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MessageSujet: philosophy    Sam 6 Avr - 13:48

http://epistemelinks.com/

http://www.thomas-hobbes.com

tout au long de son existance


Dernière édition par végétalienne-13 le Mer 6 Aoû - 17:34, édité 1 fois
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MessageSujet: Re: philosophy    Dim 21 Juil - 10:33

http://www.iep.utm.edu
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MessageSujet: Re: philosophy    Mer 24 Juil - 13:59

june 20, 2008

http://metafisica.creatuforo.com/sitemap/textos-metafisicos-6/
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MessageSujet: Re: philosophy    Mer 24 Juil - 14:00

algo muy motivador que lei y kiero compartir con uds!! espero que lo disfruten como yo


El elefante y la alondra (del libro "El universo está en ti")

El elefante y la alondra eran amigos. La alondra le señalaba al elefante los rincones mas sombreados de la selva, y el elefante protegía con su presencia nocturna el nido de la alondra de serpientes voraces y ardillas rapaces.
Un día el elefante le dijo a la alondra que le tenía envidia por poder volar. ¡Cuánto le gustaría remontarse por los aires, ver la tierra desde las alturas, llegar a cualquier sitio en cualquier momento! Pero con su peso...¡Era imposible!
La alondra le dijo que era muy fácil. Se quitó con el pico una pluma de la cola y le dijo: "Aprieta fuerte esta pluma en la boca, y agita rápidamente las orejas arriba y abajo"
El elefante hizo lo que la alondra le dijo. Apretó con fuerza la pluma en la boca para que no se le fuese a caer y comenzó a agitar sus grandes orejas arriba y abajo con toda su energía. Poco a poco notó que se levantaba, despegaba, se sostenía en el aire y podía ir donde quisiera por los aires con toda facilidad. Vio la tierra desde las alturas, vio los animales y los hombres, cruzó por lo alto el río profundo que había marcado el limite de su territorio, exploro paisajes desconocidos, y volvió al fin, feliz y contento a aterrizar al sitio donde había dejado a la alondra.
"No sabes cuanto te agradezco esta pluma milagrosa", le dijo. Y se la guardó cuidadosamente detrás de la oreja para volver a usarla cuando quisiera volar otra vez.
La alondra le contesto:

-"Oh, esa pluma... La verdad es que no vale nada. Se me iba a caer de todos modos, y era inútil" Pero tenía que darte algo para que creyeras en ti, y se me ocurrió eso, tu hubieras podido volar de todos modos.

------------------------------------------------

Todos los avatares y seres concientes de sus divinidad, nos repiten una y otra vez:

-"Podes dudar de todo lo que hayas escuchado, visto, vivido, incluso aquí; pero nunca dudes de vos mismo. Siempre confía en tu capacidad de crear y recrear tu vida a cada instante. Solo uno es el dueño de su historia, el jefe y protagonista de su realidad."

Todos podemos volar, escapar de la medianía, de la chatura, de las vidas limitadas en las que nos estamos sumiendo por no reconocer nuestras capacidades, y convertirlas en cualidades.

Otra de sus frases que resuenan a diario, en mi mente:

"Cada uno tiene la cuota de divinidad que se atreve a aceptar. "

Nos estamos atreviendo a volar sobre nuestros limites, nuestras carencias, nuestros dogmas? O seguimos atados a los viejos paradigmas que estancan nuestra vida?

Soñemos nuestra divinidad. Creámosla. Creémosla. Confiemos en nuestra infinita capacidad de crear las realidades mas audaces y fascinantes que nuestro Ser permita.

No hay más límites que aquellos que nosotros mismos nos imponemos, ni mas reglas que las que nosotros mismos nos hemos creado. Incluso los maestros que aparecen en nuestras vidas, son sublimes creaciones de nosotros mismos, para recordarnos, aquellas cuerdas, en las cuales no nos atrevemos aun a vibrar.

Sai Baba, La Madre Teresa, sabios y santos, o la mismísima alondra del cuento siempre están allí como un espejo perfecto para que nuestra conciencia se refleje en ellos y comprenda más rápidamente su grandeza aun inexplorada por nosotros.

La única razón que tienes en tu vida para no lograr lo que TÚ verdaderamente quieres,
es la razón que TÚ te das."

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MessageSujet: Re: philosophy    Mar 30 Juil - 11:10

janiary 3rd of 2013

Anti-establishment
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Not to be confused with antidisestablishmentarianism.
An anti-establishment view or belief is one which stands in opposition to the conventional social, political, and economic principles of a society. The term was first used in the modern sense in 1958, by the British magazine New Statesman to refer to its political and social agenda.[1] The term can be distinguished from counterculture, a word normally used to describe artistic rather than political movements that run against the prevailing taste and values of the time.[citation needed] Although the term has retained its original meaning in British English and continues to be applied to various individuals and groups, in American English the term is used more specifically to describe certain social and political movements that occurred during the 1950s and 1960s.[citation needed]
Contents [hide]
1 Anti-establishment figures in the United Kingdom
2 The pop term "Anti-Establishment" in the United States
2.1 Early Usage
2.2 1960s
2.3 1960s to today: the use of anti-establishment rhetoric in American politics
3 The pop term "Anti-Establishment" in India
4 1999 WTO protests, Occupy protests and anti establishment thought
5 See also
6 References
Anti-establishment figures in the United Kingdom[edit]

In the UK anti-establishment figures and groups are seen as those who argue or act against the ruling class. Having an established church, in England and Wales, a British monarchy, an aristocracy, and an unelected upper house in Parliament made up in part by hereditary nobles, the UK certainly has a clearly definable Establishment against which anti-establishment figures can be contrasted. In particular, satirical humour is commonly used to undermine the deference shown by the majority of the population towards those who govern them. Examples of British anti-establishment satire include much of the humour of Peter Cook and Ben Elton; novels such as Rumpole of the Bailey; magazines such as Private Eye; and television programmes like Spitting Image, Rumpole of the Bailey, That Was The Week That Was, and The Prisoner (see also the satire boom of the 1960s). Anti-establishment themes also can be seen in the novels of writers such as Will Self.[2]
However, by operating through the arts and media, the line between politics and culture is blurred, so that pigeonholing figures such as Banksy as either anti-establishment or counter-culture figures can be difficult.[3] The tabloid newspapers such as The Sun, are less subtle, and commonly report on the sex-lives of the Royals simply because it sells papers, but in the process have been described as having anti-establishment views that have weakened traditional institutions.[4] On the other hand, as time passes, anti-establishment figures sometimes end up becoming part of the Establishment, as Mick Jagger, the Rolling Stones frontman, became a Knight in 2003,[5] or when The Who frontman Roger Daltrey was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 2005 in recognition of both his music and his work for charity.[6]
The pop term "Anti-Establishment" in the United States[edit]

Individuals who were anti-establishment often spoke of "fighting the man", "selling out to the Establishment", and "tearing down the Establishment." Many historical figures and groups innovated great changes to society by standing up to "the Establishment", including Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. especially in 1968, Malcolm X, Malvina Reynolds, Howard Zinn, Noam Chomsky, Public Enemy, K-Rino, Immortal Technique, Anti-Flag, Rage Against the Machine, Terminator X, Gil-Scott Heron, dead prez, and Lupe Fiasco among others.
The "Establishment" to these, and these anti-establishment activists was not simply the people of the older generation. Dictionary.com defines the establishment as "the existing power structure in society; the dominant groups in society and their customs or institutions; institutional authority",[7] Merriam-Webster defines the words as "a group of social, economic, and political leaders who form a ruling class"[8] and The Free Dictionary defines it as "A group of people holding most of the power and influence in a government or society."[9] Social critic and "people's" historian Howard Zinn defines the establishment as "Republicans, Democrats, newspapers [and] television" in his book, A People's History of the United States.[10] Later Zinn calls out the "huge military establishment" which one could assume is part of his definition of the "Establishment." In a chapter of the book that expresses Zinn's political theory for the future he defines "the Establishment [as] that uneasy club of business executives, generals, and politicos."[11]
Later in Zinn's book is a reprinted quote from Samuel Huntington, who was a Harvard University political science professor and White House political consultant, that describes the establishment and the coalition a president should establish upon being elected:
"...the President act[s]...with the support and cooperation of key individuals and groups in the executive office, the federal bureaucracy, Congress, and the more important businesses, banks, law firms, foundations, and media, which constitute the private sector's "Establishment."...The day after [the President's]...election, the size of his majority is almost—if not entirely—irrelevant to his ability to govern the country. What counts then is his ability to mobilize support from the leaders of key institutions in a society and government. ... This coalition must include key people in Congress, the executive branch, and the private-sector 'Establishment'."[12]
Early Usage[edit]
The anti-Establishment push began in the 1940s and simmered through the 1950s. Many World War II veterans, who had seen horrors and inhumanities, began to question every aspect of life, including its meaning. Urged to return to "normal lives" and plagued by Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (discussing it was "not manly"), many veterans found suburbia cloying and empty.
A vague unease spawned diverse paths. The Hells Angels were originally composed of WWII veterans feeling rebellious: the name came from WWII fighting units. The image of Marlon Brando as a motorcycle rebel in The Wild One and James Dean as a Rebel Without a Cause horrified some Americans and electrified others. Some veterans, who founded the Beat Movement, were denigrated as Beatniks and accused of being "downbeat" on everything. Lawrence Ferlinghetti wrote a Beat autobiography that cited his wartime service.
Many people craved angry "true" commentary such as Lenny Bruce's acid-tongued comedy, or simply a desire for more personal freedom, even "vices". Playboy magazine, with its famous nudes, was the first skin mag sold alongside national magazines, and caused a scandal and backlash.
Many women also harbored a deep resentment. During the war years, they had been encouraged to assume men's roles in industry, both white collar and blue collar. Rosie the Riveter was a national icon. But after the war, women were forced to give up their jobs and become homemakers.
Citizens had also begun to question authority, especially after the Gary Powers U2 Incident, wherein President Eisenhower repeatedly assured people the USA was not spying on Russia, then was caught in a blatant lie. This general dissatisfaction was popularized by Peggy Lee's laconic pop song "Is That All There Is?", but remained unspoken and unfocused. It wasn't until the Baby Boomers came along in huge numbers that protest became organized (or disorganized in the case of the hippies), who were named by the Beats as "little hipsters".
1960s[edit]
Anti-Establishment became a buzzword of the tumultuous 1960s. Young people raised in comparative luxury saw many wrongs perpetuated by society and began to question "the Establishment". Contentious issues included the ongoing Vietnam War with no clear goal or end point, the constant military build-up and diversion of funds for the Cold War, perpetual widespread poverty being ignored, money-wasting boondoggles like pork barrel projects and the Space Race, festering race issues, a stultifying education system, repressive laws and harsh sentences for casual drug use, and a general malaise among the older generation. On the other side, "Middle America" often regarded questions as accusations, and saw the younger generation as spoiled, drugged-out, sex-crazed, unambitious slackers.
Anti-Establishment debates were common because they touched on everyday aspects of life. Even innocent questions could escalate into angry diatribes. For example, "Why do we spend millions on a foreign war and a space program when our schools are falling apart?" would be answered with "We need to keep our military strong and ready to stop the Communists from taking over the world." As in any debate, there were valid and unsupported arguments on both sides. "Make love not war" invoked "America, love it or leave it."
As the 1960s simmered, the anti-Establishment adopted conventions in opposition to the Establishment. T-shirts and blue jeans became the uniform of the young because their parents wore collar shirts and slacks. Drug use, with its illegal panache, was favored over the legal consumption of alcohol. Promoting peace and love was the antidote to promulgating hatred and war. Living in genteel poverty was more "honest" than amassing a nest egg and a house in the suburbs. Rock 'n roll was played loud over Easy listening. Dodging the draft was passive resistance to traditional military service. Dancing was free-style, not learned in a ballroom. Over time, anti-establishment messages crept into popular culture: songs, fashion, movies, lifestyle choices, television.
The emphasis on freedom allowed previously hushed conversations about sex, politics, or religion to be openly discussed. A wave of "liberations" came out of 1960s: the Feminist movement, the Black Panthers and Black Power, Gay Rights, Native American awareness, even "Gray Power" for elders. Programs were put in place to deal with inequities: Equal Opportunity Employment, the Head Start Program, enforcement of the Civil Rights Act, busing, and others. But the widespread dissemination of new ideas also sparked a backlash and resurgence in conservative religions, new segregated private schools, anti-gay and anti-abortion legislation, and other reversals. Extremists tended to be heard more because they made good copy for newspapers and television. In many ways, the angry debates of the 1960s led to modern right-wing talk radio and coalitions for "traditional family values".
As the 1960s passed, society had changed to the point that the definition of the Establishment had blurred, and the term "anti-establishment" seemed to fall out of use.
1960s to today: the use of anti-establishment rhetoric in American politics[edit]
Howard Zinn, in his bestseller titled A People's History of the United States mentions the concept of "establishment" several times in the book. In reference to the 1896 election and McKinley's victory,[13] when talking about socialism in the early 20th century,[14] a major IWW general strike in 1919,[15] when writing about the aftermath of WWII,[16] in the talk about the repression of a communist party organizer, in discussion of the 1963 March on Washington led by Martin Luther King and others,[17] when writing about how even when black leaders were elected, they couldn't overcome the establishment and in reference to opposition in the Vietnam war,[17] the establishment before and after the Watergate Scandal,[18] the establishment from Jimmy Carter's Administration to George H.W.'s administration,[19]the Iran-Contra Affair and the establishment, the maintaining of the military establishment even after the Cold War ended, the Vietnam Syndrome that leads to anti-establishment thought,[20] and in a discussion of the 2000 election.[21]
The pop term "Anti-Establishment" in India[edit]

In India, the 1960s saw emergence of a group of writers who called themselves Hungryalists. They were the first anti-establishment writers in Bengal whose dissenting voice drew attention of the government and court cases were filed against them.[22] The main anti-establishment voices in Bengali literature have been Malay Roy Choudhury, Samir Roychoudhury, Subimal Basak and Tridib Mitra.
1999 WTO protests, Occupy protests and anti establishment thought[edit]

