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Date d'inscription : 17/05/2007

MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 14:00

Are Narcissistic Leaders More Effective? Study Suggests Moderate Narcissism Linked to Successful Leadership By Kendra Cherry Ads: Marketing Psychology Leadership Traits Counselling Psychology Effective Leadership Leadership Skills Course narcissistic-businessman.jpg Image: Tooga / Getty Images Ads Make Him Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Cone beam Morita www.moritadimtec.com une nouvelle dimension pour le radiodiagnostic Executive MBA Council executivemba.org/Compare-EMBA-Tool The Leading Source for Prospective EMBA Students. Compare Programs Now See More About leadership narcissism Ads L'Anglais 7 à 13 ans www.speakyplanet.fr/anglais-ludique Votre Enfant Bilingue en Anglais en Jouant 10 Min par Jour - Découvrez! Achetez à Prix Cassé www.priceminister.com Sur PriceMinister Profitez-en ! Trouvez Votre Produit à Prix Mini What qualities make a person a great leader? If you ask people to list some of the traits they associate with leadership your likely to hear things such as honesty, passion, excitement, creativity, and strong people skills. According to the results of one study, a little bit of narcissism can also help make people strong and effective leaders. It makes sense though. Many of the qualities associated with great leadership (such as confidence, extraversion, and assertiveness) are also common in people high in narcissism. But as the results of this study suggest, it's all about striking the right balance. People who are too narcissistic run the risk of being seen as self-obsessed tyrants, while those low in narcissism might never have the confidence to step into leadership roles in the first place. Could Moderate Narcissism Be the Key to Great Leadership? While narcissism is generally viewed as an undesirable trait, researchers have found that a moderate amount of narcissism can actually make people more effective at leading. The study, published in the journal Personnel Psychology, found that people with a medium level of narcissistic traits have a good balance between being self-confident without many of the negative characteristics that are often associated with narcissism. According to researchers from the University of Illinois, narcissists tend to have an increased need for admiration from other people and an exaggerated sense of self-importance. While this tends to make them more likely to step up into leadership roles, people who are high in this trait also tend to be poor at maintaining solid interpersonal relationships. People with too much narcissism also tend to engage in undesirable social behaviors such as putting others down in order to elevate themselves, which undermines their relationships with others as well as their ability to lead successfully. "Narcissists tend to be extraverted, and that is leading to the positive relationship between narcissism and leader emergence," explained Emily Grijalva, one of the study's authors. "But you have to keep in mind that although narcissists are likely to emerge as the group leader, over time, the more negative aspects of narcissism tend to emerge." The study suggests that having some narcissism gives people the extraversion, self-confidence, and assertiveness to take on leadership positions and do well. Since these individuals are not excessively self-obsessed, however, they avoid the more negative traits typically linked to narcissism such as being arrogant, exploitative, and dictatorial. What Are the Practical Applications of Such Findings? So what are the implications of these findings in business settings? According to the researchers, looking at how narcissism influences employee/manager relationships could be an important next step."It would be interesting to try to determine what kinds of employees can work well with a narcissistic leader, because some employees seem to be able to maintain their levels of satisfaction even when they are working with someone who is difficult," Grijalva said. "There might be a trade-off between narcissistic leaders' needing a subordinate who is confident enough to earn the leader's respect, but also deferential enough to show the leader unwavering admiration."
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 14:01

ISTJ A Profile of the ISTJ Personality Type By Kendra Cherry Ads: Marketing Psychology Introversion Personality Assessment Psychology Career Personality Psychology ISTJ Image from Wikimedia Commons Ads Why Men Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Achetez à Prix Cassé www.priceminister.com Sur PriceMinister Profitez-en ! Trouvez Votre Produit à Prix Mini Why Men Pull Away catchhimandkeephim.com 10 Ugly Mistakes Women Make That Ruins Any Chances Of A Relationship Top Related Searches Istj Personality Type Myers Briggs Personality Indicator Myers Briggs Personality 16 Personality Types Myer Briggs Intj Personality Ads Vous aimez la nature ? natura-dis.com/Cours_Distance Faites-en votre métier grâce aux formations à distance de Natura-Dis Free Bible Download www.dailybibleguide.com Find Daily Quotes, Choose Passages & More w/ Free Bible Toolbar! ISTJ (introversion, sensing, thinking, judgment) is a four-letter code representing one of the 16 personality types found on the Myers-Briggs Personality Indicator (MBTI). People with an ISTJ personality type tend to be reserved, practical and quiet. They enjoy order and organization in all areas of their lives including their home, work, family and projects. ISTJs value loyalty in themselves and others, and place an emphasis on traditions. In this brief overview, we'll take a closer look at the characteristics of the ISTJ personality type. ISTJ Characteristics The Myer-Briggs Personality Indicator identifies your personality preferences in four main areas: 1) Extraversion vs Introversion, 2) Sensing vs Intuition, 3) Thinking vs Feeling and 4) Judging vs Perceiving. For each of these dimensions, the MBTI identifies you as tending toward one end or the other of each dimension. As you can see, the ISTJ personality tends to be Introverted, Sensing, Thinking and Judging. Introversion (I): How you direct your energy and relate to the world around you. ISTJs prefer spending time along or with small groups of close friends. Sensing (S): How you take in information from the environment. ISTJs prefer to focus on the details rather than thinking about abstract information. Thinking (T): How you make decisions. ISTJs make decisions based on logic and objective data rather than personal feelings. Judging (J): How you orient yourself to the outside world. ISTJs are planners; they like to carefully plan things out well in advance. Some of the main characteristics of the ISTJ personality include: Focused on details and facts Realistic Interested in the present more than the future Observant, but slightly subjective Interested in the internal world Logical and practical Orderly and organized ISTJs enjoy an orderly life. They like things to be well-organized and pay a great deal of attention to detail. When things are in disarray, people with this personality type may find themselves unable to rest until they have set everything straight and the work has been completed. Because of this need for order, they tend to do better in learning and work environments that have clearly defined schedules, clear-cut assignments and a strong focus on the task at hand. When learning new things, ISTJs do best when the material is something they view as useful with real-world applications. Concrete, factual information appeals to ISTJs, while theoretical and abstract information has little value unless they can see some type of practical use for it. While they may exert tremendous energy into projects they see has valuable, they will avoid wasting time and energy on things that they view as useless or unpractical. ISTJs are both responsible and realistic. They take a logical approach to achieving goals and completing projects and are able to work at a steady pace toward accomplishing these tasks. They are able to ignore distractions in order to focus on the task at hand and are often described as dependable and trustworthy. ISTJs also place a great deal of emphasis on traditions and laws. They prefer to follow rules and procedures that have previously been established. In some cases, ISTJs can seem rigid and unyielding in their desire to maintain structure. People with this personality type are usually very loyal and devoted to family and friends, but may struggle to understand their own emotions and the feelings of others. They can be quite reserved and sometimes fail to pick up on the emotional signals given by other people. However, once they are close to a person and develop an understanding of that person's feelings and needs, they will expend a great deal of effort toward supporting those needs. Famous People with ISTJ Personalities A number of famous individuals have been described as having an ISTJ personality based on analysis of their lives, works and behaviors. Some of the possible famous ISTJs include: George Washington, U.S. President Henry Ford, inventor Johnny Carson, entertainer Elizabeth II, Queen of England Calvin Coolidge, U.S. President Evander Holyfield, boxer Warren Buffett, businessman A few fictional characters that demonstrate the characteristics of the ISTJ personality type include: Cliff Calvin, Cheers Darth Vader, Star Wars Joe Friday, Dragnet Eeyore, Winnie the Pooh Dallas, Alien Best Career Choices for ISTJs ISTJs tend to do well in careers that require order, structure and perseverance. Jobs that involve dealing with concrete facts and figures (accounting, library science, computer programming, etc.) are all good options. Jobs that require accuracy, respect for rules and stability often appeal to those with an ISTJ personality. By understanding your underlying personality, you'll be better able to select a career path that appeals to your strengths. Some ideal career choices for an ISTJ include: Accountant Computer Programmer Dentist Doctor Librarian Lawyer Police Officer or Detective Military Leader References
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 14:02

