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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Mar 1 Juil - 16:08

Explanations for Forgetting
Reasons Why We Forget

By Kendra Cherry
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What are some of the major reasons why we forget information? One of today's best known memory researchers, Elizabeth Loftus, has identified four major reasons why people forget: retrieval failure, interference, failure to store, and motivated forgetting.
1. Retrieval Failure
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Have you ever felt like a piece of information has just vanished from memory? Or maybe you know that it's there, you just can't seem to find it. The inability to retrieve a memory is one of the most common causes of forgetting.

So why are we often unable to retrieve information from memory. One possible explanation retrieval failure is known as decay theory. According to this theory, a memory trace is created every time a new theory is formed. Decay theory suggests that over time, these memory traces begin to fade and disappear. If information is not retrieved and rehearsed, it will eventually be lost.

One problem with this theory, however, is that research has demonstrated that even memories which have not been rehearsed or remembered are remarkably stable in long-term memory.

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2. Interferance
Another theory known as interference theory suggests that some memories compete and interfere with other memories. When information is very similar to other information that was previously stored in memory, interference is more likely to occur.

There are two basic types of interference:

Proactive interference is when an old memory makes it more difficult or impossible to remember a new memory.

Retroactive interference occurs when new information interferes with your ability to remember previously learned information.
3. Failure to Store
Sometimes, losing information has less to do with forgetting and more to do with the fact that it never made it into long-term memory in the first place. Encoding failures sometimes prevent information from entering long-term memory.

In one well-known experiment, researchers asked participants to identify the correct U.S. penny out of a group of incorrect pennies (Nickerson & Adams). Try doing this experiment yourself by attempting to draw a penny from memory, and then compare your results to an actual penny.

How well did you do? Chances are that you were able to remember the shape and color, but you probably forgot other minor details. The reason for this is that only details necessary for distinguishing pennies from other coins were encoded into your long-term memory.

4. Motivated Forgetting
Sometimes, we may actively work to forget memories, especially those of traumatic or disturbing events or experiences. The two basic forms of motivated forgetting are: suppression, a conscious form of forgetting, and repression, an unconscious form of forgetting.

However, the concept of repressed memories is not universally accepted by all psychologists. One of the problems with repressed memories is that it is difficult, if not impossible, to scientifically study whether or not a memory has been repressed. Also note that mental activities such as rehearsal and remembering are important ways of strengthening a memory, and memories of painful or traumatic life events are far less likely to be remembered, discussed, or rehearsed.
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Mar 1 Juil - 16:09

Forgetting : When Memory Fails
By Kendra Cherry
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From forgetting where you left your keys to forgetting to return a phone call, memory failures are an almost daily occurrence. Forgetting is so common that we typically rely on numerous methods to help us remember important information such as jotting down notes in a daily planner or scheduling important events on your phone's calendar.
As you are frantically searching for your missing car keys, it may seem that that the information about where you left them is permanently gone from your memory. However, forgetting is generally not about actually losing or erasing this information from your long-term memory. Forgetting typically involves a failure in memory retrieval. While the information is somewhere in your long-term memory, you are not able to actually retrieve and remember it.
The Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve:

Psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus was one of the first to scientifically study forgetting. In experiments where is used himself as the subject, Ebbinghaus tested his memory using three-letter nonsense syllables. He relied on such nonsense words because relying on previously known words would have made use of his existing knowledge and associations in his memory.
In order to test for new information, Ebbinghaus tested his memory for periods of time ranging from 20 minutes to 31 days. He then published his findings in 1885 in Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology.
His results, plotted in what is known as the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve, revealed a relationship between forgetting and time. Initially, information is often lost very quickly after it is learned. Factors such as how the information was learned and how frequently it was rehearsed play a role in how quickly these memories are lost.
The forgetting curve also showed that forgetting does not continue to decline until all of the information is lost. At a certain point, the amount of forgetting levels off. What exactly does this mean? It indicates that information stored in long-term memory is surprisingly stable.
Why We Forget:

Of course, many factors can help contribute to forgetting. Sometimes you might be distracted when you learn new information, which might mean that you never truly retain the information long enough to remember it later. Well-known memory researcher Elizabeth Loftus has proposed four key explanations for why forgetting occurs. Learn more about some of the most common explanations for forgetting.
More About Memory
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Lun 14 Juil - 9:13

What Is Self-Efficacy?
By Kendra Cherry
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The concept of self-efficacy lies at the center of psychologist Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory. Bandura’s theory emphasizes the role of observational learning, social experience, and reciprocal determinism in the development of personality.