In 2011, with the rise of anti-austerity protests, the Arab Spring, only activism like Anonymous and the advent of the Occupy protests targeting the power of high finance and fighting for "the 99%," anti-establishment thought has reappeared. BBC News commented in one article that "The sinister Guy Fawkes mask made famous by the film V for Vendetta has become an emblem for anti-establishment protest groups."[23] During the 1999 WTO protests the Earth Rainbow Network had (and still has) a page titled "The Anti-Establishment Files: Info and background material on the coming World Trade Organization meeting in Seattle."[24]
See also[edit]

New Left
Hungry generation
References[edit]

^ The Compact Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, Clarendon Press, 1991. ISBN 0-19-861258-3
^ Chris Mitchell. "Self Destruction". Spike Magazine. Archived from the original on 1 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-20.
^ BBC (2006-09-15). "Faces of the week". BBC. Retrieved 2006-10-20.
^ BBC (2006-09-27). "Prince fears media embarrassment". BBC. Retrieved 2006-10-20.
^ "Jagger: It's only rock 'n' roll". BBC News. 2003-12-12.
^ BBC (2005-02-09). "Who singer Daltrey collects CBE". BBC. Retrieved 2006-10-20.
^ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/establishment
^ http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/establishment
^ http://www.thefreedictionary.com/establishment
^ http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinnseven20.html
^ Zinn, Howard. "The Coming Revolt of the Guards." History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinncomrev24.html>.
^ Zinn, Howard. "The Seventies: Under Control?." History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinnseven20.html>.
^ Zinn, Howard. "Robber Barons And Rebels." History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinnbaron11.html>.
^ Zinn, Howard. "War is the Health of the State." History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinnwarhea14.html>.
^ Zinn, Howard. "Self Help in Hard Times." History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinnselhel15.html>.
^ Zinn, Howard. "A People's War?" History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinnpeopleswar.html>.
^ a b Zinn, Howard. "Or Does it Explode?" History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinn17explo.html>.
^ Zinn, Howard. "The Seventies: Under Control?" History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinnimvivi18.html>
^ Zinn, Howard. "Carter-Reagan-Bush: The Bipartisan Consensus." History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinncarebu21.html>.
^ Zinn, Howard. "The Unreported Resistance." History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinnunrepo22.html>.
^ Zinn, Howard. "The 2000 Election and the "War on Terrorism"." History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinn2000electionch25.html>.
^ Amritalok ISSN.0971-4308
^ "V for Vendetta masks: Who's behind them?". BBC News. 2011-10-20.
^ http://www.earthrainbownetwork.com/AntiEstablishmentFiles.htm
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MessageSujet: Re: philosophy    Mar 30 Juil - 11:14

What does Anti establishment mean?
In: Uncategorized [Edit categories]
EstablishmentUp to 75% Off Hotels. Establishment & Other Deals!establishment.bookingbuddy.com/
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Answer:
Marked by opposition or hostility to conventional social, political, or economic values or principles.
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MessageSujet: Re: philosophy    Ven 30 Aoû - 10:17

Locke and Hobbes: Two Competing Philosophies on Social Contract Theory
William Matthew McCarter, PhD
William Matthew McCarter, PhD, Yahoo! Contributor Network
Oct 7, 2010 "Share your voice on Yahoo! websites. Start Here."
MORE:Locke
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John Locke's Second Treatise of Government was published in 1689. One could characterize Locke's work, at least partially, as being a reaction to the earlier work of political philosophers like Thomas Hobbes. While Locke never explicitly mentions Hobbes my name, Hobbes' Leviathan was the first political philosophy to discuss social contract theory, Locke's conception of this same social contract differed from Hobbes in several ways. While there were many differences in the political philosophy of Hobbes and Locke, both of them began with the central notion that persons in "a state of nature" would willingly come together to form a state.
Locke's work differs from the work of Hobbes in that Locke believed that individuals in this "state of nature" would not necessarily be involved in a perpetual state of war with one another. While Hobbes felt that mankind was inherently evil and required a strong central authority to ward off this inclination toward an amoral anarchic natural state of man, Locke believed that individuals in a state of nature would have stronger moral limits on their actions. Essentially, Locke thought that our human nature was characterized by reason and tolerance.

Locke, like Hobbes, believed that people would still live in fear of one another in this state of nature in spite of their ability to reason. This is because, like Hobbes, Locke believed that human nature allowed men to be selfish. In our natural state, all people are equal and all people have the natural right to defend our life, health, liberty, or possessions. It is because of this fear of one another that individuals would come together and form a state so that society could provide a neutral judge to protect the lives, liberty, and property of those who lived within this civil society.

In Leviathan, Hobbes argued that the state must have a near absolute authority in order to govern, but Locke, in his Second Treatise on Government, argued that laws could only be legitimate if they served the common good. While Hobbes was skeptical of "the people," Locke believed that "the people" would do the right thing as a group. In addition, Hobbes believed that man had to give up their natural rights outside of a state of nature and that there were no rights but only privileges granted to the people by the sovereign. For Locke, natural rights could co-exist within a civil society and that natural rights and civil society were not mutually exclusive categories.

In contrast to the work of Hobbes who posits his "state of nature" as being a hypothetical possibility, Locke shows that this "state of nature" is not merely a hypothetical possibility but that such a state does actually exist. The "state of nature" exists where there is no legitimate government and it is the state in which mankind returns to after a government is dissolved. From this actual "state of nature," Locke goes to explain the rise of property and civilization. In doing so, he also explains that the only legitimate governments are those who have the consent of the people that the legitimate government hopes to govern. According to Locke, any government that does not have the consent of the governed can be overthrown.

Essentially, Locke believed that the relationship between the government and its citizens took the form of a social contract. Under this social contract, the citizens agree to surrender some of the freedoms that the people enjoyed within the state of nature in exchange for the order and protections provided by the state's institutions. In addition, the power of the state was not absolute but was only exercised according to the rule of law. If the state were to move beyond the limits of its power and arbitrarily exercise power and authority in matters that were beyond the purview of the state under the social contract, the state forfeits its part of the contract and therefore, the contract becomes void. In this case, the citizens of the state not only have the right to overthrow the government, but have a moral obligation to do so and replace it with a government that operates under the consent of the governed.

While Hobbes thinks that the absolute power of the sovereign is simply the price mankind must pay for peace, Locke believes that absolute power is never a remedy for the state of nature. Hobbes also advocates that the sovereign has absolute power over all of society's institutions while Locke is an advocate of a separation of powers in government so that no one entity has too much control over any of the society's institutions. One could characterize Hobbes social contract as being a social contract that is constructed from the top down. Locke's philosophy contrasts with Hobbes in that he sees the social contract as being more of a bottom up kind of social construction.

Hobbes distrusts the people, believing that they are inherently evil. Locke has a much more favorable view of human nature in that he feels that mankind is guided by "rational self-interest" and that by doing what is in our mutual "rational self-interest," humankind is able to govern itself without Hobbes' Leviathan watching over us. For Hobbes, arbitrary and capricious behavior on the part of the sovereign is the price that we must pay in order to maintain peace. For Locke, the difficulty that comes with self-government is the price that we must pay to maintain freedom.
Source: Locke, John. Second Treatise on Civil Government. www.constitution.org
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MessageSujet: Re: philosophy    Ven 30 Aoû - 10:23


“The only way to comprehend what mathematicians mean by Infinity is to contemplate the extent of human stupidity.”
- Voltair


Read more: http://www.disclose.tv/forum/the-five-laws-of-stupidity-t31237.html#ixzz2dTDdRzoA
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MessageSujet: Re: philosophy    Ven 30 Aoû - 10:24

Nice and funny read! On true occurences...

The five laws of stupidity
The five laws of stupidity are always relevant:

1. Always and inevitably everyone underestimates the number of stupid individuals in circulation.

2. The probability that a certain person will be stupid is independent of any other characteristic of that person.

3. A stupid person is a person who causes losses to another person or to a group of persons while himself deriving no gain and even possibly incurring losses.

4. Non-stupid people always underestimate the damaging power of stupid individuals. In particular non-stupid people constantly forget that at all times and places and under any circumstances to deal and/or associate with stupid people always turns out to be a costly mistake.

5. A stupid person is the most dangerous type of person.

There should be a corrolary, lest we get too full of ourselves:

It is almost impossible to identify oneself as a stupid person, because even people who are studiously and conscientiously non-stupid act in stupid ways (see #4) on occasion, usually without realizing the damage done. Therefore we are all, at times and potentially, stupid people.


Someone (I can't find the reference quickly) once said that "Everyone makes a few mistakes every day. The trick is to make them when nobody's looking, in trivial matters."

Addendum: The original rules were formulated under the belief that stupidity is a personal characteristic, inherent in certain individuals. I find this reductionistic and a poor match to the evidence, and I question the methods by which the original research was done. It makes more sense, given the laws of unintended consequences and the apparently consistent findings of stupidity across class, race and gender lines, to consider stupidity by its effects (which is in fact how the rules define it) rather than by its origins.

Just as it is possible for intelligent people to do stupid things, similarly dumb people (or institutions, or policies) may have unexpectedly good results for all concerned. Stupidity is contextual, not essential.


Read more: http://www.disclose.tv/forum/the-five-laws-of-stupidity-t31237.html#ixzz2dTDmQedy
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MessageSujet: Re: philosophy    Ven 30 Aoû - 10:27

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Are most people stupid?

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Are most people stupid?
•SAMO
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Posted 07/10/11 - 3:18 PM:

I might be stupid... Nah, I know Im stupid and all that shit about analogy to other minds whatever whatever
•Tobias
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Posted 07/10/11 - 3:26 PM:

I find it rather boring to come to a forum and complain about other people. I find that most people are rather bright at what they do. Most do different things than I do, and I am bright at what I do too. So in my field it is easy to rank people down, but hey, if I go do what they do, they will think I am a complete moron.
•jsidelko
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Posted 07/10/11 - 3:48 PM:

If you are very intelligent than most people seem stupid in relation to you. I hate those web sites where anyone can give an answer to a question and the viewers rate the accuracy of the answer. THis is based on the assumption than the pooling of ignorance leads to wisdom.
•discoveryii
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Posted 07/10/11 - 3:59 PM:

I think Tobias is right on this count. Wasn't it Einstein who said that "...you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid"?
•GeMchick1082
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Posted 07/15/11 - 12:16 AM:

I got a part time job at a small community pharmacy when I was in HS and worked there for years. I'm not claiming to be a genius but am certantly of above average intelligence. I was young at the time I started, 16, and fairly niave in that I was only really exposed to my peers and school. So shortly after beginning this job where I dealt with general public, I noticed fast that the average person was not of average intelligence. They didn't fall neatly into the standard bell curve. I was shocked to see that grown people with grown children didn't know simple things that I took as basic knowledge, ex: normal temp. I remember thinking how did you not kill your children if you don't know this little thing. Then I later I saw that its as if there are people who are out to prove their ignorance/stupidity.
•180 Proof
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Posted 07/15/11 - 1:33 AM:

Here's a cognitive account: "The Problem of Stupidity" April 2011

Here's a social-cultural account: "Why such huge hole's in people's knowledge base?" September 2010

As far as I can tell, all human beings are susceptible to 'habituating' stupidity and all social systems 'normalize' various modes of stupidity to varying degrees.


•stoiccalm
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Posted 07/15/11 - 6:14 PM:

swstephe wrote:
I think the majority of people make guesses at what you are asking based on their experience of previous similar questions, then respond without thinking too deeply, or trying hard to sound smarter than they are. So are they stupid or lazy? I say "yes".

I've been accused by many people in many different areas of life of "over-thinking the question".
jsidelko wrote:
...I hate those web sites where anyone can give an answer to a question and the viewers rate the accuracy of the answer. THis is based on the assumption than the pooling of ignorance leads to wisdom.

Isn't that essentially what modern Western-style democracy is? Giving everyone an equal say in the governing of the nation irregardless of their qualifications to do so? The guy who can't even locate Iraq or Afghanistan on a map if the names were removed has the same power as a geography teacher.
GeMchick1082 wrote:
I got a part time job at a small community pharmacy when I was in HS and worked there for years. I'm not claiming to be a genius but am certantly of above average intelligence...

I noticed that the average level of intelligence in high school was well above that of most who went to my college.
•MarchHare
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Posted 07/15/11 - 6:48 PM:


I don't really think of myself as that smart, but a lot of people on say, Yahoo Answers, will respond to my questions and they will give a non-answer. For example I might give an either-or question and they will just say 'yes'.

Are most people stupid?


The latter.
•Sapientia
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Posted 07/15/11 - 7:10 PM:

GeMchick1082 wrote:
I got a part time job at a small community pharmacy when I was in HS and worked there for years. I'm not claiming to be a genius but am certantly of above average intelligence. I was young at the time I started, 16, and fairly niave in that I was only really exposed to my peers and school.


You certantly don't seem niave.

Herp derp.
•Unexpiritualized
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Posted 07/15/11 - 7:32 PM:

Stupid people are the people who always say "yes", who are always obedient. Society needs stupid people. If the president came to me and told me to start torturing, killing and raping people, I would say "no" even if that means my death.