ESTP An Overview of the ESTP Personality Type By Kendra Cherry Ads: Marketing Psychology Personality Assessment Psychology Career Counselling Psychology Quick Personality Quizzes ESTP Image from Wikimedia Commons Ads Why Men Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Why Men Pull Away catchhimandkeephim.com 10 Ugly Mistakes Women Make That Ruins Any Chances Of A Relationship Méditation Très Profonde www.meditation3g.com Vous voulez Méditer Profondément ? Guide complet de Méditation Gratuit Top Related Searches Myers Briggs Type Indicator 16 Personality Types Myers Briggs Type Briggs Type Indicator Personality Preferences Estp Personality Ads Votre Enfant a 7-13 ans? www.speakyplanet.fr/anglais-ludique Vous Aimeriez qu'il Parle Anglais? C'est Possible Avec SpeakyPlanet. École Graphisme lignes-formations.com/Graphisme École en Ligne des Métiers Créatifs Inscriptions Ouvertes:Lancez-Vous ! ESTP is one of the 16 personality types identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). People with this personality type are frequently described as outgoing, action-oriented and dramatic. According to psychologist David Keirsey, the creator of the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, approximately four to ten percent of people exhibit an ESTP personality. ESTP Characteristics The MBTI looks at personality preferences in four key areas: 1) Extraversion vs Introversion, 2) Sensing vs Intuition, 3) Thinking vs Feeling and 4) Judging vs Perceiving. As you've probably already ascertained, the acronym ESTP represents Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking and Feeling. Extraversion (E): ESTPs are outgoing and enjoy spending time with a wide circle of friends and acquaintances. Sensing (S): ESTPs are interested in the here-and-now and are more likely to focus on details than taking a broader view of things. Thinking (T): ESTPs are logical. When making decisions, they place a higher value on objectivity rather than personal feelings. Perceiving (P): ESTPs don't like to be pinned down by excessive planning. Instead, they like to improvise and keep their options open. The following are just a few of the common characteristics exhibited by ESTPs: Gregarious Funny Competitive Good at influencing others Action-oriented Lives in the present Impulsive Adaptable and resourceful Strong interpersonal skills Observant with a strong memory for details Can be dramatic at times Energetic As extraverts, ESTPs gain energy from being around other people. In social settings, people with this personality type are seen as fun, friendly and charming. According to Keirsey, people with this personality type are particularly skilled at influencing people. ESTPs are not only great at interacting with other people, they have a natural ability to perceive and interpret nonverbal communication. Thanks to these abilities, ESTPs tend to do very well in careers that involve sales and marketing. Because they are so focused on the present world, ESTPs tend to be realists. They are interested in the sights, sounds and experiences that are going on immediately around them, and they have little use for daydreams or flights of fancy. As sensors, people with this personality type want to touch, feel, hear, taste and see anything and everything that might possibly draw their interest. When learning about something new, it's not just enough to read about it in a textbook or listen to a lecture – they want to experience it for themselves. ESTPs also have lots of energy, so they can become bored in situations that are tedious or in learning situations that involve a great deal of theoretical information. ESTPs are the quintessential "doers" – they get straight to work and are willing to take risks in order to get the job done. When confronted by problems, people with this personality type quickly look at the facts and devise an immediate solution. They tend to improvise rather than spend a great deal of time planning. Famous People With ESTP Personalities Through looking at their lives and work, researchers have suggested that the following famous individuals exhibit ESTP characteristics: Ernest Hemingway, author James Buchanan, U.S. President Madonna, singer Chuck Yeager, U.S. Air Force General and pilot Donald Trump, businessman Lucille Ball, actress Famous fictional ESTPs include: Elle Driver, Kill Bill Bart Simpson, The Simpsons James Bond Fred and George Weasley, Harry Potter Best Career Choices for ESTPs People with an ESTP personality type feel energized when they interact with a wide variety of people, so they do best in jobs that involve working with others. They strongly dislike routine and monotony, so fast-paced jobs are idea. ESTPs have several different personality characteristics that make them well-suited for certain careers. As mentioned previously, because they are so observant and have such strong people skills, ESPTs make great salespeople. Because they are action-oriented and resourceful, they are great in first-responder positions that require fast-thinking and quick responses such as emergency medical personnel and police officers. Sales agent Marketer Entrepreneur Police officers Detectives Computer support technician Paramedic
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 14:02

INTJ An Overview of the INTJ Personality Type By Kendra Cherry Ads: Personality Type Test Personality Assessment Psychology Career Personality Psychology Counselling Psychology INTJ Image by Ikiwaner, modified by Obsidian Soul, Wikimedia Commons Ads Make Him Fall In Love havetherelationshipyouwant.com 9 Powerful Words You Can Say That Remind Him Why He Needs You. Quel est votre QI ? docteur-qi.com Répondez et entraînez-vous Testez votre QI en ligne Formation de Décorateur lignes-formations.com/Decorateur Formation en Ligne des PRO & Futurs PRO en Décoration - Inscrivez Vous! Top Related Searches Intj Personality Type Myers Briggs Type Indicator 16 Personality Types Keirsey Temperament Myers Briggs Type Briggs Type Indicator Ads Why Men Pull Away catchhimandkeephim.com 10 Ugly Mistakes Women Make That Ruins Any Chances Of A Relationship Brain Training Games www.lumosity.com Train memory and attention with scientific brain games. INTJ (introverted, intuitive, thinking, judging) is an acronym that represents one of the 16 personality types described by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). People with INTJ personalities are highly analytical, creative and logical. According to psychologist David Keirsey, developer of the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, approximately one to four percent of the population has an INTJ personality type. INTJ Characteristics The MBTI identifies preferences in four key dimensions: 1) Extraversion vs Introversion, 2) Sensing vs Intuition, 3) Thinking vs Feeling and 4) Judging vs Perceiving. As you can tell by the four-letter acronym, INTJ stands for Introverted, Intuitive, Thinking and Judging. Introversion (I): INTJs tend to be introverted and prefer to work alone. Intuition (N): INTJs look at the big picture and like to focus on abstract information rather than concrete details. Thinking (T): INTJs place greater emphasis on logic and objective information rather than subjective emotions. Judging (J): INTJs like their world to feel controlled and ordered so they prefer to make plans well in advance. Common characteristics exhibited by people with this personality type: Enjoys theoretical and abstract concepts Dislikes confusion, disorganization and inefficiency Reserved and prefers solitary work to group work Orderly and structured Perfectionistic High expectations and standards More focused on the future than on the present When INTJs develop an interest in something, they strive to become as knowledgeable and skilled as they can in that area. They have high expectations, and they hold themselves to the highest possible standards. INTJs are good at gathering information from the outside world, analyzing it and reaching new insights. People with this personality type tend to be very analytical and logical. They value information, knowledge and intelligence and make excellent scientists and mathematicians. They tend to do particularly well in fields that require efficiency and the ability to interpret complex information such as engineering, academia, law and research. "INTJs…tend to be insightful and mentally quick; however, this mental quickness may not always be outwardly apparent to others since they keep a great deal to themselves," explains Sandra Krebs Hirsch in Introduction to Type in Organizations. "They are very determined people who trust their vision of the possibilities, regardless of what others think. They may even be considered the most independent of all of the sixteen personality types. INTJs are at their best in quietly and firmly developing their ideas, theories, and principles." People with this personality type are introverted and spend a lot of time in their own mind. INTJs work best by themselves and strongly prefer solitary work to group work. While they tend not to be particularly interested in other people's thoughts and feelings, they do care about the emotions of the select group of people to whom they are close. In personal relationships, INTJs are willing to devote time and energy toward making these relationships successful. Other people often interpret INTJs as cool, aloof and disinterested, which can making forming new friendships challenging. People with this type of personality often see little value in social rituals and small talk, making it even more difficult to get to know them. They tend to be reserved and prefer to interact with a group of close family and friends. Famous People With INTJ Personalities Researchers have suggested that a number of famous individuals match the characteristics of the INTJ personality type based on analysis of their lives and works: Thomas Jefferson, U.S. President John F. Kennedy, U.S. President C. S. Lewis, author Jane Austen, author Susan B. Anthony, civil rights leader Arthur Ashe, tennis player Emily Bronte, author Some well-known fictional INTJs include: Fitzwilliam Darcy, Pride and Prejudice Professor Moriarty, Sherlock Holmes Clarice Starling, Silence of the Lambs Gandalf, The Lord of the Rings Best Career Choices for INTJs INTJs typically do well in careers that integrate their strong ability to understand and evaluate complex information with their ability to put this knowledge into practice. Careers that allow the INTJ to work independently and autonomously are also ideal. Scientist Mathematician Engineer Dentist Doctor Teacher Judge Lawyer References
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Dim 27 Avr - 14:02