According to Bandura, a person’s attitudes, abilities, and cognitive skills comprise what is known as the self-system. This system plays a major role in how we perceive situations and how we behave in response to different situations. Self-efficacy plays is an essential part of this self-system.

What Is Self-Efficacy?

According to Albert Bandura, self-efficacy is "the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations." In other words, self-efficacy is a person’s belief in his or her ability to succeed in a particular situation. Bandura described these beliefs as determinants of how people think, behave, and feel (1994).

Since Bandura published his seminal 1977 paper, "Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change," the subject has become one of the most studied topics in psychology. Why has self-efficacy become such an important topic among psychologists and educators? As Bandura and other researchers have demonstrated, self-efficacy can have an impact on everything from psychological states to behavior to motivation.

The Role of Self-Efficacy

Virtually all people can identify goals they want to accomplish, things they would like to change, and things they would like to achieve. However, most people also realize that putting these plans into action is not quite so simple. Bandura and others have found that an individual’s self-efficacy plays a major role in how goals, tasks, and challenges are approached.

People with a strong sense of self-efficacy:

View challenging problems as tasks to be mastered
Develop deeper interest in the activities in which they participate
Form a stronger sense of commitment to their interests and activities
Recover quickly from setbacks and disappointments
People with a weak sense of self-efficacy:

Avoid challenging tasks
Believe that difficult tasks and situations are beyond their capabilities
Focus on personal failings and negative outcomes
Quickly lose confidence in personal abilities
Sources of Self-Efficacy

How does self-efficacy develop? These beliefs begin to form in early childhood as children deal with a wide variety of experiences, tasks, and situations. However, the growth of self-efficacy does not end during youth, but continues to evolve throughout life as people acquire new skills, experiences, and understanding.

According to Bandura, there are four major sources of self-efficacy.

1. Mastery Experiences

"The most effective way of developing a strong sense of efficacy is through mastery experiences," Bandura explained. Performing a task successfully strengthens our sense of self-efficacy. However, failing to adequately deal with a task or challenge can undermine and weaken self-efficacy.

2. Social Modeling

Witnessing other people successfully completing a task is another important source of self-efficacy. According to Bandura, "Seeing people similar to oneself succeed by sustained effort raises observers' beliefs that they too possess the capabilities master comparable activities to succeed."

3. Social Persuasion

Bandura also asserted that people could be persuaded to believe that they have the skills and capabilities to succeed. Consider a time when someone said something positive and encouraging that helped you achieve a goal. Getting verbal encouragement from others helps people overcome self-doubt and instead focus on giving their best effort to the task at hand.

4. Psychological Responses

Our own responses and emotional reactions to situations also play an important role in self-efficacy. Moods, emotional states, physical reactions, and stress levels can all impact how a person feels about their personal abilities in a particular situation. A person who becomes extremely nervous before speaking in public may develop a weak sense of self-efficacy in these situations.

However, Bandura also notes "it is not the sheer intensity of emotional and physical reactions that is important but rather how they are perceived and interpreted." By learning how to minimize stress and elevate mood when facing difficult or challenging tasks, people can improve their sense of self-efficacy.
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Lun 14 Juil - 9:13

The Id, Ego and Superego
The Structural Model of Personality

By Kendra Cherry
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According to Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality, personality is composed of three elements. These three elements of personality--known as the id, the ego and the superego--work together to create complex human behaviors.

The Id

The id is the only component of personality that is present from birth. This aspect of personality is entirely unconscious and includes of the instinctive and primitive behaviors. According to Freud, the id is the source of all psychic energy, making it the primary component of personality.