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Masculin Nombre de messages : 19980
Date d'inscription : 17/05/2007

MessageSujet: Re: philosophy    Ven 30 Aoû - 10:29


Philosophy
In Eastern philosophy, the main terms used in Hinduism and Buddhism have dynamic connotations. The word Brahman is derived from the Sanskrit root 'brih' (to grow) and thus suggests a reality which is dynamic and alive. (Capra, 1972)Eastern Philosophy Wisdom Quotes
Greek philosophy begins with the preposterous fancy, that water is the origin of all things. Is it necessary to stop there & become serious? Yes ... because it contains the idea we find in all philosophy: everything is one! (Nietzsche, 1890)Ancient Greek Philosophy
All things come out of the one and the one out of all things. ... I see nothing but Becoming. Be not deceived! The very river in which you bathe a second time is no longer the same one you entered before. (Heraclitus, 500 B.C.)Heraclitus Logos Dynamic Unity
Are you not ashamed that you give your attention to acquiring as much money as possible, and care so little about wisdom and truth, which you never regard or heed at all? (Socrates, The Apology, 469 - 399 B.C.)Socrates Wisdom Truth Apology
The philosopher is in love with truth, that is, not with the changing world of sensation, which is the object of opinion, but with the unchanging reality which is the object of knowledge. (Plato, 429-347 B.C.)Plato's Republic
Greek Philosopher
The life of theoretical philosophy is the best & happiest one can lead. Few are capable of it (and only then intermittently). For the rest, the second-best way of life, is moral virtue & practical wisdom. (Aristotle, 384-322 B.C.)Aristotle Unity Metaphysics
Frequently consider the connection of all things in the universe. ... We should not say 'I am an Athenian' or 'I am a Roman' but 'I am a citizen of the Universe. (Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, 121-180 A.D.)Marcus Aurelius
Stoic Meditations
We are a part of nature as a whole, whose order we follow. ... He who lives under the guidance of reason endeavours to repay his fellows hatred, rage & contempt with love and nobleness. (Benedict de Spinoza, Ethics, 1632-1677)Benedict Spinoza Ethics in Motion
Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. I do not conceive of any reality at all as without genuine unity. (Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, 1646 - 1716)Gottfried Leibniz
One Monadology
My purpose therefore is, to try if I can discover what those principles are, which have introduced all that doubtfulness and uncertainty, those absurdities and contradictions into the several sects of philosophy. (George Berkeley, 1710)George Berkeley
Idealism Mind God
And though the philosopher may live remote from business, the genius of philosophy, if carefully cultivated by several, must gradually diffuse itself throughout the whole society, and bestow a similar correctness on every art and calling. (David Hume, 1737)David Hume
Problem Causation
It is the duty of philosophy to destroy the illusions which had their origin in misconceptions, whatever darling hopes and valued expectations may be ruined by its explanations. ... Pure reason is a perfect unity. (Immanuel Kant, 1781)Immanuel Kant
Pure Reason
There is nothing more necessary than truth, everything else has only secondary value. One does not want to be deceived, under the supposition that it is injurious, dangerous, or fatal to be deceived. (Nietzsche, 1890)Friedrich Nietzsche
Quotes Good Evil
.. by nature man is a political animal. Men have a desire for life together, even when they have no need to seek each other's help. Common interest too is a factor in bringing them together, contributing to the good life of each. (Aristotle, Politics)Political Science Global Politics
Since philosophy is the art which teaches us how to live, and since children need to learn it as much as we do at other ages, why do we not instruct them in it? (Michel de Montaigne, Essays, 1592)Ed. Philosophy
Education of Truth
Art is a selective re-creation of reality according to an artist's metaphysical value-judgments. An artist recreates those aspects of reality which represent his fundamental view of man's nature. (Ayn Rand, On Philosophy of Art)Philosophy of Art
Famous Artists
If we take away the subject (Humans), or our senses in general, then not only the nature and relations of objects in space and time, but even space and time themselves disappear ... they cannot exist in themselves, but only in us. (Immanuel Kant, 1781)Philosophy of Mind
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.. the puzzles that constitute normal science exist only because no paradigm that provides a basis for scientific research ever completely resolves all its problems. (Thomas Kuhn, 1962)Postmodernism
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'When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter.' (Albert Einstein) Einstein
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'What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of space. Particles are just schaumkommen (appearances).' (Erwin Schrodinger on Quantum Physics / Wave Mechanics) Quantum Physics
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On Truth & Reality
The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) in Space

Important Note (September, 2012) - I have submitted an essay to a competition on the foundations of physical reality. It explains how matter and fields are just two different ways that space vibrates. It is very simple and obvious once understood, has profound consequences for humanity, our sense of self in the universe knowing that we vibrate with everything around us. Please read it, rate it, and I will reply to all comments. Thanks, Geoff haselhurst (11th Sept. 2012)

Site Introduction (2012): Despite several thousand years of failure to correctly understand physical reality (hence the current postmodern view that this is impossible) there is an obvious solution.
Simply unite Science (Occam's Razor / Simplicity) with Metaphysics (Dynamic Unity of Reality) and describe reality from only one substance existing, as Leibniz wrote;
'Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another'.
Given we all experience many minds and many material things, but always in one common Space, we are thus required to describe physical reality in terms of Space. We then find there is only one solution, a Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) where the electron is a spherical standing wave. See Wave Diagrams.
In hindsight the error was obvious, to try and describe an interconnected reality with discrete 'particles', which then required forces / fields to connect them in space and time. This was always just a mathematical solution which never explained how matter was connected across the universe.

I realise that there are a lot of 'crackpot' theories about truth and reality on the internet, but it is easy to show that the Wave Structure of Matter is the correct solution as it deduces the laws of Nature (the fundamentals of Physics & Philosophy) perfectly (there are no opinions). While the Wave Structure of Matter is obvious once known, to begin it will seem strange simply because it takes time for our minds to adjust to new knowledge.

For those who are religious / spiritual, I think Albert Einstein expresses the enlightened view of God. He writes 'I believe in Spinoza's God who reveals himself in the orderly harmony of what exists, not in a God who concerns himself with the fates and actions of human beings.' This harmony arises from a Wave Structure of Matter in Space (we are all interconnected in this space that we all commonly experience). This unity of reality (God, Brahman, Tao, Spirit, Energy, Light, Vibration) is central to all major world religions, thus their common moral foundation of 'Do unto others as to thyself' as the other is part of the self.

Please help our world (human society / life on earth) by sharing this knowledge.
Clearly our world is in great trouble due to human overpopulation and the resultant destruction of Nature, climate change and the pollution of air, land and water. The best solution to these problems is to found our societies on truth and reality rather than past myths and customs (which invariably cause harm).
We are listed as one of the Top Philosophy Websites on the Internet with around 600,000 page views each week, and rank in the top 20 in Google for many academic search terms - so we just need a bit of help to get in the top five. Given the Censorship in Physics / Philosophy of Science Journals (founded on the standard model / particle physics) the internet is clearly the best way to get new knowledge visible to the world.
A world now in great need of wisdom from truth and reality.
Sincerely,
Geoff Haselhurst - Karene Howie - Full Introduction - Email - Nice Letters - Share this Knowledge

In a time of universal deceit - telling the truth is a revolutionary act. (George Orwell)
You must be the change you wish to see in the world. (Mohandas Gandhi)
All that is necessary for evil to succeed is for good men to do nothing. (Edmund Burke)
Hell is Truth Seen Too Late. (Thomas Hobbes)
The Insanity of Humanity and
the Collapse of Human Civilization
On Human Insanity, Stupidity and its Cure - Wisdom from Truth and Reality

This page is perhaps the most important on this website. It explains how to cure human insanity by understanding the truth of our existence in space / the universe. This is critically important as our individual insanity creates insane societies that are destroying life on earth - polluting our air, food, water and space (electromagnetic pollution). I assume that this ongoing madness will cause a collapse of human society - with the death of billions. We are creating hell on earth, and as Thomas Hobbes wrote: Hell is truth seen too late.

Our insanity is basically due to our evolution as programmed machines. Throughout history humans have been programmed by myths and customs that are not true. Because of our programmed nature it is important to read things several times, to really think about them. There is a simple solution to this insanity - it is called truth - it is derived from a correct understanding of physical reality.
The contents are listed below.

Geoff Haselhurst
(February, 2010)

Introduction and Definition of Insanity - Insanity Quotes - Empirical Evidence of Madness of Man
Myth Causes Insanity - Truth Cures Insanity - Top of Page
Introduction: The Insanity of Humanity - Defining Insanity
Both ancient philosophy and modern physics (quantum physics, Einstein's theory of relativity, cosmology) know that physical reality is a dynamic unity, matter-energy and space-time are one interconnected thing.

We now know this is true, the wave structure of matter (WSM) in space explains this. It is wave motions of space that cause matter and time. I have known of this interconnected wave nature of reality for 13 years. My mind sees more clearly the profound truth of the dynamic unity of the universe, the driving force of evolution and ecology of both life on earth and matter in the universe.

With this enlightenment, we then see that human cultural evolution contradicts these foundations, having evolved most from religious myths and scientific errors relating to the discrete particle. The most important being god is separate from the world and created it, and that matter is separate from the world as a discrete inert particle (created and connected by god).

Defining Insanity
Let us define insanity as;

Believing things to be true that are not true - or believing things to be not true that are true.

This could also be stated as;

Believing things do exist that do not exist or believing things do not exist that do exist.

You need just look at the world and talk to people to see most things are based upon simplistic and often silly ideas, with at times evil consequences. This insanity of the individual is collectively causing the evolution of insanity in humanity.

Below is my list of insane things. I hope you will add to it. The purpose of the list? To make you aware - knowing the truth allows us to think and act wisely.

The cure to all forms of insanity is truth and reality.

In this way we creatively evolve sane societies that are good for people and life on earth.

Introduction and Definition of Insanity - Insanity Quotes - Empirical Evidence of Madness of Man
Myth Causes Insanity - Truth Cures Insanity - Top of Page
Quotes on the Insanity of Humanity

"Strange times are these in which we live when old and young are taught in falsehoods school. And the one man that dares to tell the truth is called at once a lunatic and fool." (Plato)

"Suppose, then, that all men were sick or deranged, save one or two of them who were healthy and of right mind. It would then be the latter two who would be thought to be sick and deranged and the former not!"
(Aristotle, Metaphysics 340BC)

"Men are so necessarily mad that not to be mad would amount to another form of madness."
(Pascal)

"Withhold any amazement at the strangely gallied whales before us, for there is no folly of the beasts of earth which is not infinitely outdone by the madness of men."
(Herman Melville, Moby Dick)

"In individuals, insanity is rare; but in groups, parties, nations and epochs, it is the rule."
(Nietzsche)

"Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I am not sure about the universe."
(Albert Einstein)

"In a mad world, only the mad are sane."
(Akiro Kurosawa)

"Insanity is the only sane reaction to an insane society."
(Thomas Szasz, The Myth of Mental Illness)

Introduction and Definition of Insanity - Insanity Quotes - Empirical Evidence of Madness of Man
Myth Causes Insanity - Truth Cures Insanity - Top of Page
Evidence for the Insanity of Humanity

1. We evolved from Nature, all our requirements for life and survival depend upon Nature, yet we are destroying Nature.

2. The cause of this destruction is human overpopulation and agriculture - yet we do little to regulate this.

3. 70% of the world's food is controlled by 5 global corporations, and contains just 14 plants and 5 animals. World food production is declining due to destruction of soils, despite increased chemical and genetic pollution / corruption of Nature. World human population is increasing (average of 6.5 children in Africa). I expect billions will starve this century.

4. Our lives are dominated by market economic forces which select for short term profit and over consumption (both manifestations of the human instinct of greed), controlled by global immoral corporations. To not regulate the market to force it to do what is good (moral) for people / life on earth is insane.

We see this insanity and immorality of corporations manifest in many ways.

5. Most western people use microwaves against the side of their heads (cell phones), that resonate with matter in your body, changing it, and at times contributing to genetic damage and cancer (ear, head, underarm, groin). This has occurred without any significant study of health effects for this particular frequency of waves.

6. Drugs (in particular vaccines) are released on the masses with only a few months between development, testing and use on the general population. It is argued that this is necessary due to the annual mutation / evolution of viruses and thus the only way to keep up with treating them. In doing this though the risks of the medical treatment often exceed the risk of the disease. i.e. The medical system is dominated by corporations that seek short term profit and over consumption - not what is good for you. We have more on this on the health pages.

7. Sunshine. Related to this is the absurd view that sunshine is bad for you. This completely contradicts evolution, and the known fact that we need sunshine to produce vitamin D, that this is critical for the correct functioning of our body and immune system. Basically the sun is the fundamental energy source for life on earth, and both plants and animals will use this energy for building and maintaining life. Further, we are encouraged to cover our skin with sunscreen that contains known carcinogens. As a result of this it is estimated that 80% of Australia's population is deficient in vitamin D, and their bodies have absorbed toxic chemicals from sunscreen with unknown affects on human health.

8. Solar energy. The sun puts out more energy in 1 second than humanity has consumed in its entirety. We need only 1 percent of the sun's energy that reaches the earth to power human civilisation. We have known of the photoelectric effect for 100 years, yet only in the past 10 years has there been significant research and development of solar cells. Already they can be manufactured at $1 per Watt (parity with fossil fuel energy) and within ten years they will be a fraction of that price. Basically we have a free green nuclear power station in the form of our sun, yet we continue to build nuclear and coal / gas power stations.

9. The world's wealthiest nation (USA) is bankrupt, with a foreign debt that it cannot pay, and it continues to over consume. At the same time China, who has a large surplus by selling things to the USA, has most people working in poorly paid jobs. i.e. China creates wealth, USA consumes it while bankrupting the nation.

10. The War on Terror. The causes of terrorism are related to cultural myths and lack of education, injustice and an unfair distribution of wealth. Yet we deal with terrorism by killing 'terrorists' (or people we claim to be terrorists without any process of law and justice). This is state sanctioned murder, and it obviously increases the motivation of terrorists.

......

I will add more things here over time - please feel free to contribute your examples of human stupidity / insanity to facebook connect or Google friend (below).

Although as a rule the absurd culminates, and it seems impossible for the voice of the individual ever to penetrate through the chorus of foolers and fooled, still there is left to the genuine works of all times a quite peculiar, silent, slow, and powerful influence; and as if by a miracle, we see them rise at last out of the turmoil like a balloon that floats up out of the thick atmosphere of this globe into purer regions. Having once arrived there, it remains at rest, and no one can any longer draw it down again. (Arthur Schopenhauer, 1818)

Introduction and Definition of Insanity - Insanity Quotes - Empirical Evidence of Madness of Man
Myth Causes Insanity - Truth Cures Insanity - Top of Page
Myths Cause Insanity / Human Stupidity

In my opinion, the greatest scandal of philosophy is that, while all around us the world of nature perishes - and not the world of nature alone - philosophers continue to talk, sometimes cleverly and sometimes not, about the question of whether this world exists. They get involved in scholasticism, in linguistic puzzles such as, for example, whether or not there are differences between 'being' and 'existing'. (Karl Popper, 1975)

After 20 years of study of physics, philosophy, metaphysics and evolution I think I can summarise the main causes of human insanity and the resultant stupidity.