Psychology BasicsTheoriesExperimentsSharePrint Free Psychology Newsletter!Sign Up The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator An Overview of the Myers-Briggs Test By Kendra Cherry Ads: Myers Briggs Mbti Test Psychology Test Assessment Psychology Counselling Psychology Psychology Career Myers Briggs Type Indicator Image: Jake Beech (CC0 1.0) Ads Free Plagiarism Checker www.grammarly.com/Plagiarism_Check Trusted by over 3 million students, faculty, & professionals worldwide. Brain Training Games www.lumosity.com Train memory and attention with scientific brain games. Test De QI? www.test-my-iq.com Faites le dernier test de QI. Obtenez le certificat avec votre QI Top Related Searches Myers Briggs Personality Myers Briggs Test Myers Briggs Personality Type Indicator Myers Briggs Personality Type Personality Type Indicator Ads Lie Detection - Polygraph www.test4truth.co.uk Members of the APA BPA BEPA NPA Leading Examiners - free advice Test Anglais En Ligne 0€ abaenglish.com/Test-Anglais-Online Découvre ton Niveau d'Anglais. Et suis nos cours. C'est Gratuit ! Have you ever heard someone describe themselves as an INTJ or an ESTP and wondered what those cryptic-sounding letters could mean? What these people are referring to is their personality type based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator is a self-inventory designed to identify a person's personality type, strengths, and preferences. The questionnaire was developed by Isabel Myers and her mother Katherine Briggs based on their work with Carl Jung's theory of personality types. Today, the inventory is one of the most widely used psychological instruments in the world. The Development of the Myers-Briggs Test Both Isabel Myers and her mother Katherine were fascinated by Jung's theory of psychological types and recognized that the theory could have real world applications. During World War II, Myers and Briggs began researching and developing an indicator that could be utilized to help understand individual differences. By helping people understand themselves, Myers and Briggs believed that they could help people select occupations that were best suited to their personality types and lead healthier, happier lives. Myers created the first pen-and-pencil version of the inventory during the 1940s, and the two women began testing the assessment on friends and family. They continued to fully develop the instrument over the next two decades. Overview of the Myers-Briggs Test Based on the answers to the questions on the inventory, people are identified as having one of 16 personality types. The goal of the MBTI is to allow respondents to further explore and understand their own personalities including their likes, dislikes, strengths, weaknesses, possible career preferences, and compatibility with other people. No one personality type is "best" or "better" than any other one. It isn't a tool designed to look for dysfunction or abnormality. Instead, its goal is simply to help you learn more about yourself. The questionnaire itself is made up of four different scales: Extraversion (E) - Introversion (I): The extraversion-introversion dichotomy was first explored by Jung in his theory of personality types as a way to describe how people respond and interact with the world around them. While these terms are familiar to most people, the way in which they are used here differs somewhat from their popular usage. Extraverts are "outward-turning" and tend to be action-oriented, enjoy more frequent social interaction, and feel energized after spending time with other people. Introverts are "inward-turning" and tend to be thought-oriented, enjoy deep and meaningful social interactions, and feel recharged after spending time alone. We all exhibit extraversion and introversion to some degree, but most of us tend have an overall preference for one or the other. Sensing (S) - Intuition (N): This scale involves looking at how people gather information from the world around them. Just like with extraversion and introversion, all people spend some time sensing and intuiting depending on the situation. According to the MBTI, people tend be dominant in one area or the other. People who prefer sensing tend to pay a great deal of attention to reality, particularly to what they can learn from their own senses. They tend to focus on facts and details and enjoy getting hands-on experience. Those who prefer intuition pay more attention to things like patterns and impressions. They enjoy thinking about possibilities, imagining the future and abstract theories. Thinking (T) - Feeling (F): This scale focuses on how people make decisions based on the information that they gathered from their sensing or intuition functions. People who prefer thinking place a greater emphasis on facts and objective data. They tend to be consistent, logical and impersonal when weighing a decision. Those to prefer feeling are more likely to consider people and emotions when arriving at a conclusion. Judging (J) - Perceiving (P): The final scale involves how people tend to deal with the outside world. Those who lean toward judging prefer structure and firm decisions. People who lean toward perceiving are more open, flexible and adaptable. These two tendencies interact with the other scales. Remember, all people at least spend some time extraverting. The judging-perceiving scale helps describe whether you extravert when you are taking in new information (sensing and intuiting) or when you are making decisions (thinking and feeling). Each type is then listed by its four letter code: ISTJ ISTP ISFJ ISFP INFJ INFP INTJ INTP ESTP ESTJ ESFP ESFJ ENFP ENFJ ENTP ENTJ Taking the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator can provide a lot of insight into your personality, which is probably why the instrument has become so enormously popular. Even without taking the formal questionnaire, you can probably immediately recognize some of these tendencies in yourself. According to the Myers & Briggs Foundation, it is important to remember that all types are equal and that every type has value. When working in group situations in school or at work for example, recognizing your own strengths and understanding the strengths of others can be very helpful. When you are working toward completing a project with other members of a group, you might realize that certain members of the group are skilled and talented at performing particular actions. By recognizing these differences, the group can better assign tasks and work together on achieving their goals. How Does the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Differ From Other Personality Instruments? First, the MBTI is not really a "test." There are no right or wrong answers and one type is not better than any other type. The purpose of the indicator is not to evaluate mental health or offer any type of diagnosis. Also, unlike many other types of psychological evaluations, your results are not compared against any norms. Instead of looking at your score in comparison to the results of other people, the goal of the instrument is to simply offer further information about your own unique personality. Reliability and Validity According to the Myers & Briggs Foundation, the MBTI meets accepted standards of reliability and validity. However, other studies have found that the reliability and validity of the instrument have not been adequately demonstrated. Studies have found between 40 and 75 percent of respondents receive a different result after completing the inventory a second time. A 1992 book by the The Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance and the National Research Council suggests that "...there is not sufficient, well-designed research to justify the use of MBTI in career counseling programs. Much of the current evidence is based on inadequate methodologies." The MBTI Today Because the Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator is relatively easy to use, it has become one of the most popular psychological instruments currently in use today. Approximately two million U.S. adults complete the inventory each year. While there are many versions of the MBTI available online, it should be noted that any of the informal questionnaires that you may find on the Internet are only approximations of the real thing. The real MBTI must be administered by a trained and qualified practitioner that includes a follow up of the results. Today, the questionnaire can be administered online via the instrument publisher, CPP, Inc., and includes receiving a professional interpretation of your results. The current version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator includes 93 forced-choice questions in the North American version, and 88 forced-choice questions in the European version. For each question, there are two different options that the respondent must choose from. References
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Mar 13 Mai - 12:34

les motif de dispute sont nombreuse

elle saiment et poutant se dechire

le besoind e saffirmer se ressent

maintenir le dialogue

vague? crise? daggresivité
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Lun 26 Mai - 16:44

Why Do I Have to Take a Psychology Class If I'm Not a Psychology Major?
By Kendra Cherry
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Question:

"I'm majoring in nursing, but my university requires me to take a psychology class as part of my general education core. Why do I need to take a psychology class if I'm not even majoring in psychology?"

Answer:

Even though you are not a psychology major, you can definitely benefit from learning more about the human mind and behavior. Many universities require students to take at least one class in psychology or a related topic such as sociology or anthropology. Why is psychology often included as part of a core general education requirement?

There are a few great reasons:

Taking a psychology class can help you better understand other people.

If you are majoring in a subject that will lead you to a career that involves working directly with lots of different people, such as teaching or nursing, understanding more about how people think and behave can be extremely helpful. Sometimes you might be expected to take one introductory psychology class, which can be a great way to get a basic grounding in the topic. In an introductory class, you will learn about a range of topics including:

the history of psychology
personality
human development
social behavior
cognitive psychology
Sometimes you major might require you to take a class such as abnormal psychology or developmental psychology as part of your core requirements. Health majors in particular can benefit from taking such classes. These topics can help prepare you to work with individuals who are experiencing some form of mental illness and teach you more about human behavior and development.

Taking a psychology class can improve your critical thinking skills.

Psychology classes emphasize things like the scientific method, evaluating the sources of information, and thinking critically about the information you encounter on a daily basis. Such classes can help you hone these skills, which can prove useful in a variety of careers and different areas of life.

Of course, knowing why your university requires you to take a psychology class doesn't necessarily make it any easier. Even if you know little about the topic or if you are struggling in your class, there are a number of things you can do to find help. Many universities offer free tutoring centers or academic assistance labs, but you can also turn to online resources to help you make sense of the subject.

Start by checking out some of our b
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Jeu 19 Juin - 5:07

Psychology 101: The Basics
Psychology 101 answers basic questions about the field of psychology, including what psychology is and what psychologists do. If you are considering a future in psychology or just have an interest in learning more about the mind and behavior, explore this section to find tips, advice, and valuable information.
Psychology Glossary
Psychologist Biographies
Branches of Psychology (73)
The Psychology of... (7)
Psychology Topics (52)
Education (52)
Psychological Testing (16)
Psychology News (5)
Intro to Psychology E-Course (11)
What Is Psychology?
When you hear the word psychology, what comes to mind? While psychology is a popular subject, a lot of people are not aware of the many elements of this broad and fascinating subject. Learn more about what psychology is and isn't and get a better idea about where psychology began and where it is today.


What Are the Four Major Goals of Psychology?
Psychology has four primary goals designed to help us better understand both human and animal behavior. Discover what these goals are and why they are so important.

Timeline of Modern Psychology
While the roots of psychology can be traced back to early Greek thought, psychology did not become a separate field until the 1870's. This psychology timeline traces important events in the history of psychology.