The id is driven by the pleasure principle, which strives for immediate gratification of all desires, wants, and needs. If these needs are not satisfied immediately, the result is a state anxiety or tension. For example, an increase in hunger or thirst should produce an immediate attempt to eat or drink. The id is very important early in life, because it ensures that an infant's needs are met. If the infant is hungry or uncomfortable, he or she will cry until the demands of the id are met.

However, immediately satisfying these needs is not always realistic or even possible. If we were ruled entirely by the pleasure principle, we might find ourselves grabbing things we want out of other people's hands to satisfy our own cravings. This sort of behavior would be both disruptive and socially unacceptable. According to Freud, the id tries to resolve the tension created by the pleasure principle through the primary process, which involves forming a mental image of the desired object as a way of satisfying the need.

The Ego

The ego is the component of personality that is responsible for dealing with reality. According to Freud, the ego develops from the id and ensures that the impulses of the id can be expressed in a manner acceptable in the real world. The ego functions in both the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind.

The ego operates based on the reality principle, which strives to satisfy the id's desires in realistic and socially appropriate ways. The reality principle weighs the costs and benefits of an action before deciding to act upon or abandon impulses. In many cases, the id's impulses can be satisfied through a process of delayed gratification--the ego will eventually allow the behavior, but only in the appropriate time and place.

The ego also discharges tension created by unmet impulses through the secondary process, in which the ego tries to find an object in the real world that matches the mental image created by the id's primary process.

The Superego

The last component of personality to develop is the superego. The superego is the aspect of personality that holds all of our internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from both parents and society--our sense of right and wrong. The superego provides guidelines for making judgments. According to Freud, the superego begins to emerge at around age five.

There are two parts of the superego:

The ego ideal includes the rules and standards for good behaviors. These behaviors include those which are approved of by parental and other authority figures. Obeying these rules leads to feelings of pride, value and accomplishment.

The conscience includes information about things that are viewed as bad by parents and society. These behaviors are often forbidden and lead to bad consequences, punishments or feelings of guilt and remorse.
The superego acts to perfect and civilize our behavior. It works to suppress all unacceptable urges of the id and struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards rather that upon realistic principles. The superego is present in the conscious, preconscious and unconscious.

The Interaction of the Id, Ego and Superego

With so many competing forces, it is easy to see how conflict might arise between the id, ego and superego. Freud used the term ego strength to refer to the ego's ability to function despite these dueling forces. A person with good ego strength is able to effectively manage these pressures, while those with too much or too little ego strength can become too unyielding or too disrupting.

According to Freud, the key to a healthy personality is a balance between the id, the ego, and the superego.

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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Lun 14 Juil - 9:14

What Is Personality?
By Kendra Cherry
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What Is Personality
Personality is made up of the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors that make a person unique.

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Almost everyday we describe and assess the personalities of the people around us. Whether we realize it or not, these daily musings on how and why people behave as they do are similar to what personality psychologists do.

While our informal assessments of personality tend to focus more on individuals, personality psychologists instead use conceptions of personality that can apply to everyone. Personality research has led to the development of a number of theories that help explain how and why certain personality traits develop.

Definitions of Personality

While there are many different theories of personality, the first step is to understand exactly what is meant by the term personality. The word personality itself stems from the Latin word persona, which referred to a theatrical mask work by performers in order to either project different roles or disguise their identities.

A brief definition would be that personality is made up of the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors that make a person unique. In addition to this, personality arises from within the individual and remains fairly consistent throughout life.

Some other definitions of personality:

"Personality refers to individuals' characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior, together with the psychological mechanisms -- hidden or not -- behind those patterns. This definition means that among their colleagues in other subfields of psychology, those psychologists who study personality have a unique mandate: to explain whole persons."
(Funder, D. C., 1997)

"Although no single definition is acceptable to all personality theorists, we can say that personality is a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person's behavior."
(Feist and Feist, 2009)
Components of Personality

So what exactly makes up a personality? As described in the definitions above, you would expect that traits and patterns of thought and emotion make up an important part. Some of the other fundamental characteristics of personality include:

Consistency - There is generally a recognizable order and regularity to behaviors. Essentially, people act in the same ways or similar ways in a variety of situations.

Psychological and physiological - Personality is a psychological construct, but research suggests that it is also influenced by biological processes and needs.