1. Naive Realism
Most people think that the world around them exists as they see it. They seem incapable of abstracting from their sense of solid separate objects to realise that physical reality is dynamic and interconnected. Einstein states this well;

The more plebeian illusion of naive realism, according to which things 'are' as they are perceived by us through our senses ... dominates the daily life of men and of animals; it is also the point of departure in all of the sciences, especially of the natural sciences. (Albert Einstein)

2. Idealism
This is the other extreme to naive realism, where people think the world around them does not exist, it is purely a construction of the mind. Berkeley is most famous for this subtle form of madness, Popper's reply is important;

Esse est percipi (To be is to be perceived). ... All the choir of heaven and furniture of earth - in a word, all those bodies which compose the frame of the world - have not any subsistence without a mind. (George Berkeley)

Denying realism amounts to megalomania (the most widespread occupational disease of the professional philosopher). (Popper, 1975)

3. Postmodernism / Critical Idealism
This is the current foundation of knowledge, a position of skeptical uncertainty about the external world of our senses. Theories are incomplete models, grand narratives that are now largely ignored in favour of personal truths (which people prefer). Kant is most famous for this metaphysical skepticism.

If we take away the subject (Humans), or even only the subjective constitution of our senses in general, then not only the nature and relations of objects in space and time, but even space and time themselves disappear; and that these, as appearances, cannot exist in themselves, but only in us. What may be the nature of objects considered as things in themselves and without reference to the receptivity of our sensibility is quite unknown to us. (Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, 1781)

4. Maths and Mathematical Physics
This is a subtle form of insanity that infects mathematical physicists such that they believe that mathematical truths are more fundamental than physical reality. Clearly they have things backwards, as it must be physical reality that is the cause of mathematics (as the wave structure of matter explains).

Today's scientists have substituted mathematics for experiments, and they wander off through equation after equation, and eventually build a structure which has no relation to reality. (Nikola Tesla)

Mathematics was associated with a more refined type of error. Mathematical knowledge appeared to be certain, exact, and applicable to the real world; moreover it was obtained by mere thinking, without the need of observation. Consequently, it was thought to supply an ideal, from which everyday empirical knowledge fell short. It was supposed on the basis of mathematics, that thought is superior to sense, intuition to observation. If the world of sense does not fit mathematics, so much the worse for the world of sense. ... This form of philosophy begins with Pythagoras. (Bertrand Russell)

Herein lies the great weakness, and the great strength of mathematics. It is possible to evolve more and more complex relationships between things, which shed light on ideas far beyond the original relationships. Unfortunately, it is also possible that these things do not actually exist, except as evolved complex mathematical relationships.

The skeptic will say: "It may well be true that this system of equations is reasonable from a logical standpoint. But this does not prove that it corresponds to nature." You are right, dear skeptic. Experience alone can decide on truth. ... Pure logical thinking cannot yield us any knowledge of the empirical world: all knowledge of reality starts from experience and ends in it. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

5. Religious Faith
Most humans have evolved a strong religious instinct (an instinct to believe in tribal myths, this makes the tribe stronger). Given these myths never had any evidence to support them, it was a brilliant strategy to invent the concept of 'faith'. That to be truly religious we must have faith that what someone wrote in a book several thousand years ago is the word of god and thus absolutely true. As Nietzsche writes;

For such is man: a Theological Dogma might be refuted to him a thousand times - provided however, that he had need of it, he would again and again accept it as true.
Belief is always most desired, most pressingly needed where there is a lack of will.
Fanaticism is the sole "volitional strength" to which the weak and irresolute can be excited, as a sort of hypnotising of the entire sensory-intellectual system....
What if God were not exactly truth, and if this could be proved? And if he were instead the vanity, the desire for power, the ambitions, the fear, and the enraptured and terrified folly of mankind?
(Friedrich Nietzsche)

Introduction and Definition of Insanity - Insanity Quotes - Empirical Evidence of Madness of Man
Myth Causes Insanity - Truth Cures Insanity - Top of Page
The Cure - Truth and Reality

For work uses up an extraordinary proportion of nervous force, withdrawing it from reflection, meditation, dreams, cares, love, and hatred; it dangles unimportant aims before the eyes of the worker and affords easy and regular gratification. And now, horror of horrors! It is the workman himself who has become dangerous; the whole world is swarming with "dangerous individuals" (Friedrich Nietzsche)

Truth is the only cure for the insanity of humanity.

The following pages have been re-written over the past two months (Feb. 2010). They are the most important pages for understanding how the wave structure of matter (WSM) works, why I am convinced this is true.

Truth Statements on Physical Reality - These truth statements show people how to deduce physical reality for themselves and confirm it is true. It also provides a very concise summary of the central things the WSM explains. See if you can show any statement is not true.

Wave Equation in an Elastic Wave Medium - Deducing the famous energy equations, Einstein's E=mc2, Planck's E=hf and Newton's F=ma from simple wave equations in an elastic medium (space). This confirms that the equivalence of matter and energy is because matter is made of waves, and waves propagate energy. All forces are due to changes in wave velocity.

The Laws of Nature - The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) deduces the laws of Nature that have been empirically observed and quantified over the past several centuries. This changes the foundations of science / physics from inductive (uncertain) to deductive (certain).

Metaphysics - Solving the central problem of metaphysics - what is the one active substance that causes and connects the many changing material things we experience. The solution is simple, space is a wave medium and contains wave motions. i.e. From the motion of matter particles in space and time, to the wave motion of space that causes matter and time.

Cosmology - Explaining how our observable universe exists as a finite spherical region of infinite eternal space.

Please also see the main pages on the left.

Any thoughts - post below. Thanks.

Geoff Haselhurst
(March, 2010)

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Biography: Geoffrey Haselhurst, Philosopher of Science, Theoretical Physics, Metaphysics, Evolution. Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

This is the profound new way of thinking that Einstein realised, that we exist as spatially extended structures of the universe - the discrete and separate body an illusion. This simply confirms the intuitions of the ancient philosophers and mystics.

Given the current censorship in physics / philosophy of science journals (based on the standard model of particle physics / big bang cosmology) the internet is the best hope for getting new knowledge known to the world. But that depends on you, the people who care about science and society, realise the importance of truth and reality.

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Masculin Nombre de messages : 19980
Date d'inscription : 17/05/2007

MessageSujet: Re: philosophy    Ven 30 Aoû - 10:32


Metaphysics
Metaphysics is the attempt to know reality as against mere appearance, or the study of first principles or ultimate truths, or again the effort to comprehend the universe, not simply by fragments, but somehow as a whole. (F.H. Bradley, 1846-1924)Unite Metaphysics
Science Space
All things come out of the one and the one out of all things. ... I see nothing but Becoming. Be not deceived! The very river in which you bathe a second time is no longer the same one you entered before. (Heraclitus, 500BC)One and the Many
Dynamic Unity
Metaphysics is universal and is exclusively concerned with primary substance. ... Here we have the science to study that which is just as that which is, both in its essence and in the properties which, just as a thing that is, it has. (Aristotle, 340BC)Aristotle Physics
Metaphysics
No one doubts but that we imagine TIME from the very fact that we imagine other bodies to be moved slower or faster or equally fast. We are accustomed to determine duration by the aid of some measure of MOTION. (Spinoza, 1673)Benedictus de Spinoza: Motion
Absolute Space, in its own nature, without regard to any thing external, remains always similar and immovable. ... It seems probable to me that God formed matter in solid, hard, impenetrable, movable particles. (Sir Isaac Newton)Sir Isaac Newton Absolute Space
Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. ... Substance cannot be conceived without activity, activity being the essence of substance in general. (Gottfried Leibniz, 1670)Gottfried Leibniz Monadology Unity
When we look towards external objects, and consider the operation of causes, we can never discover any power or necessary connexion which binds the effect to the cause, and renders the one a consequence of the other. (David Hume, 1737)Hume Causation
Nec. Connection
Natural science contains in itself synthetical judgments a priori, as principles. ... Space then is a necessary representation a priori, which serves for the foundation of all external intuitions. (Immanuel Kant, 1781) Kant Metaphysics Synthetic a priori
Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). Thus the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The field becomes an irreducible element of physical description, irreducible in the same sense as matter (particles) in Newton's theory. (Albert Einstein, 1950) Albert Einstein
Field Theory
Do not allow yourselves to be deceived: Great Minds are Skeptical. ... There is nothing more necessary than truth, and in comparison with it everything else has only secondary value. (Friedrich Nietzsche, 1890)Skepticism
Skeptics Quotes

Metaphysics Site Map








Subjects
On Truth and Reality - Site IntroductionTruth Reality (Home)
'Most of the fundamental ideas of science are simple and can be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone. ... Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler.' (Albert Einstein)Simple
Science
'Metaphysics is universal and is exclusively concerned with primary substance. ... And here we will have the science to study that which is, both in its essence and in the properties which it has.' (Aristotle, 340BC) Metaphysics
Substance
On Mathematics, mathematical physics, logic, truth and reality.Mathematical
Physics
'When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter.' (Albert Einstein) Einstein
Relativity
'What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of space. Particles are just schaumkommen (appearances).' (Erwin Schrodinger on Quantum Physics / Wave Mechanics) Quantum Physics
'Can we visualize a universe which is finite yet unbounded? ... The supreme task of the physicist is to arrive at those universal laws from which the cosmos can be built up by pure deduction.' (Albert Einstein)Cosmology
Space
'There is nothing more necessary than truth. ... One does not want to be deceived, under the supposition that it is injurious, dangerous, or fatal to be deceived.' (Friedrich Nietzsche on Philosophy)Philosophy
Truth
'If religion is the establishing of a relationship between man and the universe, then morality is the explanation of those activities that automatically result when a person maintains a relationship to the universe.' (Leo Tolstoy)Theology
Religion
'Although I am fully convinced of the truth of Evolution, I by no means expect to convince experienced naturalists. But I look with confidence to the future naturalists, who will be able to view both sides with impartiality.'(Charles Darwin) Evolution
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Evolving a healthy lifestyle. Preventative medicine of physical exercise and consuming clean air, water and nature based organic food.Health
Nutrition
'All who have meditated on the art of governing mankind have been convinced that the fate of empires depends on the education of youth. ... The educated differ from the uneducated as much as the living from the dead.' (Aristotle) Education
Wisdom
'Mankind has tried the other two roads to peace - the road of political jealousy and the road of religious bigotry - and found them both equally misleading. Perhaps it will now try the third, the road of scientific truth, the only road on which the passenger is not deceived.' (Professor Garrett P. Serviss) Politics
Utopia

On Truth & Reality
The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) in Space

Important Note (September, 2012) - I have submitted an essay to a competition on the foundations of physical reality. It explains how matter and fields are just two different ways that space vibrates. It is very simple and obvious once understood, has profound consequences for humanity, our sense of self in the universe knowing that we vibrate with everything around us. Please read it, rate it, and I will reply to all comments. Thanks, Geoff haselhurst (11th Sept. 2012)

Site Introduction (2012): Despite several thousand years of failure to correctly understand physical reality (hence the current postmodern view that this is impossible) there is an obvious solution.
Simply unite Science (Occam's Razor / Simplicity) with Metaphysics (Dynamic Unity of Reality) and describe reality from only one substance existing, as Leibniz wrote;
'Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another'.
Given we all experience many minds and many material things, but always in one common Space, we are thus required to describe physical reality in terms of Space. We then find there is only one solution, a Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) where the electron is a spherical standing wave. See Wave Diagrams.
In hindsight the error was obvious, to try and describe an interconnected reality with discrete 'particles', which then required forces / fields to connect them in space and time. This was always just a mathematical solution which never explained how matter was connected across the universe.

I realise that there are a lot of 'crackpot' theories about truth and reality on the internet, but it is easy to show that the Wave Structure of Matter is the correct solution as it deduces the laws of Nature (the fundamentals of Physics & Philosophy) perfectly (there are no opinions). While the Wave Structure of Matter is obvious once known, to begin it will seem strange simply because it takes time for our minds to adjust to new knowledge.

For those who are religious / spiritual, I think Albert Einstein expresses the enlightened view of God. He writes 'I believe in Spinoza's God who reveals himself in the orderly harmony of what exists, not in a God who concerns himself with the fates and actions of human beings.' This harmony arises from a Wave Structure of Matter in Space (we are all interconnected in this space that we all commonly experience). This unity of reality (God, Brahman, Tao, Spirit, Energy, Light, Vibration) is central to all major world religions, thus their common moral foundation of 'Do unto others as to thyself' as the other is part of the self.

Please help our world (human society / life on earth) by sharing this knowledge.
Clearly our world is in great trouble due to human overpopulation and the resultant destruction of Nature, climate change and the pollution of air, land and water. The best solution to these problems is to found our societies on truth and reality rather than past myths and customs (which invariably cause harm).
We are listed as one of the Top Philosophy Websites on the Internet with around 600,000 page views each week, and rank in the top 20 in Google for many academic search terms - so we just need a bit of help to get in the top five. Given the Censorship in Physics / Philosophy of Science Journals (founded on the standard model / particle physics) the internet is clearly the best way to get new knowledge visible to the world.
A world now in great need of wisdom from truth and reality.
Sincerely,
Geoff Haselhurst - Karene Howie - Full Introduction - Email - Nice Letters - Share this Knowledge

In a time of universal deceit - telling the truth is a revolutionary act. (George Orwell)
You must be the change you wish to see in the world. (Mohandas Gandhi)
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Hell is Truth Seen Too Late. (Thomas Hobbes)
Metaphysics & Physical Reality

I have tried to write this metaphysics page with simplicity and clarity in mind at all times. It explains (for the first time) a simple, sensible, logical solution to the problems of metaphysics - by describing reality in terms of one thing that we all commonly experience as one thing - space.