Introduction to Psychology
Do you think you might want to learn more about psychology? Discover some of the basics in this quick introduction to psychology!

10 Things You Need to Know About Psychology
Are you new to the study of psychology? It may seem like a vast and daunting topic at first, but understanding a few basic facts can make it easier to get started. Misconceptions about psychology are common, so learning the basics and clearing up a few common myths can help.

Learn Psychology
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Jeu 19 Juin - 5:07

What Is Psychology?
By Kendra Cherry
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What Is Psychology?
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Question: What Is Psychology?



There's a lot of confusion out there about psychology. According to some popular television programs and movies, psychologists are super-sleuths that can use their understanding of the human mind to solve crimes and predict a criminal's next move. Other popular depictions present the psychologist as a gray and bearded older gentleman, seated in a stately office lined with books, who spends his days listening to clients ramble on about their difficult childhoods.

So what's the truth about psychology? The fact is that there is a little bit of truth in these stereotypical portrayals, but there is actually a lot more to psychology than you might initially think. There is a tremendous diversity in psychology careers, and it is perhaps this enormous range of career paths that contributes to some of the misconceptions about psychology and what psychologists do. Sure, there are psychologists who help solve crimes and there are plenty of professionals who help people deal with mental health issues. But did you know that there are also psychologists who help create healthier workplaces or that design and implement public health programs? Or that there are others psychologists who investigate topics such as airplane safety, computer design, and military life?

Let's start by answering the basic question: What exactly is psychology?

Answer:

Psychology is both an applied and academic field that studies the human mind and behavior. Research in psychology seeks to understand and explain how we think, act and feel. As most people already realize, a large part of psychology is devoted to the diagnosis and treatment of mental health issues, but that's just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to applications for psychology. In addition to mental health, psychology can be applied to a variety of issues that impact health and daily life including performance enhancement, self-help, ergonomics, motivation, productivity, and much more.

Early Psychology

Psychology evolved out of both philosophy and biology. Discussions of these two subjects date as far back as the early Greek thinkers including Aristotle and Socrates. The word psychology is derived from the Greek word psyche, literally meaning 'life' or 'breath.' Derived meanings of the word include 'soul' or 'self.'

A Separate Science

The emergence of psychology as a separate and independent field of study truly came about when Wilhelm Wundt established the first experimental psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany in 1879.

Wundt's work was focused on describing the structures that compose the mind. This perspective relied heavily on the analysis of sensations and feelings through the use of introspection, a highly subjective process. Wundt believed that properly trained individuals would be able to accurately identify the mental processes that accompanied feelings, sensations and thoughts.

Schools of Thought

Throughout psychology's history, a number of different schools of thought have thought have formed to explain human thought and behavior. These schools of thought often rise to dominance for a period of time. While these schools of thought are sometimes perceived as competing forces, each perspective has contributed to our understanding of psychology. The following are some of the major schools of thought in psychology.

Structuralism
Functionalism
Psychoanalysis
Behaviorism
Humanism
Cognitivism
Psychology Today

Today, psychologists prefer to use more objective scientific methods to understand, explain, and predict human behavior. Psychological studies are highly structured, beginning with a hypothesis that is then empirically tested. The discipline has two major areas of focus: academic psychology and applied psychology. Academic psychology focuses on the study of different sub-topics within psychology including personality, social behavior and human development. These psychologists conduct basic research that seeks to expand our theoretical knowledge, while other researchers conduct applied research that seeks to solve everyday problems.

Applied psychology focuses on the use of different psychological principles to solve real world problems. Examples of applied areas of psychology include forensic psychology, ergonomics, and industrial-organizational psychology. Many other psychologists work as therapists, helping people overcome mental, behavioral, and emotional disorders.

Psychology Research Methods

As psychology moved away from its philosophical roots, psychologists began to employ more and more scientific methods to study human behavior. Contemporary researchers employ a variety of scientific techniques including experiments, correlational studies longitudinal research, and others to test, explain, and predict behavior.

Areas of Psychology

Psychology is a broad and diverse field. A number of different subfields and specialty areas have emerged. The following are some of the major areas of research and application within psychology:

Abnormal Psychology is the study of abnormal behavior and psychopathology. This specialty area is focused on research and treatment of a variety of mental disorders and is linked to psychotherapy, and clinical psychology.

Biological Psychology, also known as biopsychology, studies how biological processes influence the mind and behavior. This area is closely linked to neuroscience and utilizes tools such as MRI and PET scans to look at brain injury or brain abnormalities.

Clinical Psychology is focused on the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of mental disorders. It is also considered the largest employment area within psychology.

Cognitive Psychology is the study of human thought processes and cognitions. Cognitive psychologists study topics such as attention, memory, perception, decision-making, problem-solving, and language acquisition.

Comparative Psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the study of animal behavior. This type of research can lead to a deeper and broader understanding of human psychology.

Developmental Psychology is an area that looks at human growth and development over the lifespan. Theories often focus on the development of cognitive abilities, morality, social functioning, identity, and other life areas.

Forensic Psychology is an applied field focused on using psychological research and principles in the legal and criminal justice system.

Industrial-Organizational Psychology is a field that uses psychological research to enhance work performance, select employee, improve product design, and enhance usability.

Personality Psychology looks at the various elements that make up individual personalities. Well-known personality theories include Freud's structural model of personality and the "Big Five" theory of personality.

School Psychology is the branch of psychology that works within the educational system to help children with emotional, social, and academic issues.

Social Psychology is a discipline that uses scientific methods to study social influence, social perception and social interaction. Social psychology studies diverse subjects including group behavior, social perception, leadership, nonverbal behavior, conformity, aggression, and prejudice.
Like this article? Sign up for the Psychology Newsletter to get the latest psychology updates and to learn more about diverse topics including social behavior, personality, development, memory, creativity and much more.

This article is one of the resources included in the Psychology 101 WebQuest, a lesson plan designed for students grade eight and up. The WebQuest allows students to gather information about a specific topic and then utilize what they have learned to create a class presentation.

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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Jeu 19 Juin - 5:08

How Are Scores on IQ Tests Calculated?
By Kendra Cherry
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The Normal Distribution of IQ Scores

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Question: How Are Scores on IQ Tests Calculated?

Answer:

We talk a lot about IQ scores, but the fact is that many people are not quite sure what these scores really mean. What exactly is a "high" IQ score? What is an average IQ? What kind of score does it take to be considered a genius?

In order to adequately assess and interpret test scores, psychometritians use a process known as standardization. The standardization process involves administering the test to a representative sample of the entire population that will eventually take the test. Each test taker completes the test under the same conditions as all other participants in the sample group. This process allows psychometricians to establish norms, or standards, by which individual scores can be compared.

Intelligence test scores typically follow what is known as a normal distribution, a bell-shaped curve in which the majority of scores lie near or around the average score. For example, the majority of scores (about 68%) on the WAIS-III tend to lie between plus 15 or minus 15 points from the average score of 100. As you look further toward the extreme ends of the distribution, scores tend to become less common. Very few individuals (approximately 0.2%) receive a score of more than 145 (indicating a very high IQ) or less than 55 (indicating a very low IQ) on the test.

What Is Considered a High IQ?

The following is a rough breakdown of various IQ score ranges. However, it is important to remember that IQ tests are only one measure of intelligence. Many experts suggest that other important elements contribute to intelligence, including social and emotional factors.

115 to 129 - Above average; bright
130 to 144 - Moderately gifted
145 to 159 - Highly gifted
160 to 179 - Exceptionally gifted
180 and up - Profoundly gifted
Learn more about IQ:
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Jeu 19 Juin - 5:08

IQ or EQ: Which One Is More Important?
Traditional Intelligence versus Emotional Intelligence

By Kendra Cherry
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In his 1996 book Emotional Intelligence, author Daniel Goleman suggested that EQ (or emotional intelligence quotient) might actually be more important than IQ. Why? Some psychologists believe that standard measures of intelligence (i.e. IQ scores) are too narrow and do not encompass the full range of human intelligence. Instead, they suggest, the ability to understand and express emotions can play an equal if not even more important role in how people fare in life.

What's the Difference Between IQ and EQ?

Let's start by defining the two terms in order to understand what they mean and how they differ. IQ, or intelligence quotient, is a number derived from a standardized intelligence test. On the original IQ tests, scores were calculated by dividing the individual's mental age by his or her chronological age and then multiplying that number by 100. So a child with a mental age of 15 and a chronological age of 10 would have an IQ of 150. Today, scores on most IQ tests are calculated by comparing the test taker's score to the scores of other people in the same age group.

EQ, on the other hand, is a measure of a person's level of emotional intelligence. This refers to a person's ability to perceive, control, evaluate, and express emotions. Researchers such as John Mayer and Peter Salovey as well as writers like Daniel Goleman have helped shine a light on emotional intelligence, making it a hot topic in areas ranging from business management to education.