It impacts behaviors and actions - Personality does not just influence how we move and respond in our environment; it also causes us to act in certain ways.

Multiple expressions - Personality is displayed in more than just behavior. It can also be seen in our thoughts, feelings, close relationships and other social interactions.
Theories of Personality

There are a number of different theories about how personality develops. Different schools of thought in psychology influence many of these theories. Some of these major perspectives on personality include:

Type theories are the early perspectives on personality. These theories suggested that there are a limited number of "personality types" which are related to biological influences.

Trait theories viewed personality as the result of internal characteristics that are genetically based.

Psychodynamic theories of personality are heavily influenced by the work of Sigmund Freud, and emphasize the influence of the unconscious on personality. Psychodynamic theories include Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual stage theory and Erik Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development.

Behavioral theories suggest that personality is a result of interaction between the individual and the environment. Behavioral theorists study observable and measurable behaviors, rejecting theories that take internal thoughts and feelings into account. Behavioral theorists include B. F. Skinner and John B. Watson.

Humanist theories emphasize the importance of free will and individual experience in the development of personality. Humanist theorists include Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.
Personality Vs. Traits and Character

"Having closed in on a sense of what personality is, it may be helpful to compare the concept to others with related meanings. Two concepts that quickly come to mind are 'temperament' and 'character.' In everyday language these terms are sometimes used more or less interchangeably with 'personality,' and historically they have often been used in contexts where, in more recent times, 'personality' would be employed. Within psychology, however, they have somewhat distinct meanings. Temperament usually refers to those aspects of psychological individuality that are present at birth or at least very early on in child development, are related to emotional expression, and are presumed to have a biological basis... Character, on the other hand, usually refers to those personal attributes that are relevant to moral conduct, self-mastery, will-power, and integrity."
(Haslam, N., 2007)
Like this article? Sign up for the Psychology Newsletter to get the latest psychology updates and to learn more about diverse topics including social behavior, personality, development, memory, creativity and much more.

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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Ven 25 Juil - 18:24

Theories of Intelligence
By Kendra Cherry
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Numerous theories have emerged to define, explain and predict human intelligence.

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While intelligence is one of the most talked about subjects within psychology, there is no standard definition of what exactly constitutes 'intelligence.' Some researchers have suggested that intelligence is a single, general ability, while other believe that intelligence encompasses a range of aptitudes, skills and talents.

The following are some of the major theories of intelligence that have emerged during the last 100 years.
Charles Spearman - General Intelligence:

British psychologist Charles Spearman (1863-1945) described a concept he referred to as general intelligence, or the g factor. After using a technique known as factor analysis to to examine a number of mental aptitude tests, Spearman concluded that scores on these tests were remarkably similar. People who performed well on one cognitive test tended to perform well on other tests, while those who scored badly on one test tended to score badly on others. He concluded that intelligence is general cognitive ability that could be measured and numerically expressed.

Louis L. Thurstone - Primary Mental Abilities:

Psychologist Louis L. Thurstone (1887-1955) offered a differing theory of intelligence. Instead of viewing intelligence as a single, general ability, Thurstone's theory focused on seven different "primary mental abilities." The abilities that he described were:

Verbal comprehension
Reasoning
Perceptual speed
Numerical ability
Word fluency
Associative memory
Spatial visualization
Howard Gardner - Multiple Intelligences:

One of the more recent ideas to emerge is Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Instead of focusing on the analysis of test scores, Gardner proposed that numerical expressions of human intelligence are not a full and accurate depiction of people's abilities. His theory describes eight distinct intelligences that are based on skills and abilities that are valued within different cultures.

The eight intelligences Gardner described are:

Visual-spatial Intelligence
Verbal-linguistic Intelligence
Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence
Logical-mathematical Intelligence
Interpersonal Intelligence
Musical Intelligence
Intra personal Intelligence
Naturalistic Intelligence
Robert Sternberg - Triarchic Theory of Intelligence:

Psychologist Robert Sternberg defined intelligence as "mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one’s life." While he agreed with Gardner that intelligence is much broader than a single, general ability, he instead suggested some of Gardner's intelligences are better viewed as individual talents.