It is written in five parts;

1. A summary of the central points.

2. What is Metaphysics? Deducing the Solution.

3. The Error: Newton's Particles, Mathematical Metaphysics and Physics.

4. The Solution to the Skepticism of Postmodern Metaphysics and Philosophy.

5. Important Metaphysics Quotes from Aristotle, Leibniz, Hume, Kant and Einstein.

Geoff Haselhurst
(January, 2010)

Metaphysics: Summary
The Metaphysics of Space and Motion

1. What is Metaphysics? It is the study of the one substance that necessarily exists and causes / connects the many material things we observe. It is useful to quote Aristotle since he first formalised the subject of metaphysics.

The first philosophy (Metaphysics) is universal and is exclusively concerned with primary substance. ... And here we will have the science to study that which is just as that which is, both in its essence and in the properties which, just as a thing that is, it has.
The entire preoccupation of the physicist is with things that contain within themselves a principle of movement and rest. And to seek for this is to seek for the second kind of principle, that from which comes the beginning of the change. (Aristotle, Metaphysics, 340BC)

2. The one substance is this space we all experience existing in. As only one substance, space, exists it cannot be bounded by, created from, or contain another substance - thus it is necessarily infinite, eternal and continuous.

3. What are the Properties of Space? It is a continuously connected wave medium - it has waves flowing through it. (It may have more properties - I do not know.)

4. The many material things that we see as discrete and separate 'particles' moving around in this space are really formed from wave motions of this space (space is vibrating).

5. By describing matter with a spherical in out wave structure we can understand how the particle effect forms at the wave center and also how this 'particle' is in continual two way communication with other matter waves in the space around it.

6. This simplifies metaphysics from the motion of matter particles in space and time to the wave motion of space that causes matter and time. i.e. From a metaphysics of space and time to a metaphysics of space and (wave) motion.

7. This unites Science (empirical: we all experience existing in space; Occam's razor: simplicity of only space existing) with Metaphysics (space is the unity of substance which explains causal connection).

8. By correcting the errors of both these subjects we can then solve the central problems of knowledge in physics and philosophy as a foundation for solving the central problems confronting humanity and our future survival on earth.

9. This is not just an academic discussion on metaphysics, it is physical reality - how you exist as matter in space and interact with the rest of the matter of our observable universe.

10. This is the source of truth and wisdom - both necessary for our future survival.

What is Metaphysics: Discussion / Deductions

Metaphysics now has a reputation for being fanciful and ultimately empty of meaning. This is not due to the subject of metaphysics itself (as conceived by Aristotle), but rather due to the failure of philosophers / metaphysicists to solve the fundamental problem of metaphysics, i.e.

"What is the one substance that exists and causes and connects our world of many different things?"

The following quotes from Aristotle, Leibniz and Bradley explain this well.


It is clear, that wisdom is knowledge having to do with certain principles and causes. But now, since it is this knowledge that we are seeking, we must consider the following point: of what kind of principles and of what kind of causes is wisdom the knowledge? (Aristotle, Metaphysics, 340BC)The first philosophy (Metaphysics) is universal and is exclusively concerned with primary substance. ... And here we will have the science to study that which is just as that which is, both in its essence and in the properties which, just as a thing that is, it has.
The entire preoccupation of the physicist is with things that contain within themselves a principle of movement and rest. And to seek for this is to seek for the second kind of principle, that from which comes the beginning of the change. (Aristotle, Metaphysics, 340BC)

Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. (Leibniz, 1670)Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. ... I maintain also that substances, whether material or immaterial, cannot be conceived in their bare essence without any activity, activity being of the essence of substance in general. (Gottfried Leibniz, 1670)

We may agree, to understand by Metaphysics an attempt to know reality as against mere appearance, or the study of first principles or ultimate truths, or again the effort to comprehend the universe, not simply piecemeal or by fragments, but somehow as a whole. (Bradley)We may agree, perhaps, to understand by Metaphysics an attempt to know reality as against mere appearance, or the study of first principles or ultimate truths, or again the effort to comprehend the universe, not simply piecemeal or by fragments, but somehow as a whole. (Bradley, 1846-1924)


A simple way to explain metaphysics is to simply drop a ball. Notice that you do not see any obvious connection between the ball and the earth - yet they are obviously connected because we see the effect of this connection, the ball moves (accelerates) towards the earth. The same argument applies to the Earth orbiting the sun, an electron in an atom, how we can see stars across the universe.
We give these connections names, e.g. light and gravity, but no one knew what these hidden causal connections were.

This is known to philosophers as Hume's Problem of Causation and Necessary Connection, but really it is common knowledge that dates back to the ancients - the Problem of the One and the Many.

... experience only teaches us, how one event constantly follows another; without instructing us in the secret connexion, which binds them together, and renders them inseparable. (Hume, 1737)It must certainly be allowed, that nature has kept us at a great distance from all her secrets, and has afforded us only the knowledge of a few superficial qualities of objects; while she conceals from us those powers and principles on which the influence of those objects entirely depends. (Hume, 1737)

When we look about us towards external objects, and consider the operation of causes, we are never able, in a single instance, to discover any power or necessary connexion; any quality, which binds the effect to the cause, and renders the one an infallible consequence of the other. (Hume, 1737)

Since we do not see the causal connection between things in space, this means that metaphysics must somehow be founded on something that we imagine. The problem here is that our minds are very good at imagining things that do not exist, e.g. dragons and particles.
This has allowed much to be published in the name of 'metaphysics' which is just imagination and has no relation to physical reality (thus exacerbating the poor reputation of metaphysics). Leibniz states this well also;

"... a distinction must be made between true and false ideas, and that too much rein must not be given to a man's imagination under pretext of its being a clear and distinct intellection." (Leibniz, 1670)

So you see the problem of metaphysics is simple and profound - we must imagine this hidden connection between things. To solve this requires true knowledge of physical reality, such that we can understand this hidden causal connection that our senses tell us must exist, yet we do not see.

In the remainder of this short essay I will show you how to solve this problem.
The easiest way is to just go back over the history and evolution of metaphysics, explain where we went astray, and then show you the correct path.

The Simple Solution to the Problem of Metaphysics
Friedrich Nietzsche, Philosopher: Quotations from Beyond Good and Evil, The Greeks."Greek philosophy seems to begin with a preposterous fancy, with the proposition that water is the origin and mother-womb of all things.
Is it really necessary to stop there and become serious?
Yes, and for three reasons:
firstly, because the preposition does enunciate something about the origin of things;
secondly, because it does so without figure and fable;
thirdly and lastly, because it contained, although only in the chrysalis state, the idea :everything is one.
..That which drove him (Thales) to this generalization was a metaphysical dogma, which had its origin in a mystic intuition and which together with the ever renewed endeavors to express it better, we find in all philosophies - the proposition: everything is one!" (Friedrich Nietzsche)

This is an important quote, confirming this importance of one underlying substance to explain how matter is inter-connected across the universe.
Surprisingly, after such a long period of failure to solve this problem we find that we can actually deduce the solution.

Deducing Reality: Uniting Science with Metaphysics
We just had to ask; What is the Most Simple Science Theory of Reality?

Clearly the most simple solution must be founded on only one substance existing, thus we are uniting science with metaphysics. This is important to emphasise, as it is not the simplicity that is important (it is nice), but the underlying unity of substance to explain causal connection.

The Wave Structure of Matter in SpaceGiven that we all experience many minds and many material objects, but always in one common space, thus to abide by science (empiricism / simplicity) we have no choice but to describe reality in terms of space.

From here it is easy to show that there is only one solution, a wave structure of matter in Space. i.e. Space is a substance with the properties of a continuously connected wave medium and matter is formed from spherical wave motions of this space (thus explaining Aristotle's property of activity / motion as being caused by the wave motion of Space).

Note: the diagram's circles are a two dimensional representation of three dimensional spheres / four dimensional spherical waves.

And I do realise that this may seem radical to people brought up with particle concepts of matter (as I was), yet physics itself tells us that matter is a large structure of space, as required by Einstein's general relativity and quantum physics.

Further we see that this solution satisfies the rules of both metaphysics and science - while also correcting their errors (giving substance to science - empiricism to metaphysics).

Science

i) Simplicity / Occam's razor: We apply this to science itself to deduce the most simple science theory of reality. This prevents us from describing reality in terms of many discrete and separate things (matter 'particles').

ii) Empirical: We all experience existing in one common space.

iii) Logical: Waves / interconnected wave patterns behave logically.

Metaphysics

i) Substance: Only one substance exists, this space we all commonly experience existing in.

ii) Causation and Necessary Connection: By describing reality in terms of only one substance, space, we can easily understand how matter's spherical in and out waves are necessarily interconnected with other matter in the space around it. This is why you can see distant stars - your body is a wave structure of the universe vibrating with all this other matter.

And hopefully it is now more clear to you this profundity of metaphysics - being central to: simplicity, unity, reality, necessary connection, causation, logic, knowledge, certainty, senses, science and truth.

The Error: Newton's Particles and Mathematical Physics

Once we have the correct solution it is easy to see where we made the error. We just have to go back to the time of Huygens (1629-1695), Newton (1642-1727) and Leibniz (1646-1716).

History shows that we took the path of Newton and tried to describe an inter-connected reality with many discrete and separate matter 'particles'. This then required mathematical relationships to connect the matter particles in space and time - where particles have 'mass' and are connected by 'forces' as per Newton's famous law of inertia F=m. a.

Effectively Newton (and mathematical physics) replaced a metaphysics of substance with a metaphysics of mathematics, where causal connection came from mathematical logic and axioms. However, this never explained causal connection and when they finally looked for the source of this they found that mathematics itself is incomplete (see Godel). As Dyson writes;

I am acutely aware of the fact that the marriage between mathematics and physics, which was so enormously fruitful in past centuries, has recently ended in divorce. ( Freeman John Dyson, Missed Opportunities)

Newton realised this lack of causal connection in his mechanics, he writes;

'Absolute Space, in its own nature, without regard to any thing external, remains always similar and immovable' (Newton).It is inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should, without mediation of something else which is not matter, operate on and affect other matter without mutual contact. ... That gravity should be innate, inherent and essential to matter, so that one body may act upon another at-a-distance, through a vacuum, without the mediation of anything else by and through which their action may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity that I believe no man, who has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking, can ever fall into it. So far I have explained the phenomena by the force of gravity, but I have not yet ascertained the cause of gravity itself. ... and I do not arbitrarily invent hypotheses. (Newton. Letter to Richard Bentley 25 Feb. 1693)

Einstein confirms this;

Young Albert Einstein (patent clerk)In Newtonian physics the elementary theoretical concept on which the theoretical description of material bodies is based is the material point, or particle. Thus matter is considered a priori to be discontinuous. This makes it necessary to consider the action of material points on one another as action-at-a-distance. Since the latter concept seems quite contrary to everyday experience, it is only natural that the contemporaries of Newton - and indeed Newton himself - found it difficult to accept. Owing to the almost miraculous success of the Newtonian system, however, the succeeding generations of physicists became used to the idea of action-at-a-distance. Any doubt was buried for a long time to come. (Albert Einstein, 1950)

"When we attribute this strange attractive property to massive particles, aren't we indulging in metaphysics? For we are saying, indeed, that matter has a inner, active principle: matter attracts matter. At the time, physicists (who called themselves "natural philosophers") accused Newton of doing exactly that, indulging in metaphysics, and the followers of Descartes (mostly in France) couldn't stomach the law of gravitation. What can we say in Newton's defense? Well, surely he was indulging in metaphysics, but with a difference: he wasn't just saying, like others had been doing for centuries, that things have an inner, active principle and leaving it at that; he gave a mathematical law for that inner, active principle. That made a lot of difference. He abstained from answering the metaphysical question, "What is this attractive force?" Rather, he just gave a mathematical formula for it. Still, the main reason for the acceptance of Newton's gravitation was its tremendous success. As the saying goes, nothing succeeds like success." (Prof. Ricardo Nirenberg, 1997)

This is why mathematicians now seem so skeptical of Metaphysics as they use their mathematics to connect things instead. However, this has led to the creation of many different 'particles' to explain various matter interactions, and ultimately to a very confusing and paradoxical description of physical reality. Yet Mathematical physicists seem to ignore this, almost as if mathematics exists in some magical realm beyond reality! It does not - it exists in physical reality and depends upon it for its necessary connection. (The mathematical physics page explains how it is in fact waves that are the metaphysical foundation of both mathematics and matter.)

The correct path. Well we just had to combine the ideas of Huygens (waves), Leibniz's monadology (matter and universe are one interconnected thing) and Newton's Mechanics (space). From this we can deduce the correct substance (space) and its properties (a wave medium) as a partial solution to metaphysics (space may have more properties - I do not know).

Thus we simplify Newton's metaphysics from the motion of matter particles in space and time, to the wave motion of space that causes matter and time. i.e. From a metaphysics of Space and Time to a Metaphysics of Space and (wave) Motion. In this way we unite not only space and time but also matter and energy - as one connected thing, the wave motion of space that causes matter and time.

As a side note, this quote from Newton is interesting (if only he had applied it to his mechanics!)

"Truth is ever to be found in simplicity, and not in the multiplicity and confusion of things." (Isaac Newton)

Matter is a large structure of the universe (not a tiny 'particle'). A spherical wave structure where the wave center 'particle' is in continual two way communication with all other matter in the observable universe due to its spherical in and out waves. Thus we can now understand very simply and sensibly how one substance space (and its wave motions) is the ultimate foundation for causal connection of both physical reality and mathematical physics.


In ending, let us return to the start and consider why a ball falls to the earth. Well the wave equations tell us that the waves travel more slowly in higher energy density space (where there is more matter). Thus the spherical in waves that travel through the earth have a slower velocity than the waves coming in from the space above. This causes the wave center to re-position towards the center of the earth. We call this gravity - but now we can understand the true causal connection in physical reality (space) that causes this gravitational attraction.



Note: This is a very approximate diagram, just to show the idea of how the spherical in waves determine the future postion of the wave center (the motion of the particle). We have a page of wave diagrams that will help you visualise the spherical standing wave structure of matter (WSM) in space. Basically, we only see the high wave amplitude wave-center and have been deluded into thinking matter was made of tiny little 'particles'. A very naive conception in hindsight - and quantum physics was telling us all along that waves were central to light and matter interactions!