Since the 1990s, emotional intelligence has made the journey from a semi-obscure concept found in academic journals to a popularly recognized term. Today, you can buy toys that claim to help boost a child's emotional intelligence or enroll your kids in social and emotional learning (SEL) programs designed to teach emotional intelligence skills. In some schools in the United States, social and emotional learning is even a curriculum requirement.

So Which One Is More Important?

At one point in time, IQ was viewed as the primary determinant of success. People with high IQs were assumed to be destined for a life of accomplishment and achievement and researchers debated whether intelligence was the product of genes or the environment (the old nature versus nurture debate). However, some critics began to realize that not only was high intelligence no guarantee for success in life, it was also perhaps too narrow a concept to fully encompass the wide range of human abilities and knowledge.

IQ is still recognized as an important element of success, particularly when it comes to academic achievement. People with high IQs typically to do well in school, often earn more money, and tend to be healthier in general. But today experts recognize it is not the only determinate of life success. Instead, it is part of a complex array of influences that includes emotional intelligence among other things.

The concept of emotional intelligence has had a strong impact in a number of areas, including the business world. Many companies now mandate emotional intelligence training and utilize EQ tests as part of the hiring process. Research has found that individuals with strong leadership potential also tend to be more emotionally intelligent, suggesting that a high EQ is an important quality for business leaders and managers to have.

So you might be wondering, if emotional intelligence is so important, can it be taught or strengthened? According to one meta-analysis that looked at the results of social and emotional learning programs, the answer to that question is an unequivocal yes. The study found that approximately 50 percent of kids enrolled in SEL programs had better achievement scores and almost 40 percent showed improved grade-point-averages. These programs were also linked to lowered suspension rates, increased school attendance, and reduced disciplinary problems.

Observations

"…a national insurance company found that sales agents who were weak in emotional competencies such as self-confidence, initiative, and empathy sold policies with an average premium of $54,000. Not bad, right? Well, compared to agents who scored high in a majority of emotional competencies, they sold policies worth an average of $114,000."
(Cooper, 2013)

"Research carried out by the Carnegie Institute of Technology shows that 85 percent of your financial success is due to skills in “human engineering,” your personality and ability to communicate, negotiate, and lead. Shockingly, only 15 percent is due to technical knowledge. Additionally, Nobel Prize winning Israeli-American psychologist, Daniel Kahneman, found that people would rather do business with a person they like and trust rather than someone they don’t, even if the likeable person is offering a lower quality product or service at a higher price."
(Jensen, 2012)

"IQ alone is not enough; EQ also matters. In fact, psychologists generally agree that among the ingredients for success, IQ counts for roughly 10% (at best 25%); the rest depends on everything else—including EQ."
(Bressert, 2007)
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Jeu 19 Juin - 5:08

Does Brain Training Really Increase IQ?
By Kendra Cherry
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Brain training is big business. From online websites to video games to mobile apps, it seems like there are plenty of ways to give your brain a bit of a boost. But does all this brain training really work? Can it increase your cognitive abilities or your IQ?

According to a few recent studies, while these brain training tools might help sharpen your abilities to retain information, they won't necessarily increase your intelligence or improve your ability to reason and think abstractly.

Study Looks at the Impact of Test Prep on Intelligence

Students today take a wide variety of standardized tests, from assessments throughout elementary school to evaluations required for college admission. While test prep for such assessments can increase factual knowledge, one study suggests that this prep does little to increase overall IQ.

Why? While test preparation increases what psychologists refer to as crystallized intelligence, it does not increase what is known as fluid intelligence. Crystallized intelligence includes facts and information, while fluid intelligence involves the ability to think abstractly or logically.

In a study published in the journal Psychological Science, researchers looked at the IQ scores and test scores of approximately 1,400 eighth-grade students. While schoolwork helped increase the students' test scores, it had no effect on measures of fluid intelligence. The authors suggest that fluid intelligence is a much better indicator of abilities such as problem-solving ability, abstract thinking skills, memory capacity, and processing speed.

While the study found no indicator that test preparation improved IQ, that does not mean that this preparation has no value. Research clearly shows that having high scores on standardized tests is linked to having high scores on other important tests including Advanced Placement tests, the SAT, and the ACT.

Crystallized knowledge is also important for many areas of life, both in school and later on in the workforce. For example, factual knowledge is important for doing well in math classes and for later applying that knowledge in the real-world.

Study Suggests Brain Training May Not Increase Intelligence

In another study published in the Journal of Neuroscience, researchers found that while brain training games did increase performance on specific tasks, they didn't lead to a general improvement in overall intelligence. In the study, 60 participants were tested on their ability to withhold an action. After seeing a "go" signal indicating either left or right, the participants had to press a key corresponding to the correct direction. In about a quarter of the trials, however, a beep was sounded immediately after the go signal that meant that the participant was not supposed to press any key.

Compared to the control group, which received no such beep, the participants in the experimental group showed increased levels of activity in brain areas associated with inhibitory actions. However, the researchers saw no corresponding activity in areas of the brain associated with working memory.

According to the researchers, brain training games can result in a temporary increase in the ability to perform a specific task. However, they probably do not have much of an impact on overall intelligence.

Is Brain Training Worth It?

Given the results of such studies, you might be wondering if brain training has any value. After all, if it doesn't increase intelligence, then what good is it? While such brain training and other test prep instruction might not result in an increased IQ, it does increase knowledge and can improve abilities in specific areas.

So go ahead, sign up for that brain training website or download that brain-boosting app. Just be aware of what you are likely to get out of using such tools. Ignore false promises that suggest your IQ will soar and instead focus on increasing your factual knowledge, challenging yourself, and having a bit of fun.

Learn more about some common brain myths:

Do You Really Only Use 10 Percent of Your Brain?
Are People Really Left Brain or Right Brain Thinkers?
Does Drinking Alcohol Really Kill Brain Cells?
References:

Berkman, E. T., Kahn, L. E., & Merchant, J. S. (2014). Training-induced changes in inhibitory control network activity. The Journal of Neuroscience, 34, 149-157. doi: 10.1523/jneurosci.3564-13.2014

Harrison, T. L., Shipstead, Z., Hicks, K. L., Hambrick, D. Z., Redick, T. S. & Engle, R. W. (2013). Working memory training may increase working memory capacity but not fluid intelligence. Psychological Science, 24(12), 2409-2419. doi: 10.1177/0956797613492984

Nicholson, C. (2013, Dec. 19). Test prep doesn't help raise intelligence scores. Scientific American. Retreived from http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/test-prep-doesnt-help-raise-intelli-13-12-19/

Nicholson, C. (2014, Jan. 14). Brain-training games may not improve overall intelligence. Scientific American. Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/brain-training-games-may-not-improv-14-01-14/

More About Intelligence
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Jeu 19 Juin - 5:09

Steps of the Scientific Method
The Scientific Method in Psychology Research

By Kendra Cherry
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Psychologists and other social scientists regularly propose explanations for human behavior. On a more informal level, people make judgments about the intentions, motivations and actions of others on a daily basis. While the everyday judgments we make about human behavior are subjective and anecdotal, researchers use the scientific method to study psychology in an objective and systematic way. The results of these studies are often reported in popular media, which leads many to wonder just how or why researchers arrived at the conclusions they did.

In order to truly understand how psychologists and other researchers reach these conclusions, you need to know more about the research process that is used to study psychology and the basic steps that are utilized when conducting any type of psychological research. By knowing the steps of the scientific method, you can better understand the process researchers go through to arrive at conclusions about human behavior.

What Is the Scientific Method?

The goals of psychological studies are to describe, explain, predict and perhaps influence mental processes or behaviors. In order to do this, psychologists utilize the scientific method to conduct psychological research. The scientific method is a set of principles and procedures that are used by researchers to develop questions, collect data and reach conclusions.

What are the goals of scientific research in psychology? Researchers seek not only to describe behaviors and explain why these behaviors occur; they also strive to create research that can be used to predict and even change human behavior.

Key Terms to Know

Hypothesis: An educated guess about the possible relationship between two or more variables.

Variable: A factor or element that can change in observable and measurable ways.

Operational Definition: A full description of exactly how variables are defined, how they will be manipulated, and how they will be measured.
Before a researcher can begin, they must choose a topic to study. Once an area of interest has been chosen, the researchers must then conduct a thorough review of the existing literature on the subject. This review will provide valuable information about what has already been learned about the topic and what questions remain to be answered.

A literature review might involve looking at a considerable amount of written material from both books and academic journals dating back decades. The relevant information collected by the researcher will be presented in the introduction section of the final published study results. This background material will also help the researcher with the first major step in conducting a psychology study — formulating a hypothesis.