Sternberg proposed what he refers to as 'successful intelligence,' which is comprised of three different factors:

Analytical intelligence: This component refers to problem-solving abilities.

Creative intelligence: This aspect of intelligence involves the ability to deal with new situations using past experiences and current skills.

Practical intelligence: This element refers to the ability to adapt to a changing environment.
Final Thoughts:

While there has been considerable debate over the exact nature of intelligence, no definitive conceptualization has emerged. Today, psychologists often account for the many different theoretical viewpoints when discussing intelligence and acknowledge that this debate is ongoing.
References:
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Ven 25 Juil - 18:24

What Factors Determine Intelligence?
By Kendra Cherry
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Question: What Factors Determine Intelligence?
Answer:
In addition to disagreements about the basic nature of intelligence, psychologists have spent a great amount of time and energy debating the various influences on individual intelligence. The debate focuses on one of the major questions in psychology: Which is more important - nature or nurture?

Today, nearly all psychologists recognize that both genetics and the environment play a role in determining intelligence. It now becomes matter of determining exactly how much of an influence each factor has.

First, it is important to note that genetics and the environment interact to determine exactly how inherited genes are expressed. For example, if a person has tall parents, it is likely that the individual will also grow to be tall. However, the exact height the person reaches can be influenced by environmental factors such as nutrition and disease.

Evidence of genetic influences:

Twin studies suggest that identical twins IQ's are more similar than those of fraternal twins (Promin & Spinath, 2004).

Siblings reared together in the same home have IQ's that are more similar than those of adopted children raised together in the same environment (McGue & others, 1993).
Evidence of environmental influences:

Identical twins reared apart have IQ's that are less similar than identical twins reared in the same environment (McGue & others, 1993).

School attendance has an impact on IQ scores (Ceci, 2001).

Children who are breastfed during the first three to five months of life score higher on IQ tests at age 6 than same-age children who were not breastfed (Reinberg, 2008).
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Ven 25 Juil - 18:24

Intelligence and IQ Testing
A Look at the History, Questions and Issues in IQ Testing

By Kendra Cherry
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Intelligence has been an important and controversial topic throughout psychology's history. In addition to questions of exactly how to define intelligence, the debate continues today about whether it can be accurately measured. While psychologists often disagree about the definition and causes of intelligence, research on intelligence plays an important role in many areas including policy decisions regarding how much funding should be given to educational programs, the use of testing to screen job applicants and the use of testing to identify children who need additional academic assistance.

The term "intelligence quotient," or IQ, was first coined in the early twentieth century by a German psychologist named William Stern. Since that time, intelligence testing has emerged as a widely used tool that has led to the development of many other tests of skill and aptitude. However, it continues to spur debate and controversy over the use of intelligence tests, cultural biases, influences on intelligence and even the very way we define intelligence.

In order to gain a deeper understanding of intelligence and the tests that have been developed in an attempt to measure this concept, it is important to understand the history of intelligence testing, the scientific research that has been conducted and the findings that have emerged.

Major questions about intelligence and IQ testing:

Is intelligence a single ability, or does it involve an assortment of multiple skills and abilities?

Is intelligence inherited, or does the environment play a larger role?

Are intelligence tests biased?

What do intelligence scores predict, if anything?
In order to explore these questions, psychologists have conducted a considerable amount of research on the nature, influences and effects of intelligence. Begin learning more about some of these questions and discoveries by exploring the following section on intelligence and intelligence testing.
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Ven 25 Juil - 18:25

Fluid Intelligence vs. Crystallized Intelligence
By Kendra Cherry
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While many people claim that their intelligence seems to decline as they age, research suggests that while fluid intelligence begins to decrease after adolescence, crystallized intelligence continues to increase throughout adulthood.

What are fluid and crystallized intelligence? Psychologist Raymond Cattell first proposed the concepts of fluid and crystallized intelligence and further developed the theory with John Horn. The Cattell-Horn theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence suggests that intelligence is composed of a number of different abilities that interact and work together to produce overall individual intelligence.

What is Fluid Intelligence?

Cattell defined fluid intelligence as "…the ability to perceive relationships independent of previous specific practice or instruction concerning those relationships."