Metaphysics: Skepticism and Postmodernism

Some of the more significant reasons for this current skepticism of metaphysics are;

1. We must imagine how things are connected together - and this has led to a lot of fanciful nonsense being written because 'metaphysics is beyond our senses'.

Solution: The spherical in out waves explain this hidden causal connection of matter that is the cause of our senses. i.e. We only see the high wave amplitude wave center, not the spherical in and out waves, and this deceived us into thinking matter was a tiny 'particle'. Thus we were blind to how these discrete 'particles' were interconnected in space and had to invent 'forces / fields'.

2. Newton / mathematical physics replaced a metaphysics of substance with a metaphysics of mathematics, then discovered that our mathematical theories did not quite work (we could not unite quantum physics with Einstein's relativity) and that mathematics itself was without foundation.

Solution: Again the logical behavior of interconnected repeating wave patterns explain the source of this mathematical logic, why this is so useful in mathematical physics, while also simply uniting these two famous physics theories.

3. These past failures of metaphysics have resulted in our postmodern world where academics are convinced we cannot correctly imagine reality. Thus all truth is cultural - socially informed constructs which are relative, evolving approximations of reality. This has led to the extremely silly and dangerous view that all truths are equal - just personal opinions really.

Solution: We all experience existing in one common space. This is a universal absolute truth. We can deduce how a spherical wave structure of matter must behave in this space and then show that this exactly matches how an electron behaves. This then explains and solves the central problems of physics. There is no opinion - this will be true for all people.

~~~~~~~~~

Conclusion: Once we have the correct metaphysical foundations for describing reality it is remarkably easy to solve the central problems of metaphysics and thus also physics and philosophy by understanding how matter exists and moves about in Space in a necessarily interconnected way. Please see articles on the side of this page.

Any comments / questions please post them below on Facebook Connect or Google Friends. Thanks.

Geoff Haselhurst
(January, 2010)

Metaphysics Quotes: On Truth, Reality & Principles in Science

Aristotle Metaphysics

Metaphysics involves intuitive knowledge of unprovable starting-points (concepts and truth) and demonstrative knowledge of what follows from them. (Aristotle, Metaphysics, 340BC)It is clear, then, that wisdom is knowledge having to do with certain principles and causes. But now, since it is this knowledge that we are seeking, we must consider the following point: of what kind of principles and of what kind of causes is wisdom the knowledge? (Aristotle, Metaphysics, 340BC)

Metaphysics involves intuitive knowledge of unprovable starting-points (concepts and truth) and demonstrative knowledge of what follows from them. (Aristotle, Metaphysics, 340BC)

Demonstration is also something necessary, because a demonstration cannot go otherwise than it does, ... And the cause of this lies with the primary premises/principles. (Aristotle, Metaphysics)

The first philosophy (Metaphysics) is universal and is exclusively concerned with primary substance. ... And here we will have the science to study that which is just as that which is, both in its essence and in the properties which, just as a thing that is, it has. (Aristotle, Metaphysics, 340BC)

There must then be a principle of such a kind that its substance is activity. (Aristotle, Metaphysics, 340BC)The entire preoccupation of the physicist is with things that contain within themselves a principle of movement and rest. And to seek for this is to seek for the second kind of principle, that from which comes the beginning of the change. (Aristotle, Metaphysics, 340BC)

There must then be a principle of such a kind that its substance is activity.
... it is impossible that the primary existent, being eternal, should be destroyed.
... that among entities there must be some cause which moves and combines things.
... about its coming into being and its doings and about all its alterations we think that we have knowledge when we know the source of its movement. (Aristotle, Metaphysics, 340BC)

For those who wish to make good progress must start well; for subsequent progress depends on the resolution of the first puzzles, and one cannot solve these without knowing the difficulty and the confusion of our minds. So we must first set out all the difficulties, both for these reasons and also because those who inquire without first setting out the difficulties are like those who do not know in which direction they should walk, and in addition do not even know whether they would recognize that which they are looking for. For the end is not clear to these, but it is for those who have begun with the puzzles. And also from the point of view of judging that man is better off who has heard, as it were, all the rival and opposed positions. (Aristotle, Metaphysics)

Gottfried Leibniz on Metaphysics (Monadology)

Indeed in general I hold that there is nothing truer than happiness, and nothing happier and sweeter than truth. (Leibniz, 1670)

(Gottfried Leibniz, 1670)

Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. ... I maintain also that substances, whether material or immaterial, cannot be conceived in their bare essence without any activity, activity being of the essence of substance in general. (Leibniz, 1670)

It is a good thing to proceed in order and to establish propositions (principles). This is the way to gain ground and to progress with certainty. ... I hold that the mark of a genuine idea is that its possibility can be proved, either a priori by conceiving its cause or reason, or a posteriori when experience teaches us that it is a fact in nature.

Indeed in general I hold that there is nothing truer than happiness, and nothing happier and sweeter than truth. (Leibniz, 1670)

I agree with you that it is important to examine our presuppositions, thoroughly and once for all, in order to establish something solid. For I hold that it is only when we can prove all that we bring forward that we perfectly understand the thing under consideration. I know that the common herd takes little pleasure in these researches, but I know also that the common herd take little pains thoroughly to understand things. (Leibniz, 1670)

... a distinction must be made between true and false ideas, and that too much rein must not be given to a man's imagination under pretext of its being a clear and distinct intellection. (Leibniz, 1670) ... a distinction must be made between true and false ideas, and that too much rein must not be given to a man's imagination under pretext of its being a clear and distinct intellection. (Leibniz, 1670)

But it is the knowledge of necessary and eternal truths which distinguishes us from mere animals, and gives us reason and the sciences, raising us to knowledge of ourselves and God. It is this in us which we call the rational soul or mind. (Leibniz, 1670)

When a truth is necessary, the reason for it can be found by analysis, that is, by resolving it into simpler ideas and truths until the primary ones are reached. It is this way that in mathematics speculative theorems and practical canons are reduced by analysis to definitions, axioms and postulates. (Leibniz, 1670)

David Hume Metaphysics Quotes: On Causation / Necessary Connection

... experience only teaches us, how one event constantly follows another; without instructing us in the secret connexion, which binds them together, and renders them inseparable. (Hume, 1737)It must certainly be allowed, that nature has kept us at a great distance from all her secrets, and has afforded us only the knowledge of a few superficial qualities of objects; while she conceals from us those powers and principles on which the influence of those objects entirely depends. (Hume, 1737)

When we look about us towards external objects, and consider the operation of causes, we are never able, in a single instance, to discover any power or necessary connexion; any quality, which binds the effect to the cause, and renders the one an infallible consequence of the other. (Hume, 1737)

... experience only teaches us, how one event constantly follows another; without instructing us in the secret connexion, which binds them together, and renders them inseparable. (Hume, 1737)

We then call the one object, Cause; the other, Effect. We suppose that there is some connexion between them; some power in the one, by which it infallibly produces the other, and operates with the greatest certainty and strongest necessity. (Hume, 1737)

Immanuel Kant Quotes on Metaphysics

Time was, when she (Metaphysics) was the queen of all the sciences; and, if we take the will for the deed, she certainly deserves, so far as regards the high importance of her object-matter, this title of honour. Now, it is the fashion of the time to heap contempt and scorn upon her; and the matron mourns, forlorn and forsaken ... (Immanuel Kant)Time was, when she (Metaphysics) was the queen of all the sciences; and, if we take the will for the deed, she certainly deserves, so far as regards the high importance of her object-matter, this title of honour. Now, it is the fashion of the time to heap contempt and scorn upon her; and the matron mourns, forlorn and forsaken, like Hecuba .. her empire gradually broke up, and intestine wars introduced the reign of anarchy; while the sceptics, like nomadic tribes, who hate a permanent habitation and settled mode of living, attacked from time to time those who had organized themselves into civil communities. But their number was, very happily, small; and thus they could not entirely put a stop to the exertions of those who persisted in raising new edifices, although on no settled or uniform plan. (Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, 1781)

This can never become popular, and, indeed, has no occasion to be so; for fine-spun arguments in favour of useful truths make just as little impression on the public mind as the equally subtle objections brought against these truths. On the other hand, since both inevitably force themselves on every man who rises to the height of speculation, it becomes the manifest duty of the schools to enter upon a thorough investigation of the rights of speculative reason, and thus to prevent the scandal which metaphysical controversies are sure, sooner or later, to cause even to the masses. (Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, 1781)

Albert Einstein on Principles in Physics

Note: This is a summary from the main Principles in Physics page (which is very good).

All logic depends upon Principles which gives rise to necessary consequences that are absolute and certain (rather than mere opinions). The aim of Science is to demonstrate that these logical deductions from (a priori) Principles exactly correspond with our sense of the real world from (a posteriori) observation and experiment. Albert Einstein explains this Scientific method very clearly;

If it is true that the axiomatic basis of theoretical physics cannot be extracted from experience but must be freely invented, can we ever hope to find the right way? I answer without hesitation that there is, in my opinion, a right way, and that we are capable of finding it. (Albert Einstein, 1954) (Albert Einstein) Physics constitutes a logical system of thought which is in a state of evolution, whose basis (principles) cannot be distilled, as it were, from experience by an inductive method, but can only be arrived at by free invention. The justification (truth content) of the system rests in the verification of the derived propositions (a priori/logical truths) by sense experiences (a posteriori/empirical truths). ... Evolution is proceeding in the direction of increasing simplicity of the logical basis (principles). .. We must always be ready to change these notions - that is to say, the axiomatic basis of physics - in order to do justice to perceived facts in the most perfect way logically. (Albert Einstein, Physics and Reality, 1936)

The development during the present century is characterized by two theoretical systems essentially independent of each other: the theory of relativity and the quantum theory. The two systems do not directly contradict each other; but they seem little adapted to fusion into one unified theory. For the time being we have to admit that we do not possess any general theoretical basis for physics which can be regarded as its logical foundation. (Albert Einstein, 1940)

If, then, it is true that the axiomatic basis of theoretical physics cannot be extracted from experience but must be freely invented, can we ever hope to find the right way? I answer without hesitation that there is, in my opinion, a right way, and that we are capable of finding it. I hold it true that pure thought can grasp reality, as the ancients dreamed. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

Albert Einstein Quotes on Metaphysics
(Remarks on Bertrand Russell's Theory of Knowledge, 1954)

This illusion (of naive realism) dominates the daily life of men and of animals; it is also the point of departure in all of the sciences, especially of the natural sciences. (Albert Einstein) In the evolution of philosophical thought through the centuries the following question has played a major role: what knowledge is pure thought able to supply independently of sense perception? Is there any such knowledge? If not, what precisely is the relation between our knowledge and the raw material furnished by sense impressions?
There has been an increasing skepticism concerning every attempt by means of pure thought to learn something about the 'objective world', about the world of 'things' in contrast to the world of 'concepts and ideas'. During philosophy's childhood it was rather generally believed that it is possible to find everything which can be known by means of mere reflection. It was an illusion which anyone can easily understand if, for a moment, he dismisses what he has learned from later philosophy and from natural science; he will not be surprised to find that Plato ascribed a higher reality to 'ideas' than to empirically experienceable things. Even in Spinoza and as late as in Hegel this prejudice was the vitalising force which seems still to have played the major role.
The more aristocratic illusion concerning the unlimited penetrative power of thought has as its counterpart the more plebeian illusion of naive realism, according to which things 'are' as they are perceived by us through our senses. This illusion dominates the daily life of men and of animals; it is also the point of departure in all of the sciences, especially of the natural sciences.
As Russell wrote;

'We all start from naive realism, i.e., the doctrine that things are what they seem. We think that grass is green, that stones are hard, and that snow is cold. But physics assures us that the greenness of grass, the hardness of stones, and the coldness of snow are not the greenness, hardness, and coldness that we know in our own experience, but something very different. The observer, when he seems to himself to be observing a stone, is really, if physics is to be believed, observing the effects of the stone upon himself.'

Gradually the conviction gained recognition that all knowledge about things is exclusively a working-over of the raw material furnished by the senses. Galileo and Hume first upheld this principle with full clarity and decisiveness. Hume saw that concepts which we must regard as essential, such as, for example, causal connection, cannot be gained from material given to us by the senses. This insight led him to a skeptical attitude as concerns knowledge of any kind. Man has an intense desire for assured knowledge. That is why Hume's clear message seemed crushing: the sensory raw material, the only source of our knowledge,through habit may lead us to belief and expectation but not to the knowledge and still less to the understanding of lawful relations.

Then Kant took the stage with an idea which, though certainly untenable in the form in which he put it, signified a step towards the solution of Hume's dilemma: whatever in knowledge is of empirical origin is never certain. If, therefore, we have definitely assured knowledge,it must be grounded in reason itself. This is held to be the case, for example, in the propositions of geometry and the principles of causality. These and certain other types of knowledge are, so to speak, a part of the implements of thinking and therefore do not previously have to be gained from sense data (i.e. they are a priori knowledge).