Step 1 – Forming a Testable Hypothesis
Step 2 – Devise a Study and Collect Data
Step 3 – Examine Data and Reach Conclusions
Step 4 – Report the Findings of the Study

More About Psychology Research Methods
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Jeu 19 Juin - 5:10

How to Conduct a Psychology Experiment
By Kendra Cherry
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Do you need to perform an experiment for your psychology class? Don't panic! Learn more about ten of the steps you should follow in order to successfully complete a psychology experiment.

Image courtesy http://www.flickr.com/photos/saphirai/
Conducting your first psychology experiment can be a long, complicated, and intimidating process. It can be especially confusing if you are not quite sure where to begin or which steps to take. Like other sciences, psychology utilizes the scientific method and bases conclusions upon empirical evidence. When conducting an experiment, it is important to follow the five basic steps of the scientific method:

Ask a question that can be tested
Design a study and collect data
Analyze results and reach conclusions
Share the results with the scientific community
Replicate the results
These five steps serve as a general outline of the entire process. Continue reading by clicking the link below to get more details the ten steps you should follow while conducting your psychology experiment.

Step 1: Find a Problem or Question to Research

http://psychology.about.com/od/researchmethods/ss/conducting-psychology-experiments.htm
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Jeu 19 Juin - 5:10

Sleep – Stages, Theories & Problems with Sleep
By Kendra Cherry
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From the ancient philosophers to modern pop culture, the nature and significance of sleep is an almost inescapable question. Understanding the sleep process as well and why we sleep is a topic of interest for many, while exploring some of the major problems with sleep is a topic of interest to anyone who has ever spent a restless night tossing and turning.

Stages of Sleep:

When you think of sleep, you might feel that it is a fairly uniform process. After all, you just fall asleep and that’s that, right? Not exactly. In reality, sleep progresses through a number of different stages that are marked by distinctive changes in brain activity. Learn more about these stages of sleep, the characteristics of each unique stage and the pattern that occurs during a typical night of sleep.

Why We Sleep:

While there are a several different theories to explain why we sleep, scientists are still do not have a hard and fast answer for exactly why we sleep. One of the major theories suggests sleep is important for repair and restoration of the mind and body. Learn more about some of these major theories of sleep in order to further explore this fascinating topic.

Problems with Sleep:

Anyone who has ever experienced a bout of insomnia knows that falling and staying asleep isn’t always so easy. Sleep disorders are a relatively common problem. Severe problems with sleep have even been linked to major depression and even suicide. Consider some of these common sleep disorders in order to learn about potential problems and possible causes for these problems with sleep.

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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Jeu 19 Juin - 5:11

What is Consciousness?
By Kendra Cherry
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Question: What is Consciousness?

Answer: Consciousness refers to your individual awareness of your unique thoughts, memories, feelings, sensations and environment. Your conscious experiences are constantly shifting and changing. For example, in one moment you may be focused on reading this article. Your consciousness may then shift to the memory of a conversation you had earlier with a co-worker. Next, you might notice how uncomfortable your chair is or maybe you are mentally planning dinner. This ever-shifting stream of thoughts can change dramatically from one moment to the next, but your experience of it seems smooth and effortless.

The conscious experience was one of the first topics studied by early psychologists. Structuralists used a process known as introspection to analyze and report conscious sensations, thoughts, and experiences. American psychologist William James compared consciousness to a stream; unbroken and continuous despite constant shifts and changes. While the focus of much of the research in psychology shifted to purely observable behaviors during the first half of the twentieth century, research on human consciousness has grown tremendously since the 1950s.

What aspects of consciousness to researchers study? Topics such as sleep, dreams, hypnosis, and the affects of psychoactive drugs are just a few of the major topics studied by psychologists.

More About Consciousness
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Jeu 19 Juin - 5:11

Dreams
Characteristics, Theories and Interpretations of Dreams

By Kendra Cherry
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Dreams can be both fascinating and baffling, which is why they have garnered attention from philosophers, artists, writers and poets for thousands of years. Only fairly recently in history have researchers began to scientifically study the dreaming process. While people still disagree about the exact purpose of dreams and the possible interpretations of dream content, this area remains a topic of interest for both psychologists, researchers, students and anyone who wonders about the reasons behind their dreams.
The Characteristics of Dreams
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Sleep researcher J. Allan Hobson has identified a number of key characteristics of dreams. While many of these characteristics may seem familiar, you might not be aware of just how common these features really are. Are your dreams emotionally charged, disorganized, bizarre and difficult to remember? Then you are already familiar with just a few of the most features most commonly found in dreams.

Learn more about the five major characteristics of dreams in this article.

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Theories of Dreams
Have you ever wondered why you dream? This question has fascinated people since the beginning of recorded history, but today we still don't fully understand the purpose of dreams.

Possible explanations for why we dream include:

To represent unconscious desires and wishes
To interpret random signals from the brain and body during sleep
To consolidate and process information gathered during the day
To work as a form of psychotherapy
Learn more about some of the most prominent theories of dreams.

Dream Meanings and Interpretations
Do you often find yourself wondering exactly why you dreamed what you did, especially after having a particularly strange dream? Despite the research and interest in dreaming, no one yet fully understands how to interpret dream meanings. Sigmund Freud’s theory of dreams contributed a great deal to the general interest in dream interpretation. Books and dream dictionaries have helped ensure that the topic remains popular today.

Learn more about some of the top theories that have emerged to explain the content of our dreams.

States of Consciousness
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Jeu 19 Juin - 5:12

What Is a Neuron?
By Kendra Cherry
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Question: What Is a Neuron?
Answer:
A neuron is a nerve cell that is the basic building block of the nervous system. Neurons are similar to other cells in the human body in a number of ways, but there is one key difference between neurons and other cells. Neurons are specialized to transmit information throughout the body.

These highly specialized nerve cells are responsible for communicating information in both chemical and electrical forms. There are also several different types of neurons responsible for different tasks in the human body.

Sensory neurons carry information from the sensory receptor cells throughout the body to the brain. Motor neurons transmit information from the brain to the muscles of the body. Interneurons are responsible for communicating information between different neurons in the body.

Neurons vs. Other Cells

Similarities with other cells:

Neurons and other body cells both contain a nucleus that holds genetic information.

Neurons and other body cells are surrounded by a membrane that protects the cell.

The cell bodies of both cell types contain organelles that support the life of the cell, including mitochondria, Golgi bodies, and cytoplasm.
Differences that make neurons unique:

Unlike other body cells, neurons stop reproducing shortly after birth. Because of this, some parts of the brain have more neurons at birth than later in life because neurons die but are not replaced. While neurons do not reproduce, research has shown that new connections between neurons form throughout life.

Neurons have a membrane that is designed to sends information to other cells. The axon and dendrites are specialized structures designed to transmit and receive information. The connections between cells are known as a synapses. Neurons release chemicals known as neurotransmitters into these synapses to communicate with other neurons.
The Structure of a Neuron

There are three basic parts of a neuron: the dendrites, the cell body and the axon. However, all neurons vary somewhat in size, shape, and characteristics depending on the function and role of the neuron. Some neurons have few dendritic branches, while others are highly branched in order to receive a great deal of information. Some neurons have short axons, while others can be quite long. The longest axon in the human body extends from the bottom of the spine to the big toe and averages a length of approximately three feet!

Learn more about the structure of a neuron.

Action Potentials

How do neurons transmit and receive information? In order for neurons to communicate, they need to transmit information both within the neuron and from one neuron to the next. This process utilizes both electrical signals as well as chemical messengers.

The dendrites of neurons receive information from sensory receptors or other neurons. This information is then passed down to the cell body and on to the axon. Once the information as arrived at the axon, it travels down the length of the axon in the form of an electrical signal known as an action potential.

Communication Between Synapses

Once an electrical impulse has reached the end of an axon, the information must be transmitted across the synaptic gap to the dendrites of the adjoining neuron. In some cases, the electrical signal can almost instantaneously bridge the gap between the neurons and continue along its path.

In other cases, neurotransmitters are needed to send the information from one neuron to the next. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that are released from the axon terminals to cross the synaptic gap and reach the receptor sites of other neurons. In a process known as reuptake, these neurotransmitters attach to the receptor site and are reabsorbed by the neuron to be reused.

Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters are an essential part of our everyday functioning. While it is not known exactly how many neurotransmitters exist, scientists have identified more than 100 of these chemical messengers.

What effects do each of these neurotransmitters have on the body? What happens when disease or drugs interfere with these chemical messengers? The following are just a few of the major neurotransmitters, their known effects, and disorders they are associated with.

Acetylcholine: Associated with memory, muscle contractions, and learning. A lack of acetylcholine in the brain is associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

Endorphins: Associated with emotions and pain perception. The body releases endorphins in response to fear or trauma. These chemical messengers are similar to opiate drugs such as morphine, but are significantly stronger.

Dopamine: Associated with thought and pleasurable feelings. Parkinson’s disease is one illness associated with deficits in dopamine, while schizophrenia is strongly linked to excessive amounts of this chemical messenger.