Fluid intelligence involves being able to think and reason abstractly and solve problems. This ability is considered independent of learning, experience, and education. Examples of the use of fluid intelligence include solving puzzles and coming up with problem-solving strategies.

What Is Crystallized Intelligence?

Crystallized intelligence involves knowledge that comes from prior learning and past experiences. Situations that require crystallized intelligence include reading comprehension and vocabulary exams. This type of intelligence is based upon facts and rooted in experiences. As we age and accumulate new knowledge and understanding, crystallized intelligence becomes stronger.

Fluid vs. Crystallized Intelligence

According to Knox (1977), ". . . they constitute the global capacity to learn, reason and solve problems that most people refer to as intelligence. Fluid and crystallized intelligence are complementary in that some learning tasks can be mastered mainly by exercising either fluid or crystallized intelligence."

Both types of intelligence are equally important in everyday life. For example, when taking a psychology exam, you might need to rely of fluid intelligence to come up with a strategy to solve a statistics problem, while you must also employ crystallized intelligence to recall the exact formulas you need to use.

Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence Throughout Life

Both types of intelligence increase throughout childhood and adolescence.

Fluid intelligence peaks in adolescence and begins to decline progressively beginning around age 30 or 40.

Crystallized intelligence continues to grow throughout adulthood.
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Masculin Nombre de messages : 19987
Date d'inscription : 17/05/2007

MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Ven 25 Juil - 18:30

Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
By Kendra Cherry
Ads: Intelligence The Brain Intelligence Cognitive Learning Learning Theories Theory
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What Are Multiple Intelligences?
When you hear the word intelligence, the concept of IQ testing may immediately come to mind. Intelligence is often defined as our intellectual potential; something we are born with, something that can be measured and a capacity that is difficult to change. In recent years, however, other views of intelligence have emerged. One such conception is the theory of multiple intelligences proposed by Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner.

This theory suggests that traditional psychometric views of intelligence are too limited. Gardner first outlined his theory in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, where he suggested that all people have different kinds of "intelligences."1 Gardner proposed that there are eight intelligences, and has suggested the possible addition of a ninth known as "existentialist intelligence"2.

In order to capture the full range of abilities and talents that people possess, Gardner suggests that people do not have just a intellectual capacity, but have many different intelligences including musical, interpersonal, spatial-visual and linguistic intelligences3

While a person might be particularly strong in a specific area, such as musical intelligence, they most likely possess a range of abilities. For example, an individual might be strong in verbal, musical and naturalistic intelligence.

Gardner’s theory has come under criticism from both psychologists and educators. These critics argue that Gardner’s definition of intelligence is too broad, and that his eight different "intelligences" simply represent talents, personality traits and abilities. Gardner’s theory also suffers from a lack of supporting empirical research4.

Despite this, the theory of multiple intelligences enjoys considerable popularity with educators. Many teachers utilize multiple intelligences in their teaching philosophy and work to integrate Gardner’s theory into the classroom.

Learn more about the multiple intelligences can help you better understand your own strengths. Continue reading to learn more about the major characteristics of each type of intelligence. You can also take the multiple intelligences quiz to discover the area in which you are strongest.
Visual-Spatial Intelligence
Strengths: Visual and Spatial Judgment

People who are strong in visual-spatial intelligence are good a visualizing things. These individuals are often good with directions as well as maps, charts, videos and pictures.

Characteristics of Visual-Spatial Intelligence

Enjoys reading and writing
Good at putting puzzles together
Good at interpreting pictures, graphs and charts
Enjoys drawing, painting and the visual arts
Recognizes patterns easily
Potential Career Choices

Architect
Artist
Engineer


Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence
Strengths: Words, Language and Writing

People who are strong in linguistic-verbal intelligence are able to use words well, both when writing and speaking. These individuals are typically very good at writing stories, memorizing information and reading.

Characteristics of Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence

Good at remembering written and spoken information
Enjoys reading and writing
Good at debating or giving persuasive speeches
Able to explain things well
Often uses humor when telling stories
Potential Career Choices

Writer / Journalist
Lawyer
Teacher

Logical - Mathematical Intelligence
Strengths: Analyzing Problems and Mathematical Operations

People who are strong in logical-mathematical intelligence are good at reasoning, recognizing patterns and logically analyze problems. These individuals tend to think conceptually about numbers, relationships and patterns.

