.co.uk Members of the APA BPA BEPA NPA Leading Examiners - free advice Brain Training Games www.lumosity.com Train memory and attention with scientific brain games. Top Related Searches Stanford Prison Experiment Philip Zimbardo Imagination Project Experiment Participants Mystical View Situational Influences Ads 3 Herbs that Beat Anxiety www.a2xanxiety.com Doctors Reveal 1 Weird Compound to Calm Anxiety that May Surprise You Free Plagiarism Checker www.grammarly.com/Plagiarism_Check Trusted by over 3 million students, faculty, & professionals worldwide. "The world is a dangerous place, not because of those who do bad things, but because of those who look on and do nothing". –Albert Einstein Psychologist Philip Zimbardo, founder of the Heroic Imagination Project (HIP), believes that heroism can be taught and has developed a program designed to help children learn how to be heroes. Most people know Zimbardo as the man behind the famous Stanford prison experiment, a study that demonstrated how people are heavily influenced by social and situational pressures. In the experiment, participants took on the roles of guards and prisoners in a mock-prison setting. Originally slated to last two weeks, the study had to be terminated after just six days as the guards became domineering and abusive and the prisoners became distraught and depressed. Today, Zimbardo's HIP programs "are designed to instill in the present generation – and in future ones – the notion of heroism not as something reserved for those rare individuals who do or achieve something extraordinary, but as a mindset or behavior possible for anyone who is capable of doing an extraordinary deed." For many, this might sound like a radical concept. After all, popular depictions of heroes often describe these individuals as having something that the average person simply does not. According to the common views of heroism, these heroes possess qualities that allow them to rise up at the right moment and assert their bravery in the face of danger, peril, or opposition. They are special. They are rare. Simply put, they are "born with it." Zimbardo suggests that this simply isn't true. "We've been saddled for too long with this mystical view of heroism," he suggests. "We assume heroes are demigods. But they're not. A hero is just an ordinary person who does something extraordinary. I believe we can use science to teach people how to do that." Obstacles to Heroism The HIP program consists of a four-week curriculum aimed at adolescents that begins with students taking a hero pledge. Over the next four weeks, students learn about the darker side of human nature including Milgram's obedience experiment (which demonstrates how far people will go to obey and authority figure), the prevalence and impact of prejudice, social roles and expectations, and the bystander effect (in which people are less likely to offer assistance to a person in need if others are present). Building Empathy The second stage of the program focuses on helping students overcome these problems by building empathy, including increasing their understanding of the impact of the fundamental attribution error, or our tendency to ignore how context and situational variables influence behavior. This is important, Zimbardo suggests, because one of the major reasons we fail to help other people is due to our tendency to believe that they deserve what is happening to them. By making students aware of this fallacy, they are less likely to 'blame the victim' and more likely to take action. Studying Heroes and Putting it Into Practice Studying the lives and stories of legendary heroes is another important part of the program. A range of real-life individuals and fictional characters ranging from Martin Luther King Jr. to Harry Potter serve as models of virtuous and heroic behavior. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, the students are asked to start putting what they have learned during the program to work in the real-world. Like any skill, Zimbardo believes that heroism takes practice. Participants in the program start small by doing one thing each day to help another person feel better. The goal is that these baby steps will serve as a stepping stone toward a lifetime of helping behaviors. Perhaps the greatest difficulty in teaching heroism lies in those popular perceptions of exactly what makes a hero. If you ask many people today to list some heroes, responses will likely include pop culture figures such as professional athletes and actors. "One of the problems with our culture is that we've replaced heroes with celebrities," Zimbardo says. "We worship people who haven't done anything. It's time to get back to focusing on what matters, because we need real heroes more than ever." NEXT: Continue reading to learn more about the Characteristics of Heroism
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 14:00

The Bystander Effect Why Bystanders Sometimes Faily to Help By Kendra Cherry Ads: Marketing Psychology Social Psychology Psychology Test New York Psychology Psychology Today The bystander effect is more common when there are more people around. The Bystander Effect Iwan Beijes Ads Make Him Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. L'Anglais 7 à 13 ans www.speakyplanet.fr/anglais-ludique Votre Enfant Bilingue en Anglais en Jouant 10 Min par Jour - Découvrez! Formation Photographe lignes-formations.com/cours-photo École à Distance de Photographie Reporter - Studio - Mode Top Related Searches Catherine Kitty Genovese Bibb Latane Winston Moseley John Darley Bystander Effect Psychology Textbooks Ads Vêtements Enfant Bas Prix tati.fr/Vetements_Enfant Vêtements enfant, Fille ou Garçon. Large Choix & Livraison Rapide ! Rencontre gratuite www.superencontre.com Tout est gratuit : mail, chat, etc. Inscription est 100 % gratuite What is the Bystander Effect? The term bystander effect refers to the phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely people are to help a person in distress. When an emergency situation occurs, observers are more likely to take action if there are few or no other witnesses. In a series of classic studies, researchers Bibb Latane and John Darley (1) found that the amount of time it takes the participant to take action and seek help varies depending on how many other observers are in the room. In one experiment, subjects were placed in one of three treatment conditions: alone in a room, with two other participants or with two confederates who pretended to be normal participants. As the participants sat filling out questionnaires, smoke began to fill the room. When participants were alone, 75% reported the smoke to the experimenters. In contrast, just 38% of participants in a room with two other people reported the smoke. In the final group, the two confederates in the experiment noted the smoke and then ignored it, which resulted in only 10% of the participants reporting the smoke. Example of the Bystander Effect The most frequently cited example of the bystander effect in introductory psychology textbooks is the brutal murder of a young woman named Catherine "Kitty" Genovese. On Friday, March 13, 1964, 28-year-old Genovese was returning home from work. As she approached her apartment entrance, she was attacked and stabbed by a man later identified as Winston Moseley. Despite Genovese’s repeated calls for help, none of the dozen or so people in the nearby apartment building who heard her cries called police to report the incident. The attack first began at 3:20 AM, but it was not until 3:50 AM that someone first contacted police. Initially reported in a 1964 New York Times article, the story sensationalized the case and reported a number of factual inaccuracies. While frequently cited in psychology textbooks, an article in the September 2007 issue of American Psychologist concluded that the story is largely misrepresented mostly due to the inaccuracies repeatedly published in newspaper articles and psychology textbooks. Explanations for the Bystander Effect There are two major factors that contribute to the bystander effect. First, the presence of other people creates a diffusion of responsibility. Because there are other observers, individuals do not feel as much pressure to take action, since the responsibility to take action is thought to be shared among all of those present. The second reason is the need to behave in correct and socially acceptable ways. When other observers fail to react, individuals often take this as a signal that a response is not needed or not appropriate. Other researchers have found that onlookers are less likely to intervene if the situation is ambiguous(2). In the case of Kitty Genovese, many of the 38 witnesses reported that they believed that they were witnessing a "lover's quarrel," and did not realize that the young woman was actually being murdered. Suggested Readings:
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