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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Jeu 19 Juin - 5:13

http://psychology.about.com/od/biopsychology/ss/brainstructure.htm

What is Consciousness?
By Kendra Cherry
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Question: What is Consciousness?

Answer: Consciousness refers to your individual awareness of your unique thoughts, memories, feelings, sensations and environment. Your conscious experiences are constantly shifting and changing. For example, in one moment you may be focused on reading this article. Your consciousness may then shift to the memory of a conversation you had earlier with a co-worker. Next, you might notice how uncomfortable your chair is or maybe you are mentally planning dinner. This ever-shifting stream of thoughts can change dramatically from one moment to the next, but your experience of it seems smooth and effortless.

The conscious experience was one of the first topics studied by early psychologists. Structuralists used a process known as introspection to analyze and report conscious sensations, thoughts, and experiences. American psychologist William James compared consciousness to a stream; unbroken and continuous despite constant shifts and changes. While the focus of much of the research in psychology shifted to purely observable behaviors during the first half of the twentieth century, research on human consciousness has grown tremendously since the 1950s.

What aspects of consciousness to researchers study? Topics such as sleep, dreams, hypnosis, and the affects of psychoactive drugs are just a few of the major topics studied by psychologists.

More About Consciousness
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Jeu 19 Juin - 5:13

http://psychology.about.com/od/biopsychology/ig/Neurotransmitters/
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Lun 23 Juin - 16:50

Schedules of Reinforcement
Reinforcement Schedules and How They Work

By Kendra Cherry
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In operant conditioning, schedules of reinforcement are an important component of the learning process. When and how often we reinforce a behavior can have a dramatic impact on the strength and rate of the response.

A schedule of reinforcement is basically a rule stating which instances of a behavior will be reinforced. In some case, a behavior might be reinforced every time it occurs. Sometimes, a behavior might not be reinforced at all. Either positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement might be used, depending on the situation. In both cases, the goal of reinforcement is always to strengthen the behavior and increase the likelihood that it will occur again in the future.

In real-world settings, behaviors are probably not going to be reinforced each and every time they occur. For situations where you are purposely trying to train and reinforce an action, such as in the classroom, in sports or in animal training, you might opt to follow a specific reinforcement schedule. As you'll see below, some schedules are best suited to certain types of training situations. In some cases, training might call for starting out with one schedule and switching to another once the desired behavior has been taught.



Certain schedules of reinforcement may be more effective in specific situations. There are two types of reinforcement schedules:

1. Continuous Reinforcement

In continuous reinforcement, the desired behavior is reinforced every single time it occurs. Generally, this schedule is best used during the initial stages of learning in order to create a strong association between the behavior and the response. Once the response if firmly attached, reinforcement is usually switched to a partial reinforcement schedule.

2. Partial Reinforcement

In partial reinforcement, the response is reinforced only part of the time. Learned behaviors are acquired more slowly with partial reinforcement, but the response is more resistant to extinction.

There are four schedules of partial reinforcement:

Fixed-ratio schedules are those where a response is reinforced only after a specified number of responses. This schedule produces a high, steady rate of responding with only a brief pause after the delivery of the reinforcer. An example of a fixed-ratio schedule would be delivering a food pellet to a rat after it presses a bar five times.

Variable-ratio schedules occur when a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses. This schedule creates a high steady rate of responding. Gambling and lottery games are good examples of a reward based on a variable ratio schedule. In a lab setting, this might involved delivering food pellets to a rat after one bar press, again after four bar presses, and a third pellet after two bar presses.

Fixed-interval schedules are those where the first response is rewarded only after a specified amount of time has elapsed. This schedule causes high amounts of responding near the end of the interval, but much slower responding immediately after the delivery of the reinforcer. An example of this in a lab setting would be reinforcing a rat with a lab pellet for the first bar press after a 30 second interval has elapsed.

Variable-interval schedules occur when a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed. This schedule produces a slow, steady rate of response. An example of this would be delivering a food pellet to a rat after the first bar press following a one minute interval, another pellet for the first response following a five minute interval, and a third food pellet for the first response following a three minute interval.
Choosing a Schedule

Deciding when to reinforce a behavior can depend upon a number of factors. In cases where you are specifically trying to teach a new behavior, a continuous schedule is often a good choice. Once the behavior has been learned, switching to a partial schedule is often preferable.

Realistically, reinforcing a behavior every single time it occurs can be difficult and requires a great deal of attention and resources. Partial schedules not only tend to lead to behaviors that are more resistant to extinction, they also reduce the risk that the subject will become satiated. If the reinforcer being used is no longer desired or rewarding, the subject may stop performing the desired behavior. For example, imagine that you are trying to teach a dog to sit. If you are using food as a reward, the dog might stop performing the action once he is full. In such instances, something like praise or attention might be a more effective reinforcer.

References
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Lun 23 Juin - 16:50

Introduction to Classical Conditioning
How It Works and a Few Examples of It In Action

By Kendra Cherry
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Classical conditioning is a type of learning that had a major influence on the school of thought in psychology known as behaviorism. Discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.

Behaviorism is based on the assumption that learning occurs through interactions with the environment. Two other assumptions of this theory are that the environment shapes behavior and that taking internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings, and emotions into consideration is useless in explaining behavior.

It's important to note that classical conditioning involves placing a neutral signal before a naturally occurring reflex. In Pavlov's classic experiment with dogs, the neutral signal was the sound of a tone and the naturally occurring reflex was salivating in response to food. By associating the neutral stimulus with the environmental stimulus (the presentation of food), the sound of the tone alone could produce the salivation response.

In order to understand how more about how classical conditioning works, it is important to be familiar with the basic principles of the process.

The Unconditioned Stimulus

The unconditioned stimulus is one that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response. For example, when you smell one of your favorite foods, you may immediately feel very hungry. In this example, the smell of the food is the unconditioned stimulus.

The Unconditioned Response

The unconditioned response is the unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus. In our example, the feeling of hunger in response to the smell of food is the unconditioned response.

The Conditioned Stimulus

The conditioned stimulus is previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response. In our earlier example, suppose that when you smelled your favorite food, you also heard the sound of a whistle. While the whistle is unrelated to the smell of the food, if the sound of the whistle was paired multiple times with the smell, the sound would eventually trigger the conditioned response. In this case, the sound of the whistle is the conditioned stimulus.

The Conditioned Response

The conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus. In our example, the conditioned response would be feeling hungry when you heard the sound of the whistle.

Examples of Classical Conditioning

It can be helpful to look at a few examples of how the classical conditioning process operates both in experimental and real-worlds settings:

Classical Conditioning a Fear Response

One of the most famous examples of classical conditioning was John B. Watson's experiment in which a fear response was conditioned in a young boy known as Little Albert. The child initially showed no fear of a white rat, but after the presentation of the rat was paired repeatedly with loud, scary sounds, the child would cry when the rat was present. The child's fear also generalized to other fuzzy white objects.

Let's examine the elements of this classic experiment. Prior to the conditioning, the white rat was a neutral stimulus. The unconditioned stimulus was the loud, clanging sounds and the unconditioned response was the fear response created by the noise. By repeatedly pairing the rat with the unconditioned stimulus, the white rat (now the conditioned stimulus) came to evoke the fear response (now the conditioned response).

You can learn more about this famous study in this overview of the Little Albert experiment as well as some more information on the controversy about Little Albert.

This experiment illustrates how phobias can form through classical conditioning. In many cases, a single pairing of a neutral stimulus (a dog, for example) and a frightening experience (being bitten by the dog) can lead to a lasting phobia (being afraid of dogs).

Classically Conditioning Taste Aversions

Another example of classical conditioning can be seen in the development of conditioned taste aversions. Researchers John Garcia and Bob Koelling first noticed this phenomenon when they observed how rats that had been exposed to a nausea-causing radiation developed an aversion to flavored water after the radiation and the water were presented together. In this example, the radiation represents the unconditioned stimulus and the nausea represents the unconditioned response. After the pairing of the two, the flavored water is the conditioned stimulus, while the nausea that formed when exposed to the water alone is the conditioned response.

Later research demonstrated that such classically conditioned aversions could be produced through a single pairing of the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus. Researchers also found that such aversions can even develop if the conditioned stimulus (the taste of the food) is presented several hours before the unconditioned stimulus (the nausea-causing stimulus). Why do such associations develop so quickly? Obviously, forming such associations can have survival benefits for the organism. If an animal eats something that makes it ill, it needs to avoid eating the same food in the future to avoid sickness or even death. This is a great example of what is known as biological preparedness. Some associations form more readily because they aid in survival.

In one famous field study, researchers injected sheep carcasses with a poison that would make coyotes sick but not kill them. The goal was help sheep ranchers reduce the number of sheep lost to coyote killings. Not only did the experiment work by lowering the number of sheep killed, it also caused some of the coyotes to develop such a strong aversion to sheep that they would actually run away at the scent or sight of a sheep.