Characteristics of Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

Excellent problem-solving skills
Enjoys thinking about abstract ideas
Likes conducting scientific experiments
Good and solving complex computations
Potential Career Choices

Scientist
Mathematician
Computer programmer
Engineer
Accountant


Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
Strengths: Physical Movement, Motor Control

Those who have high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are said to be good at body movement, performing actions and physical control. People who are strong in this area tend to have excellent hand-eye coordination and dexterity.

Characteristics of Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

Good at dancing and sports
Enjoy creating things with their hands
Excellent physical coordination
Tends to remember by doing, rather than hearing or seeing
Potential Career Choices

Dancer
Builder
Sculptor
Actor


Musical Intelligence
Strengths: Rhythm and Music

People who have strong musical intelligence are good and thinking in patterns, rhythms and sounds. They have a strong appreciation for music and are often good at musical composition and performance.

Characteristics of Musical Intelligence

Enjoy singing and playing musical instruments
Recognizes musical patterns and tones easily
Good at remembering songs and melodies
Rich understanding of musical structure, rhythm and notes
Potential Career Choices

Musician
Composer
Singer
Music Teacher
Conductor
Take the Multipl


Interpersonal Intelligence
Strengths: Understanding and Relating to Other People

Those who have strong interpersonal intelligence are good understanding and interacting with other people. These individuals are skilled at assessing the emotions, motivations, desires and intentions of those around them.

Characteristics of Interpersonal Intelligence

Good at communicating verbally
Skilled nonverbal communicators
See situations from different perspectives
Create positive relationships with others
Good at resolving conflict in groups
Potential Career Choices

Psychologist
Philosopher
Counselor
Sales person
Politician
Take the Multiple

Intrapersonal Intelligence
Strengths: Introspection and Self-Reflection

Individuals who are strong in intrapersonal intelligence are good at being aware of their own emotional states, feelings and motivations. They tend to enjoy self-reflection and analysis, including day-dreaming, exploring relationships with others and assessing their personal strengths.

Characteristics of Intrapersonal Intelligence

Good at analyzing their strengths and weaknesses
Enjoys analyzing theories and ideas
Excellent self-awareness
Clearly understands the basis for their own motivations and feelings
Potential Career Choices

Philosopher
Writer
Theorist
Scientist
Take the Multip

Naturalistic Intelligence
Strengths: Finding Patters and Relationships to Nature

Naturalistic is the most recent addition to Gardner’s theory 5 and has been met with more resistance than his original seven intelligences. According to Gardner, individuals who are high in this type of intelligence are more in tune with nature and are often interested in nurturing, exploring the environment and learning about other species. These individuals are said to be highly aware of even subtle changes to their environments.

Characteristics of Naturalistic Intelligence

Interested in subjects such as botany, biology and zoology
Good at categorizing and cataloging information easily
May enjoy camping, gardening, hiking and exploring the outdoors
Doesn’t enjoy learning unfamiliar topics that have no connection to nature
Potential Career Choices

Biologist
Conservationist
Gardener
Farmer
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Date d'inscription : 17/05/2007

MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Mer 1 Oct - 4:48

I hate humans / people / life, I hate this world, why they sucks so much?
I hate life / people / humans / real-life / real-world / reality, why they sucks so much?

Look, this is the harsh truth/reality:
the majority or MOST of human beings/people in this world I've found to be either a bunch of stupid, shallow, superficial, ignorant, selfish, rigid, stoic, lifeless, and/or boring/mundane ones.

maybe that's why this "reality" (or "real world" / "real life") or our society currently is sooo f*cked up almost beyond help!

with only VERY FEW exceptions of: real-GOOD, honest humans/people, real smart/intelligent people, and/or very creative, imaginative, 'artistic' type of humans/people (that produces some of the best "other-worldly" works like novels, movies, games, anime, work of art, etc etc) ,... then the rest (again, which is the majority, like 90% or even 99% of human beings on this planet!) , I simply absolutely HATE them, and how I deeply always f*cking wish that I NEVER live in ONE planet with them,.. or how I wish I could get immediately transported into another world / universe (like in those 'cool/awesome' movies, novels, games, etc etc) ..