It finally turns out that one can, after all, not get along without metaphysics. (Albert Einstein)Today everyone knows, of course, that the mentioned concepts contain nothing of the certainty, of the inherent necessity, which Kant had attributed to them. The following, however, appears to me to be correct in Kant's statement of the problem: in thinking we use with a certain "right", concepts to which there is no access from the materials of sensory experience, if the situation is viewed from the logical point of view. As a matter of fact, I am convinced that even much more is to be asserted: the concepts which arise in our thought and in our linguistic expressions are all- when viewed logically- the free creations of thought which cannot inductively be gained from sense experiences. This is not so easily noticed only because we have the habit of combining certain concepts and conceptual relations (propositions) so definitely with certain sense experiences that we do not become conscious of the gulf- logically unbridgeable- which separates the world of sensory experiences from the world of concepts and propositions. Thus, for example, the series of integers is obviously an invention of the human mind, a self-created tool which simplifies the ordering of certain sensory experiences. But there is no way in which this concept could be made to grow, as it were, directly out of sense experiences.

As soon as one is at home in Hume's critique one is easily led to believe that all those concepts and propositions which cannot be deduced from the sensory raw material are, on account of their 'metaphysical' character, to be removed from thinking. For all thought acquires material content only through its relationship with that sensory material. This latter proposition I take to be entirely true; but I hold the prescription for thinking which is grounded on this proposition to be false. For this claim- if only carried through consistently- absolutely excludes thinking of any kind as 'metaphysical'.
In order that thinking might not degenerate into 'metaphysics', or into empty talk, it is only necessary that enough propositions of the conceptual system be firmly enough connected with sensory experiences and that the conceptual system, in view of its task of ordering and surveying sense experience, should show as much unity and parsimony as possible. Beyond that, however, the 'system' is (as regards logic) a free play with symbols according to (logically) arbitrarily given rules of the game. All this applies as much (and in the same manner) to the thinking in daily life as to the more consciously and systematically constructed thinking in the sciences.

By his clear critique Hume did not only advance philosophy in a decisive way but also - though through no fault of his - created a danger for philosophy in that, following his critique, a fateful 'fear of metaphysics' arose which has come to be a malady of contemporary empiricist philosophising; this malady is the counterpart to that earlier philosophising in the clouds, which thought it could neglect and dispense with what was given by the senses. ... It finally turns out that one can, after all, not get along without metaphysics.
(Albert Einstein, Remarks on Bertrand Russell's Theory of Knowledge, Ideas and Opinions, 1954)

Note: Below are the main metaphysics pages - the Metaphysics sitemap has the full list of pages.

Metaphysics & Physical Reality

Metaphysics is the attempt to know reality as against mere appearance, or the study of first principles or ultimate truths, or again the effort to comprehend the universe, not simply by fragments, but somehow as a whole. (F.H. Bradley, 1846-1924)
Metaphysics Solves
Problems of Science All things come out of the one and the one out of all things. ... I see nothing but Becoming. Be not deceived! The very river in which you bathe a second time is no longer the same one you entered before. (Heraclitus, 500BC)
One and the Many
Dynamic Unity of Reality Metaphysics is universal and is exclusively concerned with primary substance. ... Here we have the science to study that which is just as that which is, both in its essence and in the properties which, just as a thing that is, it has. (Aristotle, 340BC)
Aristotle Metaphysics
Substance & Properties No one doubts but that we imagine TIME from the very fact that we imagine other bodies to be moved slower or faster or equally fast. We are accustomed to determine duration by the aid of some measure of MOTION. (Spinoza, 1673)
Benedictus de Spinoza
Metaphysics of Motion Absolute Space, in its own nature, without regard to any thing external, remains always similar and immovable. ... It seems probable to me that God formed matter in solid, hard, impenetrable, movable particles. (Sir Isaac Newton)
Sir Isaac Newton
Absolute Space / Particles
Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. ... Substance cannot be conceived without activity, activity being the essence of substance in general. (Gottfried Leibniz, 1670)
Gottfried Leibniz
Metaphysics / Monadology When we look towards external objects, and consider the operation of causes, we can never discover any power or necessary connexion which binds the effect to the cause, and renders the one a consequence of the other. (David Hume, 1737)
David Hume Metaphysics
Necessary Connection Natural science contains in itself synthetical judgments a priori, as principles. ... Space then is a necessary representation a priori, which serves for the foundation of all external intuitions. (Immanuel Kant, 1781)
Immanuel Kant Metaphysics
Synthetic a priori Knowledge Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). Thus the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The field becomes an irreducible element of physical description, irreducible in the same sense as matter (particles) in Newton's theory. (Albert Einstein, 1950)
Albert Einstein
Field Theory of Matter Do not allow yourselves to be deceived: Great Minds are Skeptical. ... There is nothing more necessary than truth, and in comparison with it everything else has only secondary value. (Friedrich Nietzsche, 1890)
Metaphysics of Skepticism
Skeptical / Skeptics Quotes


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Albert Einstein"When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. ... Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended. In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. ...
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Biography: Geoffrey Haselhurst, Philosopher of Science, Theoretical Physics, Metaphysics, Evolution. Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

This is the profound new way of thinking that Einstein realised, that we exist as spatially extended structures of the universe - the discrete and separate body an illusion. This simply confirms the intuitions of the ancient philosophers and mystics.

Given the current censorship in physics / philosophy of science journals (based on the standard model of particle physics / big bang cosmology) the internet is the best hope for getting new knowledge known to the world. But that depends on you, the people who care about science and society, realise the importance of truth and reality.

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MessageSujet: Re: philosophy    Ven 30 Aoû - 10:43

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MessageSujet: Re: philosophy    Ven 30 Aoû - 10:45

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MessageSujet: Re: philosophy    Ven 30 Aoû - 10:45


The Philosopher's Beard
Essays in philosophy, politics and economics

Wednesday, 2 March 2011

Human nature and the human condition
Aspects of human nature - like our capacity for language, reasoning or emotions - are amenable to scientific analysis that looks at where they come from and how they work using tools like evolutionary biology, genetics, or neuroscience. But not everything about us that is important is innate. Some deeply entrenched features and characteristics of human life are actually contingent on our human history, not our human biology. Such aspects of the human condition - like marriage, sports, and war - are therefore not amenable to such scientific analysis and must be studied in a more humanistic way.

The key to grasping the difference between these two distinct modes of anthropology is to look beyond how important and even seemingly ubiquitous certain characteristics are in modern human populations. We must insert a question mark between the empirical fact that a feature is characteristic of human life as we know it, and the empirical claim that this feature stems from human nature itself i.e. that it is intrinsic to homo sapiens qua species. Sometimes this is easy to tell. No one - I hope - would argue that cooking is part of human nature, despite its ubiquity and importance in our evolutionary history, because it so obviously requires external tools and resources that it is clearly an invention. Sport is also obviously not part of human nature since it has appeared too recently (playing games is not the same thing, though it obviously shares some constitutive elements). But some features of human life have long confused researchers who mistake their contemporary dominance for biological naturalness. I will look at three particularly controversial cases: war, religion, and gender.

War
War is an unfortunate and seemingly intractable aspect of human existence that is often attributed to human nature - i.e. our innate aggressiveness and/or abstracted social forces such as the Hobbesian competition for resources or glory. But, as the anthropologist Margaret Mead pointed out in a celebrated essay ("Warfare Is Only An Invention - Not a Biological Necessity") the facts tell otherwise. The key idea of organised group violence essential to the 'war package' is absent from some more isolated parts of the world, nor does its presence correlate with levels of inter-personal aggression or material/organisational sophistication. The scientific theories of the naturalness of war are definitively refuted by this lack of correlation, a fact they studiously ignore. Though some such theories may be relevant for understanding the course and nature of contemporary warfare, they do not explain the existence of war itself.

So what is war? In her essay Mead argued that war should be understood as an invention that has wrapped itself round us, bringing immediate gains to those who pick it up and master it, and immediate losses to those in their proximity who fail to do so. That makes it part of humanity's history, mediated by our human experience, rather than the direct product of either our genes or the universal iron laws of economics.

Religion
Religion is generally taken to be an autonomous and distinct aspect of human nature whose origins and operations are amenable to scientific analysis. Scientists have been busy searching for the 'religion gene' in our DNA and trying to capture the 'religion brain module' at work by scanning the brains of people at prayer. This investigation assumes that religion is a natural feature that is stable enough to withstand scientific scrutiny. But religion as we normally understand it is actually a package that bundles a number of distinct features: specific ideas about supernatural agency, moral codes, rituals, certain kinds of experiences, membership of a community of fellow believers, and specialist institutions like churches and clergy.


It is not surprising that the scientists have been unsuccessful: that the harder they search for 'religion' inside us the more the package seems to dissolve. Cultural anthropologists could have saved them a lot of trouble since their research clearly shows that this concept of religion is a relatively recent invention by humans, and although dominant is far from being ubiquitous even in our modern world (most notably among animists). It is true that religion-compatible behaviours are found more widely and may plausibly have direct origins in human nature, such as belief in super-human agency, magic, origin stories, sacred rituals and places, ecstatic experiences, etc. Essentialists therefore respond to the critique by widening their definition of religion to incorporate these via some claim to 'family-resemblance' (just as believers in the essentialness of war stretch their definition to include any interpersonal violence).

I think one should be automatically suspicious of the self-serving character of this extension. Such characteristics are found only in a fragmented way (not as the full 'religious package') and it isn't clear why we would call them 'religious' if we weren't already so focussed on lumping things into that category. The fact that one could plausibly include communist ideology, Western consumerism, and general altruism in such an expansive family of 'religious' traits suggests that it isn't exactly cutting nature at its joints, as a good scientific category should.

Gender
Gender offers a particularly interesting, and controversial, case for the application of this distinction, since there clearly are some natural physiological distinctions between men and women. I will concentrate here on the common belief that gender roles are substantially hard-wired and are therefore natural, and that science proves this.

If sexual differentiation is natural, women and men really are hardwired to be complementary to each other - matching soft female empathy to cold male logic, nurturer to provider, nurse to doctor, etc. - as Rousseau, and now an assortment of scientistic neurologists and evolutionary psychologists, have argued so conveniently. These scientists note that human societies are heavily gendered e.g. that 'even in the liberated west', women express more concern about the feelings of other people than men do. They also note that there are some physiological differences in brain structures between men and women. They then spend a lot of time trying to find ways to correlate the two.

If they are correct, then significant feminist claims are empirically disproved: as the saying goes, 'you can't change human nature'. So attempts to help women achieve excellence (e.g. Nobel prizes for anything but literature) are doomed efforts at social engineering. We would do better to reconcile ourselves to the different but complementary interests and strengths of men and women, for example by ensuring that 'women's professions' get a fairer share of social status and pecuniary reward.

On the other hand, does this scientific evidence really stack up? The natural essences approach consists of a search for physiological or 'evolutionary strategy' differences that will explain the 'fact' that men and women are innately different. That makes it rather biased in the kind of answers it can produce i.e. it is correlation seeking rather than mechanism testing. In any case looking for answers so far away - in the brain, or the savannah environment H. sapiens evolved in 200,000 years ago - seems rather obtuse. Surely we have evidence right in front of our eyes about how our more or less insidious socialising norms and institutions re-produce gender? Mary Wollstonecraft pointed this out in response to Rousseau's superficial justification of the way things are, way back in 1792.

Evidence of natural difference is not evidence of relevant difference. As Plato noted a very long time ago (in Book 5 of The Republic) the fact that men and women are naturally - physiologically - different in certain ways is not necessarily any more relevant to their abilities than being long-haired or bald is relevant to being a good cobbler.

A further argument is needed to move from such facts as that women can give birth, or that 5 year old girls tend to have a strong gender identity (dress up as princesses and play with dolls, etc.), to conclusions about women's 'natural' inability to do mathematics or run companies or hold political office. And that argument is nearly always absent or spurious.

A more contemporary reprise of this point can be found in Cordelia Fine's scathing and systematic critique* of the neuro-scientific evidence for the naturalness of gender, which she argues is so methodologically flawed as to constitute neurosexism rather than science. Fine points out, for example, that surveys reveal what people think they should feel and so do not constitute a test of whether women are actually, or naturally, more caring. And she points out that mapping sexual differences in brain physiology is a trivial exercise (mere phrenology) without some demonstration that these differences directly produce significantly different functioning.

Conclusion
The distinction between human nature and the human condition has implications that go beyond whether some academic sub-fields are built on fundamental error and thus a waste of time (hardly news). The foundational mistake of assuming that certain features prominent among contemporary human beings are true of H. sapiens and therefore true of all of us has implications for how we think about ourselves now. There is a lack of adequate critical reflection - of a true scientific spirit of inquiry - in much of the naturalising project. It fits all too easily with our natural desire for a convenient truth: that the way the world seems is the way it has to be.