Classical Conditioning in the Real World

In reality, people do not respond exactly like Pavlov's dogs. There are, however, numerous real-world applications for classical conditioning. For example, many dog trainers use classical conditioning techniques to help people train their pets.

These techniques are also useful in the treatment of phobias or anxiety problems. Teachers are able to apply classical conditioning in the class by creating a positive classroom environment to help students overcome anxiety or fear. Pairing an anxiety-provoking situation, such as performing in front of a group, with pleasant surroundings helps the student learn new associations. Instead of feeling anxious and tense in these situations, the child will learn to stay relaxed and calm.

More About Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning can be used to increase the amount of a behavior, but it can also be used to decrease behavior. Learn more about some of the basic principles of classical conditioning.

You can also explore the following links for further information:

What's the Difference Between Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning?
Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning Study Guide
What Is Behaviorism?
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Lun 23 Juin - 16:51

Principles of Classical Conditioning
By Kendra Cherry
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Behaviorists have described a number of different phenomena associated with classical conditioning. Some of these elements involve the initial establishment of the response, while others describe the disappearance of a response. These elements are important in understanding the classical conditioning process.

Acquisition

Acquisition is the initial stage of learning when a response is first established and gradually strengthened. For example, imagine that you are conditioning a dog to salivate in response to the sound of a bell. You repeatedly pair the presentation of food with the sound of the bell. You can say the response has been acquired as soon as the dog begins to salivate in response to the bell tone. Once the response has been acquired, you can gradually reinforce the salivation response to make sure the behavior is well learned.

Extinction

Extinction is when the occurrences of a conditioned response decrease or disappear. In classical conditioning, this happens when a conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus. For example, if the smell of food (the unconditioned stimulus) had been paired with the sound of a whistle (the conditioned stimulus), it would eventually come to evoke the conditioned response of hunger. However, if the unconditioned stimulus (the smell of food) were no longer paired with the conditioned stimulus (the whistle), eventually the conditioned response (hunger) would disappear.

Sponteneous Recovery

Spontaneous Recovery is the reappearance of the conditioned response after a rest period or period of lessened response. If the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are no longer associated, extinction will occur very rapidly after a spontaneous recovery.

Stimulus Generalization

Stimulus Generalization is the tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned. For example, if a child has been conditioned to fear a stuffed white rabbit, the child will exhibit fear of objects similar to the conditioned stimulus.

Discrimination

Discrimination is the ability to differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that have not been paired with an unconditioned stimulus. For example, if a bell tone were the conditioned stimulus, discrimination would involve being able to tell the difference between the bell tone and other similar sounds.
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Lun 23 Juin - 16:51

Social Learning Theory
An Overview of Bandura's Social Learning Theory

By Kendra Cherry
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"Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action."
-Albert Bandura, Social Learning Theory, 1977

What is Social Learning Theory?

The social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura has become perhaps the most influential theory of learning and development. While rooted in many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory, Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning.

His theory added a social element, arguing that people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people. Known as observational learning (or modeling), this type of learning can be used to explain a wide variety of behaviors.

Basic Social Learning Concepts

There are three core concepts at the heart of social learning theory. First is the idea that people can learn through observation. Next is the idea that internal mental states are an essential part of this process. Finally, this theory recognizes that just because something has been learned, it does not mean that it will result in a change in behavior.

Let's explore each of these concepts in greater depth.

1. People can learn through observation.

Observational Learning




In his famous Bobo doll experiment, Bandura demonstrated that children learn and imitate behaviors they have observed in other people. The children in Bandura’s studies observed an adult acting violently toward a Bobo doll. When the children were later allowed to play in a room with the Bobo doll, they began to imitate the aggressive actions they had previously observed.

Bandura identified three basic models of observational learning:

A live model, which involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out a behavior.
A verbal instructional model, which involves descriptions and explanations of a behavior.
A symbolic model, which involves real or fictional characters displaying behaviors in books, films, television programs, or online media.
2. Mental states are important to learning.

Intrinsic Reinforcement

Bandura noted that external, environmental reinforcement was not the only factor to influence learning and behavior. He described intrinsic reinforcement as a form of internal reward, such as pride, satisfaction, and a sense of accomplishment. This emphasis on internal thoughts and cognitions helps connect learning theories to cognitive developmental theories. While many textbooks place social learning theory with behavioral theories, Bandura himself describes his approach as a 'social cognitive theory.'

3. Learning does not necessarily lead to a change in behavior.

While behaviorists believed that learning led to a permanent change in behavior, observational learning demonstrates that people can learn new information without demonstrating new behaviors.

The Modeling Process

Not all observed behaviors are effectively learned. Factors involving both the model and the learner can play a role in whether social learning is successful. Certain requirements and steps must also be followed. The following steps are involved in the observational learning and modeling process:

Attention:
In order to learn, you need to be paying attention. Anything that detracts your attention is going to have a negative effect on observational learning. If the model interesting or there is a novel aspect to the situation, you are far more likely to dedicate your full attention to learning.

Retention:
The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning.

Reproduction:
Once you have paid attention to the model and retained the information, it is time to actually perform the behavior you observed. Further practice of the learned behavior leads to improvement and skill advancement.

Motivation:
Finally, in order for observational learning to be successful, you have to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement and punishment play an important role in motivation. While experiencing these motivators can be highly effective, so can observing other experience some type of reinforcement or punishment. For example, if you see another student rewarded with extra credit for being to class on time, you might start to show up a few minutes early each day.
Final Thoughts

In addition to influencing other psychologists, Bandura's social learning theory has had important implication in the field of eduction. Today, both teachers and parents recognize the importance of modeling appropriate behaviors. Other classroom strategies such as encouraging children and building self-efficacy are also rooted in social learning theory.

Did You Know?

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Masculin Nombre de messages : 19987
Date d'inscription : 17/05/2007

MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Lun 23 Juin - 16:51

Classical vs Operant Conditioning
The Differences Between Classical and Operant Conditioning

By Kendra Cherry
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Classical and operant conditioning are two important concepts central to behavioral psychology. While both result in learning, the processes are quite different. In order to understand how each of these behavior modification techniques can be used, it is also essential to understand how classical conditioning and operant conditioning differ from one another.

Let's start by looking at some of the most basic differences.

Classical Conditioning

First described by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist

Involves placing a neutral signal before a reflex

Focuses on involuntary, automatic behaviors
Operant Conditioning

First described by B. F. Skinner, an American psychologist

Involves applying reinforcement or punishment after a behavior

Focuses on strengthening or weakening voluntary behaviors
How Classical Conditioning Works

Even if you are not a psychology student, you have probably at least heard about Pavlov's dogs. In his famous experiment, Ivan Pavlov noticed dogs began to salivate in response to a tone after the sound had been repeatedly paired with the presentation of food. Pavlov quickly realized that this was a learned response and set out to further investigate the conditioning process.

Classical conditioning involves pairing a previously neutral stimulus (such as the sound of a bell) with an unconditioned stimulus (the taste of food). This unconditioned stimulus naturally and automatically triggers salivating as a response to the food, which is known as the unconditioned response. After associating the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, the sound of the bell alone will start to evoke salivating as a response. The sound of the bell is now known as the conditioned stimulus and salivating in response to the bell is known as the conditioned response.

How Operant Conditioning Works

Operant conditioning focuses on using either reinforcement or punishment to increase or decrease a behavior. Through this process, an association is formed between the behavior and the consequences for that behavior. For example, imagine that a trainer is trying to teach a dog to fetch a ball. When the dog successful chases and picks up the ball, the dog receives praise as a reward. When the animal fails to retrieve the ball, the trainer withholds the praise. Eventually, the dog forms an association between his behavior of fetching the ball and receiving the desired reward.

The Differences Between Classical and Operant Conditioning

One of the simplest ways to remember the differences between classical and operant conditioning is to focus on whether the behavior is involuntary or voluntary. Classical conditioning involves making an association between an involuntary response and a stimulus, while operant conditioning is about making an association between a voluntary behavior and a consequence.

In operant conditioning, the learner is also rewarded with incentives, while classical conditioning involves no such enticements. Also remember that classical conditioning is passive on the part of the learner, while operant conditioning requires the learner to actively participate and perform some type of action in order to be rewarded or punished.

Today, both classical and operant conditioning are utilized for a variety of purposes by teachers, parents, psychologists, animal trainers and many others. In animal training, a trainer might utilize classical conditioning by repeatedly pairing the sound of a clicker with the taste of food. Eventually, the sound of the clicker alone will begin to produce the same response that the taste of food would.

In a classroom setting, a teacher might utilize operant conditioning by offering tokens as rewards for good behavior. Students can then turn in these tokens to receive some type of reward such as treat or extra play time.

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