can anyone here relate with me?
then, what is the solution?..
Update : @Sam I: yes, there are good people, but like I've said in my opening ...show more
Update 2: (PS: how many of you here also have heard about: Virtual Reality (VR) , ...show more

Best Answer

justsharing247 answered 7 months ago
Be a loner, depending on your age (as you must finish high school) spend as little time with people as possible. Work at night, in a job where you won't be around people. Not everyone is a people person, I was basically forced to interact with lots of people in my younger years but now older I choose to limit my social interaction and friendships. I however don't feel people are stupid, shallow, ignorant etc......I'm just too selfish to deal with others drama. You however sound angry, you should find an outlet for your feelings. Perhaps you could become one of those great, reclusive writers we need more of.
32 Comment
Other Answers (7)Relevance

Amanda Duncan answered 7 months ago
It's a psychological fact that people remember and dwell on negativity more than anything positive. I think this sad fact is the reason there is so much sadness and hate in our world.

Hate is a very strong word, one that I very much dislike using, because the use of it only perpetuates it. Wishing is also a word that I think should be used less. You cannot wish a better world into existence, but you can most certainly do something, any something, big or small, to make the world a better place. Like Ghandi said, "Be than change you wish to see in the world." It won't get any better, if you're not willing to make it better. I believe there's Dr. Suess quote in there as well...

Everyone has led a different path through life, and it's impossible for us to know and understand them all, or even any for that matter. All of our paths have led us through hardships and good fortune, and those things shape us all in different ways. Some give in to the darkness in their lives, and others choose to draw strength from it. The point is, we cannot judge the darkness people wear on their sleeves or how they wear it because we do not know the battles they have fought. Everyone is unique remember, with their own story to tell, and everyone's light shines in different way, but everyone does have a light. The only darkness you can change is your own, and the wonderful part about that is it's often a chain reaction.

The solution, my friend, is simple. reevaluate everything you wrote here today. Really think about it. Do you really blindly hate the world? Or do you hate what the world has done to you? I challenge you to forgive it. Go outside, right now, to somewhere you feel at peace, sit down, and just feel. Remember the first five things that make you smile. Remember the first five things that make you smile every day. If something doesn't happen that makes you smile, or even if it does, the simplest and most amazing solution to all the hate in the world is this:

make someone else smile.
31 Comment

Vasilis answered 4 months ago
With all respect, hell and paradise are hear and there is know good peapole on this earth, NON. there is peapole wich make the good thing time to time. We just must face the fact, life has tow site and it give us wich site it wants and any time it wants. so we will face the good and bad site of things from same person as good he or she is. BUT we NEVER MUST GIVE UP, this is the real life. KEEP GOING AND DON'T GIVE UP, watt ever stars it will end too just be in patients and keep going
00 Comment

Moira answered 4 months ago
Cause that's how it is look around you there's
-anti Americanism
-nationalism
-prejudice
-racism
-crime
-sexism
-death
There are so many problems around the world currently life should get better by 2021
20 Comment

Sam I answered 7 months ago
I would suggest you engage with good people, and avoid bad people at all cost.

The reason you hate people is : you've been around bad people for long time.

Good people are very rare, but bad people are too many.

You have every right to "dislike" bad people, because they are truly bad - bad to themselves - and bad to everyone else.

But some people out there are truly good - find them and live with them.
00 Comment

Rinku answered 7 months ago
Do you feel that conformity is an impossible situation and that somehow our communication itself is so flawed, that you have no language for what you feel? and this pain is lately getting worse and you cant help but become ill by peoples every day events, even though you wish it were different?
10 Comment

Little Pikachu answered 6 months ago
By telling people suicide is ok, you're the one who's selfish, you only think for yourself, not for others!

Go home and rethink your life. before you do farther damage to society.
05 Comment

ᅇᅇᅇ answered 7 months ago
There are good and bad people in the world. With bad people in the majority. However I do believe in the end we will choose two different paths. Hell or Paradise...
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MessageSujet: Re: psychology   Mer 1 Oct - 5:58

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