For example, many people believe that to be human is to be religious - or at least to have a 'hunger for religion' - and argue as a result that religion should be accorded special prominence and autonomy in our societies - in our education, civil, and political institutions. American 'secularism' for example might be said to be built on this principle: hence all religions are engaged in a similar project of searching for the divine and deserve equal respect. The pernicious implication is that the non-religious (who are not the same as atheists, by the way) are somehow lacking in an essential human capability, and should be pitied or perhaps given help to overcome the gaping hole in their lives.

Anatomically modern humans have been around in our current form for around 200,000 years but while our physiological capacities have scarcely changed we are cognitively very different. Human beings operate in a human world of our own creation, as well as in the natural, biological world that we are given.

In the human world people create new inventions - like religion or war or slavery - that do something for them. Those inventions succeed and spread in so far as they are amenable to our human nature and our other inventions, and by their success they condition us to accept the world they create until it seems like it could not have been otherwise.

Recognising the fact that the human condition is human-made offers us the possibility to scrutinise it, to reflect, and perhaps even to adopt better inventions. Slavery was once so dominant in our human world that even Aristotle felt obliged to give an account of its naturalness (some people are just naturally slavish). But we discovered a better invention - market economies - that has made inefficient slavery obsolete and now almost extinct (which is not to say that this invention is perfect either). The human condition concerns humans as we are, but not as we have to be.



*Delusions of Gender: The Real Science Behind Sex Differences, 2010, Icon books (see here for a review)
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11 comments:

Howie Berman8 March 2012 20:49
Take as an example, work; work is part of the human condition yet though it is not human nature to work it is rooted in a human nature that includes being an animal in an environment with resource scarcity and the human tendency to use tools and be cooperative.
Similarly, writing and literature is part of the human condition; but is rooted in language and abstract thought which are part of human nature.
Every thing that is part of the human condition builds on or effects characteristics that are part of human nature

Reply

Philosopher's Beard11 March 2012 12:33
Absolutely - Invention is a matter of arranging existing components (including previous inventions) into particular constellations that do new things. What I'm getting at is that we can't read off human nature (how humans have to be) from our inventions (what we happen to have discovered how to do and be).

Reply

Anonymous12 March 2012 23:02
how does this relate to Satre's take on human nature vs human condition? He doesn't believe in human nature by I don't understand his version of the human condition.

Reply

Howie Berman13 March 2012 02:53
Hey Anonymous,
this may help partially a bit
here the human condition means what it's like to be alive at a specific place and time
while Sartre means the dilemmas of existence like being conscious of our mortality.
As for Sartre's take on human nature, it's been a while since I've read him, but Sartre's human nature is complementary to his take on the human condition, whereas in this post, though they go together in a way, they are really two different things. Here it means those universal attributes that all men have naturally.
Philosopher's Beard may correct me; but that's my best shot

Reply
Replies

Philosopher's Beard16 March 2012 13:03
Cheers, HB.

I'm too ignorant of Sartre to offer an opinion of my own.

Reply

Anonymous25 January 2013 04:31
Though the work is not a part of human nature, but still there is a strong connection between these two. Most of the people are noticed as lazy and don't have such attachment to do any work, on the other hand there are people who want to do work all the time. This different attitude makes the point clear that the laziness and activeness both are parts of human nature!

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Philosopher's Beard25 January 2013 16:54
I'm afraid I don't quite follow

Reply

Howie Berman19 March 2013 14:59
How would you place love in this framework?
My guess is that however central in our lives, love is a part of the human condition, not human nature. It is a social bond with an affective component, with emotions and the social bond forming a part of human nature and together building love

Reply
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Philosopher's Beard19 March 2013 17:21
Love seems part of human nature (it's also part of the nature of many animals, especially mammals) but romance, I would agree (following CS Lewis) is a modern - or at least a medieval - invention.

Reply

Anonymous20 March 2013 06:03
Could you please explain to me more clearly what exactly human nature is?

Reply
Replies

Philosopher's Beard20 March 2013 12:13
I should do that properly in a revised version of this post, because at the limits there is some blurriness between human nature and the human condition (like gene-culture coevolution: lactose tolerance, language, etc).

But, basically, human nature concerns those features of human existence which are necessary characteristics of human beings qua H. sapiens, while the human condition concerns those features which are merely contingent. Necessary features are nowadays examined 'scientifically', in terms of the essential factors that make us what we are, like our genes, or our genes in combination with external forces like competition. Contingent features may be distinguished from necessary features through perspicuous contrast: the men are from Mars, women are from Venus view of gender cannot really be natural (a matter of physiology) since we can see in other societies (including historical ones) that human males and females can relate to each other in a variety of ways.

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MessageSujet: Re: philosophy    Dim 22 Sep - 18:19

may 13 2010

http://www.raptitude.com/2010/07/good-news-happiness-doesnt-exist/
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http://io9.com/5799335/five-weird-theories-of-what-lies-outside-the-universe
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MessageSujet: Re: philosophy    Jeu 26 Sep - 14:07

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Philosophy Poems. These are examples of Philosophy poems (scroll below) written by PoetrySoup members. PoetrySoup is a great resource for examples of Philosophy poems or Philosophy poetry. These examples illustrate what Philosophy poems looks like and its form. There is also a link (below) to the definition where you can discuss Philosophy poems.

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Note: The forms for these poems have been selected by the poet. Often poems are assigned the wrong form. Please confirm the accuracy of the poetic form before referencing the poem.

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PM Poem Title Poet Form Categories Date Posted
Scent of Lilac- part I Comporozos, Vassilis Free verse allegory,dream,philosophy 09/26/2013
Premium Member Poem Life's been good Duggan, Peter Ballade beautiful,beauty,dance,de 09/25/2013
THROUGH THE CONCENTRATED SENSATIONAL DEVOTION devnath, bl Verse god,philosophy, 09/25/2013
growing old kelley, yvette Nonet age,beauty,change,courage 09/25/2013
Premium Member Poem Tribute to bob Dylan Duggan, Peter Ballad career,celebrity,characte 09/25/2013
Da vinci Ntandane, Litha Free verse philosophy,teacher,wisdom 09/25/2013
Premium Member Poem The Real Story of Jesus Part 1 Pister, Vic Rhyme jesus,mythology,philosoph 09/24/2013
Premium Member Poem The Real Story of Jesus Part 2 Pister, Vic Rhyme history,philosophy,religi 09/24/2013
Premium Member Poem The March Man Part 1 Pister, Vic Rhyme bible,history,jesus,philo 09/24/2013
Premium Member Poem The March of Man Pt 2 Pister, Vic Rhyme history,jesus,mythology,p 09/24/2013
Premium Member Poem The March Man Part 3 Pister, Vic Rhyme bible,history,jesus,mytho 09/24/2013
Premium Member Poem 'Little bird, what troubles thee' Nguyen, Ngoc I do not know? allegory,anger,betrayal,b 09/23/2013
Nobody Likes A Know It All Part 4 of 4 Canady, MoonBee Free verse bible,character,christian 09/23/2013
Nobody Likes A Know It All Part 3 of 4 Canady, MoonBee Free verse analogy,bible,character,c 09/23/2013
Nobody Likes A Know It All Part 2 of 4 Canady, MoonBee Free verse bible,christian,education 09/23/2013
The Promise tillson, ness Dramatic Verse (Verse Drama) bible,christian,christmas 09/23/2013
Premium Member Poem Capricorn, the mountain climber Duggan, Peter Ballad angst,conflict,courage,fa 09/23/2013
Conviction Dutzy, Dean I do not know? adventure,beautiful,beaut 09/22/2013
Premium Member Poem I love rain Duggan, Peter Ballade beautiful,beauty,celebrat 09/22/2013
Plight Or Divined Flight Henderson, Steven Lay adventure,change,conflict 09/22/2013
The Mystery of Self beharry, john Free verse mystery,philosophy,self,w 09/22/2013
I am Carr, Theresa Rhyme character,how i feel,phil 09/22/2013
My Guitar vaso, arthur Light Poetry introspection,philosophy, 09/22/2013
Treasure Chest 2 vaso, arthur Light Poetry philosophy,poetry,romance 09/21/2013
Premium Member Poem Dead tree Duggan, Peter Rhyme beauty,bird,clothes,death 09/21/2013
Premium Member Poem The fading fire Duggan, Peter Rhyme age,beautiful,beauty,chan 09/20/2013
Truth Whalen, David Light Poetry people,philosophy,truth, 09/20/2013
Upon Earthly Ground Henderson, Steven Alliteration adventure,introspection,p 09/20/2013
Premium Member Poem Today Ruebel, Sharon Carpe Diem inspirational,philosophy, 09/20/2013
Broken Dreams CARTER, TIMOTHY Ballad analogy,conflict,depressi 09/19/2013
Premium Member Poem Let it come naturally Duggan, Peter Ballade angst,beauty,change,confl 09/19/2013
The Dust God Reinhardt, Jacob Blank verse absence,age,art,beautiful 09/19/2013
A TINY WORLD devnath, bl Rhyme philosophy, 09/19/2013
Sometimes tillson, ness Dramatic Verse (Verse Drama) christian,faith,god,heave 09/19/2013
Grief Reactions hickman, cecil Sonnet death,depression,feelings 09/18/2013
A UNIVERSAL UTOPIA devnath, bl Prose Poetry philosophy, 09/18/2013
WARM KISS OF SUN LIGHT devnath, bl Senryu philosophy,visionary, 09/18/2013
Wandering Davidson, Don Free verse adventure,imagination,lif 09/17/2013
Premium Member Poem In love with life Duggan, Peter Ballade beautiful,beauty,bird,ear 09/17/2013
Premium Member Poem The symphony of dawn Duggan, Peter Ballade beautiful,beauty,earth,em 09/17/2013
NON SEPARABLE devnath, bl Haiku philosophy,self,visionary 09/17/2013
A SAVIOR JUDGE devnath, bl Verse philosophy,truth,visionar 09/17/2013
BAD SPIRIT OF MIND CAN BE CONTROLLED devnath, bl Monoku philosophy,visionary, 09/17/2013
The Eternal Soul vaso, arthur Light Poetry philosophy, 09/16/2013
IF MIND IS BAD devnath, bl Monoku identity,philosophy, 09/16/2013
Premium Member Poem Leave me with my dreams Duggan, Peter Lyric angst,beautiful,beauty,ch 09/15/2013
war over now kelley, yvette Shape change,feelings,imaginati 09/15/2013
In The Wilderness Of The Mind Hill, Wayne Rhyme philosophy,places, 09/14/2013
Premium Member Poem In memory of Bob Duggan, Peter Narrative beautiful,celebration,cou 09/14/2013
Premium Member Poem Pan and Satan Duggan, Peter Ballad angst,betrayal,fantasy,fr 09/13/2013
Loneliness hickman, cecil Acrostic feelings,heartbroken,lone 09/13/2013
Premium Member Poem The archers bow Duggan, Peter Ballade angst,emotions,feelings,g 09/13/2013
Premium Member Poem Don't come on like a Guru Duggan, Peter Lyric character,crazy,emotions, 09/13/2013
IN THE BEGINING Farmer, Ryan Free verse philosophy, 09/13/2013
PATH OF LIFE devnath, bl Verse life,philosophy, 09/13/2013
Premium Member Poem The joy of the pheasant shoot Duggan, Peter Ballad anger,angst,beauty,bird,b 09/12/2013
Shadow kiss Graham, David Romanticism betrayal,desire,how i fee 09/12/2013
Clock Reinhardt, Jacob Blank verse analogy,art,change,city,c 09/12/2013
Losing Sight Reinhardt, Jacob Blank verse addiction,angst,art,beaut 09/12/2013
Premium Member Poem The Emperor, and the holy man Duggan, Peter Epic conflict,crazy,evil,faith 09/12/2013
Premium Member Poem Election day Duggan, Peter Ballad angst,corruption,feelings 09/11/2013
A day accompanying a friend at lecture Mr, Hsu Free verse feelings,philosophy, 09/11/2013
Tip of the Sword Loggins, James Rhyme god,philosophy, 09/11/2013
Don't have to be told Tichenor, Crystal I do not know? life,philosophy,strength, 09/11/2013
A Question of Confusion Simunsen, Thomas Free verse philosophy,poetry,poets, 09/11/2013
Premium Member Poem To Be Sorry Carrillo, Lucilla Free verse philosophy, 09/10/2013
Premium Member Poem It's here at last Duggan, Peter Ballade animal,beautiful,beauty,d 09/09/2013
Premium Member Poem The conversation Duggan, Peter Ballade animal,beauty,best friend 09/09/2013
Eyes and Dreams konarath, shanavas Light Poetry dream,philosophy,poems,po 09/09/2013
The prison of the keys tillson, ness Couplet conflict,confusion,creati 09/08/2013
Premium Member Poem When I Die Pister, Vic Rhyme bereavement,christian,dea 09/08/2013
Rabbits tillson, ness Couplet image,introspection,metap 09/08/2013
FOR DISTANCE devnath, bl Senryu philosophy, 09/08/2013
Heaven-bound, Hell-bent Breidenthal, Laura Free verse abuse,addiction,anger,ang 09/07/2013
Premium Member Poem The Hunter Duggan, Peter Ballade anger,animal,fear,fun,hat 09/07/2013
Premium Member Poem He walks alone Duggan, Peter Rhyme character,fear,feelings,f 09/07/2013
ILLUMINATE Richards, Suzette Suzette Prime philosophy, 09/06/2013
Truth beharry, john Free verse beautiful,feelings,myster 09/05/2013
Premium Member Poem Darkness Hamilton, Shadow Free verse dark,inspirational,philos 09/05/2013
Premium Member Poem I have it all Duggan, Peter Ballade beautiful,beauty,bird,emo 09/05/2013
Love is Love Boskovski, Chris Free verse how i feel,i love you,lov 09/04/2013
Premium Member Poem An eye for an eye Duggan, Peter Ballad beauty,bible,christian,in 09/04/2013
Thoughts Carroll, Anna J Rhyme philosophy, 09/04/2013
Premium Member Poem Questions for everyone Duggan, Peter Ballade animal,beautiful,bird,bod 09/03/2013
Vintage Me Loggins, James Free verse philosophy, 09/03/2013
Premium Member Poem Cave dweller Duggan, Peter Ballade beauty,care,character,dar 09/03/2013
Salt Water Reinhardt, Jacob Free verse addiction,angst,boat,corr 09/03/2013
TIME beharry, john Free verse fantasy,future,philosophy 09/02/2013
Hidden tillson, ness Dramatic Verse (Verse Drama) autumn,bible,conflict,con 09/02/2013
Premium Member Poem The archer of laughter Sagittarius Duggan, Peter Ballade character,freedom,funny,g 09/01/2013
The worm to the bee Comporozos, Vassilis Free verse allegory,philosophy, 09/01/2013
reasons for the detatchment i desire wahab, wahab Free verse philosophy,wisdom, 09/01/2013
Era Of Profanity Rose, Mystic Quintain (English) philosophy,technology, 08/31/2013
Premium Member Poem Success Duggan, Peter Ballade age,angst,character,confl 08/31/2013
Premium Member Poem Finding your path Larrow, Tom Sedoka philosophy,truth,wisdom, 08/31/2013
Premium Member Poem The Spirit Of Envy Mohammed, Mustapha Rhyme philosophy,spoken word, 08/31/2013
Premium Member Poem Wisdom from the Tao Duggan, Peter Rhyme beauty,boat,change,charac 08/31/2013
Premium Member Poem Through that door Duggan, Peter Lyric beautiful,beauty,bird,ear 08/30/2013
Premium Member Poem We are stuff as dreams are made on Mehta, Dr.Ram Sonnet philosophy, 08/30/2013
Thirst Pathos, Blind Light Poetry conflict,corruption,cultu 08/30/2013


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Masculin Nombre de messages : 19980
Date d'inscription : 17/05/2007

MessageSujet: Re: philosophy    Mar 28 Jan - 8:15

12 OCTOBRER 2012

love and philosophical quotes

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Love-and-Philosophical-Quotes/508413785872271?ref=profile
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MessageSujet: Re: philosophy    Mar 28 Jan - 8:16

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Philosophy/108026662559095?ref=profile

https://www.facebook.com/PUKPhilosophicalThoughts?ref=profile

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MessageSujet: Re: philosophy    Mar 28 Jan - 8:17

& mars éà&2012

philosophical quotes

https://www.facebook.com/ThePhilosophycalQuotes?ref=profile
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MessageSujet: Re: philosophy    Aujourd'hui à 18:08

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